Jacques Mesrine was a French criminal responsible for numerous murders, bank robberies and kidnappings in France, the US, Canada. Mesrine escaped from prison and made international headlines during a final period as a fugitive when his exploits included trying to kidnap the judge who had sentenced him. An aptitude for disguise earned him the moniker "The Man of a Thousand Faces" and enabled him to remain at large while receiving massive publicity as a wanted man. Mesrine was seen as an anti-establishment'Robin Hood' figure. In keeping with his charismatic image, he was without a glamorous female companion. A two-part film which came out in 2008 was based on Mesrine's life. Jacques René Mesrine was born in Clichy-la-Garenne near Paris on 28 December 1936 to a couple of blue-collar origin who had moved up in social class; as a child, he witnessed a massacre of villagers by German soldiers. His parents had great aspirations for their son and sent him to the prestigious Catholic Collège de Juilly where his friends included the likes of musician and composer Jean-Jacques Debout.
Mesrine was an unruly pupil and he was expelled from Juilly for attacking the principal. He went on to be expelled from other schools and fell into the lifestyle of a juvenile delinquent, much to the dismay of his family. In 1955, at age 19, he married Lydia De Souza in Clichy. Drafted into the French Army, he volunteered for special duty in the Algerian War as a parachutist/commando. While participating in counter-insurgency operations, Mesrine's duties are said to have included the killing of prisoners. Although he disliked military discipline, Mesrine enjoyed action and was decorated with the Cross for Military Valour by General Charles de Gaulle before leaving the army in 1959, his father was to claim that the time in Algeria had brought about a noticeable deterioration in Mesrine's behavior. In 1961, Mesrine became involved with the Organisation armée secrète, he married Maria De La Soledad. In 1962, Mesrine was sentenced to 18 months in prison for robbery. After being released, Mesrine made an effort to reform: he worked at an architectural design company where he constructed models, showing considerable ability.
However, a downsizing in 1964 resulted in him being laid off. His family bought him the tenancy of a country restaurant, a role in which he was quite successful, but this arrangement ended after the owner paid a visit one evening to find Mesrine carousing with acquaintances from his past; the lure of easy money and women proved impossible for him to resist and he returned to crime. Overcoming some suspicion about his middle-class background, Mesrine began to establish a reputation in the underworld as a man, crossed at one's peril. In December 1965, Mesrine was arrested in the villa of the military governor in Palma de Mallorca, he was sentenced to six months in jail and claimed that Spanish authorities believed he was working for French intelligence. In 1966, Mesrine opened a restaurant in the Canary Islands. In December of the same year, he robbed a jewellery store in a hotel in Chamonix; the following year, Mesrine robbed a fashion store in Paris. In February 1968, he fled to the province of Quebec with his mistress, Jeanne Schneider, worked as a cook and chauffeur for grocery and textile millionaire Georges Deslauriers for a few months.
An argument Schneider had with Deslauriers' long-time respected gardener led to them being dismissed. They attempted to kidnap Deslauriers, but it went wrong due to the fact that the'knock out drops' they used were inert and on June 26, 1969, Mesrine and Schneider fled to the U. S. On June 30, Evelyne Le Bouthillier, an elderly lady who may have given them refuge, was found strangled. A couple of weeks on July 16, Mesrine and Schneider were arrested in Arkansas on information supplied by an accomplice and extradited back to Québec. Mesrine was sentenced to ten years in prison for the bungled kidnapping, but escaped a few weeks only to be reapprehended the next day. Mesrine and Schneider were acquitted of the murder of Le Bouthillier in 1971. With Jean-Paul Mercier, Mesrine cut through the wire to escape again on August 21, 1972, with five others from the Saint-Vincent-de-Paul prison. Mercier, a wanted murderer, Mesrine robbed a series of banks in Montreal, sometimes two in the same day. By this time it was apparent that Mesrine did not have a normal criminal attitude towards minimizing the danger of being caught.
