click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Vincent of Lérins

Saint Vincent of Lérins who died c. 445, was a Gallic author of early Christian writings. One example was the Commonitorium, c. 434, which offers guidance in the orthodox teaching of Christianity. A proponent of semipelagianism, he opposed the Augustinian model of Grace and was the recipient of Prosper of Aquitaine's Responsiones ad Capitula Objectionum Vincentianarum, his feast day is celebrated on 24 May. Saint Vincent of Lérins was born in Toulouse, Gaul to a noble family, is believed to be the brother of St. Lupus of Troyes. In his early life he engaged in secular pursuits, he entered Lérins Abbey on Île Saint-Honorat, where under the pseudonym Peregrinus he wrote the Commonitorium, c. 434, about three years after the Council of Ephesus. Vincent defended calling mother of Jesus, Theotokos; this opposed the teachings of Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople which were condemned by the Council of Ephesus. Eucherius of Lyon called him a "conspicuously eloquent and knowledgeable" holy man. Gennadius of Massilia wrote that Vincent died during the reign of Roman Emperor Theodosius II in the East and Valentinian III in the West.

Therefore, his death must have occurred in or before the year 450. His relics are preserved at Lérins.. Caesar Baronius included his name in the Roman Martyrology but Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont doubted whether there was sufficient reason, he is commemorated on 24 May. Vincent wrote his Commonitory to provide himself with a general rule to distinguish Catholic truth from heresy, committing it to writing as a reference, it is known for Vincent's famous maxim: "Moreover, in the Catholic Church itself, all possible care must be taken, that we hold that faith, believed everywhere, always, by all." The accepted idea that Vincent was a semipelagian is attributed to a 17th-century Protestant theologian, Gerardus Vossius, developed in the 17th century by Cardinal Henry Noris. Evidence of Vincent's semipelagianism, according to Reginald Moxon, is Vincent's, "great vehemence against" the doctrines of Augustine of Hippo in Commonitory. Semipelagianism was a doctrine of grace advocated by monks in and around Marseilles in Southern Gaul after 428.

It aimed at a compromise between the two extremes of Pelagianism and Augustinism, was condemned of heresy at the Second Council of Orange in 529 AD after more than a century of disputes. Augustine wrote of prevenient grace, expanded to a discussion of predestination. A number of monastic communities took exception to the latter because it seemed to nullify the value of asceticism practiced under their rules. John Cassian felt that Augustine's stress on predestination ruled out any need for human cooperation or consent. Vincent was suspected of Semipelagianism but whether he held that doctrine is not clear as it is not found in the Commonitorium, but it is probable. Considering that the monks of the Lérins Islands – like the general body of clergy of Southern Gaul – were Semipelagians, it is not surprising that Vincent was suspected of Semipelagianism, it is possible that Vincent held to a position closer to the Eastern Orthodox position of today, which they claim to have been universal until the time of Augustine, which may have been interpreted as Semipelagian by Augustine's followers.

Vincent seemed to have objected to much of Augustine's work as "new" theology. He shared Cassian's reservations about Augustine's views on the role of grace. In the Commonitorium he listed theologians and teachers who, in his view, had made significant contributions to the defense and spreading of the Gospel; some commentators have viewed Vincent as "Semiaugustinian" rather than Semipelagian. It is a matter of academic debate whether Vincent is the author of the Objectiones Vincentianae, a collection of sixteen inferences deduced from Augustine's writings, lost and only known through Prosper of Aquitaine's rejoinder, Responsiones ad capitula objectionum Vincentianarum, it is dated close to the time of the Commonitorium and its animus is similar to the Commonitorium sections 70 and 86, making it possible that both were written by the same author. Thomas G. Guarino, Vincent of Lerins and the Development of Christian Doctrine. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2013. Opera Omnia by Migne Patristica Latina Vincent of Lerins, The "Vincentian Canon" Commonitory

Dai County

Dai County known by its Chinese name Daixian, is a county in Xinzhou, Shanxi Province, China. Its county seat at Shangguan is known as Daixian; the county had a population of 214,091 at the time of the 2010 census. The county is the home of the AAAAA-rated Yanmen Pass Scenic Area along the Great Wall, as well as the Bianjing Drum Tower, the Ayuwang Pagoda, the Zhao Gao Forest Park; as is usual in Chinese, the name "Daixian" is used for both the county as a whole and for the county seat at Shangguan. Because the English word "county" only describes the area, it's more common to use a transcription of the Chinese form of the name when talking about its seat of government. Dàixiàn is the pinyin romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of the Chinese placename written as 代縣 in traditional characters and as 代县 in the simplified characters now used in mainland China; the same name was written as Tai County, Tai Hsien, or Tai-hsien in the Wade-Giles system. The name was most bestowed in 1912, during the organization of the Republic of China.