Resenting the way he had been treated in the prison and Mercier made an risky attempt to precipitate a mass break out from the maximum security block of Saint-Vincent-de-Paul on September 3, 1972. However, their own break-out had caused perimeter security to be increased and they found the area swarming with armed guards. There was a shoot-out in which two guards were injured and Mercier was wounded before they managed to get away; the effrontery of escaped convicts returning to attack a prison infuriated Canadian law enforcement. A week after their foiled attempt to free the prisoners and Mercier went for a target practice session, taking Mercier's girlfriend along, but the location, though three miles down a dirt track through the forest, was far from being remote and the noise of them blasting away at targets all afternoon could be heard in the town of Plessisville where there was a Ministry of Natural Resources and Wildlife stati
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Elizabeth is a 1998 British biographical drama film written by Michael Hirst, directed by Shekhar Kapur, starring Cate Blanchett in the title role of Queen Elizabeth I of England, alongside Geoffrey Rush, Christopher Eccleston, Joseph Fiennes, John Gielgud, Fanny Ardant, Richard Attenborough. The film is based on the early years of Elizabeth's reign, where she is elevated to the throne after the death of her half-sister Mary I, who had imprisoned her; as her early years continue, she faces threats to take her down. The film earned positive reviews from critics, who praised the production merits and performances of its cast. Blanchett's performance earned critical acclaim, she won several awards for her portrayal of Elizabeth, notably a BAFTA and a Golden Globe in 1998. The film was named the 1998 BAFTA Award for Best British Film and was nominated for seven awards at the 71st Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Actress, winning Best Makeup. In 2007, Blanchett and Rush reprised their roles in Kapur's follow-up film Elizabeth: The Golden Age, which covers the part of Elizabeth's reign.
In 1558, Catholic Queen Mary dies of a uterine tumour. Mary's Protestant half-sister, under house arrest for conspiracy charges, is freed and crowned the Queen of England; as briefed by her adviser William Cecil, Elizabeth inherits a distressed England besieged by debts, crumbling infrastructure, hostile neighbours and treasonous nobles within her administration, chief among them the Duke of Norfolk. Cecil advises Elizabeth to marry, produce an heir, secure her rule. Unimpressed with her suitors, Elizabeth delays her decision and continues her secret affair with Lord Robert Dudley while Cecil appoints Francis Walsingham, a Protestant exile returned from France, to act as Elizabeth's bodyguard and adviser. Mary of Guise lands an additional 4,000 French troops in neighbouring Scotland. Unfamiliar with military strategy and browbeaten by Norfolk at the war council, Elizabeth orders a military response, which proves disastrous when the younger, ill-trained English forces are defeated by the professional French soldiers.
Walsingham tells Elizabeth that Catholic lords and priests intentionally deprived Elizabeth's army of proper soldiers and used their defeat to argue for Elizabeth's removal. Realizing the depth of the conspiracy against her and her dwindling options, Elizabeth accepts Mary of Guise's conditions, to consider marrying her nephew Henry of France. To stabilize her rule and heal England's religious divisions, Elizabeth proposes the Act of Uniformity, which unites English Christians under the Church of England and severs their connection to the Vatican. In response to the Act's passage, the Vatican sends a priest to England to aid Norfolk and his cohorts in their growing plot to overthrow Elizabeth. Unaware of the plot, Elizabeth meets Henry of France but ignores his advances in favour of Lord Robert. William Cecil confronts Elizabeth over her indecisiveness about marrying and reveals Lord Robert is married to another woman. Elizabeth rejects Henry's marriage proposal when she discovers he is a cross-dresser and confronts Lord Robert about his secrets, fracturing their idyllic affair and banishing him from her private residence.
Elizabeth survives an assassination attempt. Elizabeth sends Walsingham to secretly meet with Mary in Scotland, under the guise of once again planning to marry Henry. Instead, Walsingham assassinates Guise; when William Cecil orders her to solidify relations with the Spanish, Elizabeth dismisses him from her service, choosing instead to follow her own counsel. Walsingham warns of another plot to kill Elizabeth spearheaded by the priest from Rome carrying letters of conspiracy. Under Elizabeth's orders, Walsingham apprehends the priest who divulges the names of the conspirators and a Vatican agreement to elevate Norfolk to the English crown if he weds Mary, Queen of Scots. Walsingham arrests executes him and every conspirator except Lord Robert. Elizabeth grants Lord Robert his life as a reminder to herself to never be blinded by romance again. Drawing inspiration from the divine, Elizabeth cuts her hair and models her appearance after the Virgin Mary. Proclaiming herself married to England, she ascends the throne as "the Virgin Queen".
The costuming and shot composition of the coronation scene are based on Elizabeth's coronation portrait. Kapur's original choice for the role was Emily Watson. Cate Blanchett was chosen to play Elizabeth after Kapur saw a trailer of Lucinda. According to the director's commentary, Kapur mentioned that the role of the Pope was offered to, accepted by, Marlon Brando. However, plans changed when Kapur noted that many on set would be concerned that Brando would be sharing the set with them for two days; when Gielgud had taken the role, Kapur at one point suggested that the Pope's accent should be Italian. A large proportion of the indoor filming, representing the royal palace, was conducted in various corners of Durham Cathedral—its unique nave pillars are identifiable; the film was received well by critics and the public, it holds an 81% "fresh" rating on film aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes based on 59 film critic reviews. The site's consensus was: "No mere historical drama, Elizabeth is a rich, suspenseful journey into the heart of British Royal politics and features a outstanding performance from Cate Blanchett."
The film takes considerable factual liberties and misconstrues se
Eastern Promises is a 2007 gangster film directed by David Cronenberg, from a screenplay written by Steven Knight. The film stars Naomi Watts, Vincent Cassel, Sinéad Cusack and Armin Mueller-Stahl, it tells a story of a Russian-British midwife, who delivers the baby of a drug-addicted 14-year old Russian prostitute who dies in childbirth. After Anna learns that the teen was lured into prostitution by the Russian Mafia in London, the leader of the Russian gangsters threatens the baby's life to keep Anna from telling the police about their sex trafficking ring; as Anna tries to protect the baby, she is enmeshed deeper into the criminal underworld, she is threatened by the Mafia leader's son and warned off by the son's strong-arm man. Principal photography began in locations in and around London; the film has been noted for its plot twist, the subject of sex trafficking, for its violence and realistic depiction of Russian career criminals, which includes detailed portrayal of the tattoos which indicate their crimes and criminal status.
Eastern Promises received positive critical reception, appearing on several critics' "top 10 films" lists for 2007. The film has won several awards, including the Audience Prize for best film at the Toronto International Film Festival and the Best Actor award for Mortensen at the British Independent Film Awards; the film received three Golden Globe Award nominations. Mortensen was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Anna Khitrova, a British-Russian midwife at a London hospital, finds a Russian-language diary on the body of Tatiana, a 14-year-old girl who dies in childbirth, she finds a card for the Trans-Siberian Restaurant, owned by Semyon, an old vor in the Russian mafia. Anna sets out to track down the girl's family so that she can find a home for the baby girl, meets with Semyon, who offers to help. Anna's mother Helen does not discourage her, but Anna's Russian uncle Stepan, who claims he is a former KGB officer, urges caution; when Stepan translates Tatiana's diary, Anna comes to learn that Semyon had raped the girl after his son Kirill’s failed attempt to do so, gotten her addicted to heroin and forced her into prostitution.
Anna realizes that the baby was fathered by Semyon. Semyon's driver, Nikolai Luzhin serves as the family "cleaner", removing evidence and dumping murdered bodies in the River Thames. Through Nikolai, fearing prosecution, promises to give the location of the girl's family to Anna if she hands back the diary. Nikolai gives a location, but urges Anna to keep the baby in London. Semyon orders Nikolai to kill Stepan; as Nikolai's star rises within the vory, Semyon sponsors him as a full member, due in part to Nikolai's protection of Semyon's playboy son Kirill, who authorized an ill-advised hit on a rival Chechen vory leader with the help of a Kurdish associate and without Semyon's approval. Two Chechen hit men soon arrive in London seeking vengeance and kill Azim's mentally handicapped nephew, who took part in the hit. Semyon hatches a plan to trick Nikolai into taking Kirill's place during a meeting at the baths with Azim; the Chechens attack, thinking Nikolai is Kirill, but Nikolai kills them both, ending up in the hospital with severe wounds.
It is revealed that Nikolai is an FSB agent who has infiltrated the gang, working under license from the British Government. As part of his undercover duties, Nikolai was able to read Tatiana's diary before Semyon destroyed it, hatches a plan with his handler to have Semyon arrested for statutory rape, with a paternity test of Tatiana's baby as evidence. Nikolai tells Anna. Semyon orders Kirill to kill her. However, as Kirill sits by the Thames working up the courage to throw the child in, Nikolai and Anna find him and persuade him to give the baby back. Nikolai and Kirill embrace as Nikolai tells him that his father is finished and they are now the bosses. Nikolai succeeds Semyon as boss of the organization and Anna gains custody of Tatiana's baby, whom she names Christine. Shooting began in November 2006, various scenes were filmed in St John Street, London. Filming took place in Broadway Market, Hackney and in Brompton Cemetery in the London Borough of Kensington & Chelsea; the "Trans-Siberian Restaurant" is located in The Farmiloe Building, 34 St John Street, next to Smithfield Market.
This is the 6th most popular film and TV location in London, having been used for Spooks and Batman Begins. When Anna, her mother Helen, her uncle Stepan meet Nikolai at a fast food restaurant, this was filmed in Bermondsey, south-east London at a Wimpy bar; the entrance to the "Ankara Social Club" of the film is the front door of a residential flat. The Broadway Market hair dresser known as "Broadway Gents Hairstylist" was changed to "Azim's Hair Salon", where in the film one of the Russians is murdered; the owner Mr. Ismail Yesiloglu decided to keep most of the shop front after filming. In the original script, the name was "Ozim's Hair Salon", but it was changed to "Azim's" as there is no such name as Ozim in Turkish; the "Trafalgar Hospital" is the Middlesex Hospital, a hospital in the Fitzrovia area of London, which closed to patients in December 2005. The building in central London, knocked down in 2008, had the inscription'Trafalgar Hospital', matching the style and apparent age of the old Middlesex Hospital, inserted into the legend above the main door.
The fight scene in the Turkish Baths was filmed on a custom set based on the Ironmonger Row Baths in Islin
Bank robbery is the crime of stealing money from a bank while bank employees and customers are subjected to force, violence, or a threat of violence. This refers to robbery of a bank branch or teller, as opposed to other bank-owned property, such as a train, armored car, or stagecoach, it is a federal crime in the United States. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program, robbery is "the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence or by putting the victim in fear." By contrast, burglary is "unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft." Bank robbery occurs in towns. This concentration is attributed to there being more branches in urban areas, but the number of bank robberies is higher than the number of branches; this has advantages both for law enforcement. In urban areas the transportation infrastructure is more developed where banks tend to cluster near retail shopping areas and commercial districts.
Such banks are profitable targets for robbers, who are afforded a number of potential escape routes. Law enforcement benefit by being able to respond more and the odds of catching a bank robber on or near the scene is higher than other types of crime; this is because most bank robberies are reported quickly while the crime is in progress. Many bank robbers are caught the same day; the clearance rate for bank robbery is among the highest of all crimes, at nearly 60%. The urban location of the crime contributes to its repeat victimization profile, a measure of how a crime victim will suffer a repeat of the original crime. One study carried out by the Home Office found that in England, one third of banks at which a robbery has occurred will be robbed again within three months, while the same study found that in Tallahassee, one quarter of robbed banks will suffer repeat robbery within a week, over half of robbed banks will be robbed again within a month; the Australian Institute of Criminology analyzed trends in bank robbery over a four-year period.
Of the 808 bank robbery incidents between January 1998 and May 2002 in which the number of offenders involved in the hold-up was recorded, 55% were committed by lone offenders, 25% by pairs, 20% by three or more robbers. Unarmed offenders accounted for 28% of robberies, caused the fewest number of injuries to victims, were the type of robber who most used a note to threaten bank staff, failed most in their robbery attempts. Unarmed gangs failed the least in their robbery attempts. Armed robbers used a disguise more compared to unarmed robbers, with armed pairs employing disguises most often. According to the Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics injuries occur in about two percent and a death occurs in less than one percent of all U. S. bank robberies. Violent takeover bank robberies that are portrayed in the media are rare; the majority of bank robberies taking place today are so-called "note jobs." These are accomplished by passing a written note to the teller demanding money. The idea is to attract as little attention as possible.
In most cases, other customers present in the bank during a robbery are unaware of what is occurring. Standard bank policy is to avoid violence as much as possible, so they will hand over the money and try to obey the robber's demands; the robber makes away with cash, but in small amounts. According to British Bankers' Association data, in 2007 there were 106 attempted or successful robberies in Britain in which an average of 1.6 persons were involved. One third of attempts came up empty while the average haul for a successful attempt was equivalent to 46,600 USD. 20% of the successes would prove less than successful by virtue of the robbers being arrested. According to The New York Times and the Saturday Evening Post, the first bank robbery in the United States occurred in March 1831. Two men, James Honeyman and William J. Murray, entered the City Bank of New York using forged keys; this allowed them to empty the vault of more than $245,000 in bank money. According to the Times, it can not be confirmed if this was a burglary.
The Post corrected this claim upon learning of a previous 1798 robbery of $162,821 from the Bank of Pennsylvania at Carpenters' Hall. The Carpenters' Hall theft may not have technically been a robbery as there were no signs of force and the thief may have had a key. On September 14, 1828, five men tunneled through a sewage drain in George Street and stole £14,000 in promissory notes and coins from the vault of the Bank of Australia, it has been described as the first bank robbery in Australia and the largest in Australian history at the equivalent of $20 million in today's currency. On December 15, 1863, a man walked into a bank in Middlesex County, shot the 17-year-old bookkeeper, stole $3,000 in large bills and $2,000 in small bills; the directors of the bank offered a $6,000 reward for the arrest of the murderer. This has been described as the first armed bank robbery in US history; the heist known as the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery in June 1907 in the Russian Empire resulted in 40 deaths, 50 injuries, the "expropriation" of 341,000 rubles
Naomi Ellen Watts is an English actress and film producer. She made her film debut in the Australian drama For Love Alone and appeared in the Australian television series Hey Dad..!, Brides of Christ and Away, the film Flirting. After moving to the United States, Watts struggled as an actress for years, but managed to obtain parts in the films Tank Girl, Children of the Corn IV: The Gathering, Dangerous Beauty, the television series Sleepwalkers. Watts rose to international prominence for playing an aspiring actress in David Lynch's psychological thriller Mulholland Drive and a tormented journalist in the horror remake The Ring, she subsequently received nominations for the Academy Awards and the Screen Actors Guild Awards for Best Actress for her performance as a grief-stricken mother in Alejandro González Iñárritu's neo-noir 21 Grams. Her next films throughout the 2000s include I Heart Huckabees, King Kong, Eastern Promises, The International. For her role as Maria Bennett in the disaster film The Impossible, Watts received further nominations for the Academy Award and Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Actress and a nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress.
In the 2010s, she starred in the well-received independent films Birdman, While We're Young and Chuck, joined the Divergent franchise, ventured into television acting. Watts is known for her work in remakes and independent productions with dark or tragic themes as well as portrayals of characters that endure loss or suffering, she established herself as one of the most bankable actresses in the American film industry by 2009. Magazines such as People and Maxim have included her on their lists of the world's most beautiful women, she has been an ambassador for Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and Pantene's Beautiful Lengths. Despite significant media attention, Watts is reticent about her personal life, she had a relationship with American actor Liev Schreiber from 2005 to 2016, with whom she has two sons. Naomi Ellen Watts was born on 28 September 1968, in Shoreham, England, she is the daughter of Myfanwy Edwards, an antiques dealer and costume and set designer, Peter Watts, a road manager and sound engineer who worked with Pink Floyd.
Miv was lived in Australia between the ages of one and seven. Watts' maternal grandfather was Welsh and her maternal grandmother was Australian. Watts' parents divorced. After the divorce and her elder brother, Ben Watts, moved several times across South East England with their mother. Peter Watts left Pink Floyd in 1974, he and Myfanwy were reconciled. Two years in August 1976, he was found dead in a flat in Notting Hill, of an apparent heroin overdose. Following his death, Watts' mother moved the family to Llanfawr Farm in Llangefni and Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, towns on the island of Anglesey in North Wales, where they lived with Watts' maternal grandparents and Hugh Roberts, for three years. During this time, Watts attended Ysgol Gyfun Llangefni, she said of her time in Wales: "We took Welsh lessons in a school in the middle of nowhere while everyone else was taking English. Wherever we moved, I would pick up the regional accent. It's significant now, me being an actress. Anyway, there was quite a lot of sadness in my childhood, but no lack of love."
In 1978, her mother remarried and Watts and her brother moved to Suffolk, where she attended Thomas Mills High School. Watts has stated that she wanted to become an actress after seeing her mother performing on stage and from the time she watched the 1980 film Fame. In 1982, when Watts was 14, she moved to Sydney in Australia with her mother and stepfather. Myfanwy established a career in the burgeoning film business, working as a stylist for television commercials turning to costume design working for the soap opera Return to Eden. After emigrating, Watts was enrolled in acting lessons by her mother. Watts obtained her first role in the 1986 drama film, For Love Alone, based on the novel of the same name by Christina Stead, produced by Margaret Fink. In Australia, Watts attended North Sydney Girls High School, she failed to graduate from school, afterwards working as a papergirl, a negative cutter and managing a Delicacies store in Sydney's affluent North Shore. She decided to become a model when she was 18.
She signed with a models agency that sent her to Japan, but after several failed auditions, she returned to Sydney. There, she was hired to work in advertising for a department store, that exposed her to the attention of Follow Me, a magazine which hired her as an assistant fashion editor. A casual invitation to participate in a drama workshop inspired Watts to quit her job and to pursue her acting ambitions. Regarding her nationality, Watts has stated: "I consider myself British and have happy memories of the UK. I never wanted to leave; when I was in Australia I went back to England a lot." She has expressed her ties to Australia, declaring: "I consider myself connected to Australia, in fact when people say where is home, I say Australia, because those are my most powerful memories." Watts' career began in television. The 1986 film For Love Alone, set in the 1930s and based on Christina Stead's 1945 best