The county took its name from its predecessor Daizhou or Dai Prefecture, which had existed since AD 585. This name was written as Tai Chou or Tai-chou in Wade-Giles and as Taichow or Taichow Sha by the Chinese Post Office. Daizhou had taken its name from the abolished Dai Commandery, despite having never been part of it or the seat of the earlier "Dai" regions. Dai Commandery had been created by the Zhou state of Zhao to organize its northeastern conquests and was based in the former capital of the Baidi Kingdom of Dai; that city's native name was transcribed using the character 代, now read dài in Mandarin but with an Old Chinese pronunciation, reconstructed as /*lˤək-s/. It was near present-day Yuzhou in Hebei, its name was used for the rump kingdom of Zhao established by Prince Jia to oppose Qin in the 220s BC. These included the commanderies of Yunzhong and Yanmen in northern Shanxi along with the old Dai homeland in northwestern Hebei, spreading the name westward into Shanxi; the earlier name for the county had been Guangwu, with its eponymous county seat located southwest of present-day Shangguan.

It was known as Yanmen once the seat of Yanmen Commandery was moved to Guangwu from Yinguan under the Kingdom of Wei during China's Three Kingdoms Period. These names followed the posts, it ceased to be called Guangwu in 589 at the creation of Yanmen County. The town was briefly known as Sizhou under the Northern Zhou and early Sui after Si Prefecture was relocated to Shangguan in 579 from its original seat northwest of Xinzhou. Present day villages of New Guangwu and Old Guangwu along with the Guangwu section of the Great Wall are located in adjacent Shanyin County. Dai County's present territory covers 1,729 square kilometers, it lies in northeastern Shanxi Province between Taiyuan to the south and Datong to the north, with the Yanmen Pass forming a natural choke point which once controlled access to central Shanxi from the Eurasian Steppe. The main river is the Hutuo, its principal tributaries within the county are the E, the Zhongjie, the Yukou, the Guangou, the Qili. The highest points are the Heige Mantou Mountain.

Parts of the chains belonging to Mount Heng to the north and Mount Wutai to the east reach Dai County. Present-day Dai County lies to north of the historic heartland of ancient Chinese civilization in the Fen and Yellow River valleys; the Chinese knew their northern neighbors as the Di or "Northern Barbarians". The "White Di" are recorded originating in north Shaanxi west of the Yellow River but had settled in the Hutuo Valley by the 6th century BC; the Zhou state of Jin pushed sporadically northward through both invasions and bribery of the Di's ruling class until its disintegration at the end of the Spring and Autumn Period. King Yong of the Jin successor state of Zhao adopted nomad-style clothing and cavalry tactics in 307 BC, he organized these conquests together with Zhao-held Dai as the three commanderies of Yunzhong and Dai. He protected them by erecting long earthen barricades along what is now considered the Outer Great Wall, as well as a fortress overlooking Yanmen Pass in present-day Dai County.

The town of Guangwu, southwest of present-day Shangguan, was established under the Zhao as well. After Qin's conquest of Zhao in 228 BC, its Prince Jia tried to reëstablish his family's kingdom in its northern commanderies. Under the First Emperor's rule, an administrative overhaul abolished China's former states and provinces, making the small commanderies the highest level of regional government. Zhao's former holdings in northern Shanxi west of Mount Heng formed Qin's Yanmen Commandery, with its seat at Shanwu in present-

2012 Segunda División play-offs

The 2012 Segunda División play-offs took place in June 2012. The Segunda División promotion phase was the second phase of 2011–12 Segunda División and was to determine the third team which promoted to 2012–13 La Liga. Teams placed between 3rd and 6th position took part in the promotion play-offs. Regulations were similar that previous season: fifth placed faced against the fourth, while the sixth positioned team faced against the third. In case of a tied eliminatory there were extra time, once finished it, this season introduced that there wouldn't be penalty shoot-out and the winner would be the best positioned team; the first leg of the semi-finals was played on 6 June with the best positioned team playing at home the second leg was played on 10 June. The final was two-legged, with the first leg on 13 June and the second leg on 16 June, with the best positioned team playing at home the second leg. Real Valladolid and AD Alcorcón played the final phase where Valladolid was winner and promoted to La Liga after two years of absence.

Córdoba CF and Hércules CF were eliminated in semifinals. Real Valladolid was the only team to be assured a spot in this phase several matchdays before, doing so on 16 May 2012, they were fighting together with Celta de Vigo for the second place to earn direct promotion, repeated the play-off appearance from the previous season. An historical La Liga team, Valladolid made solid regular season, fighting with Celta for the remaining place for direct promotion. However, after a draw in the penultimate match against AD Alcorcón they didn't depend by himself for direct promotion: Celta played last round against Córdoba CF, both only needed a draw, drew 0–0 as their opponents were favoured by that outcome. Valladolid's last participation in La Liga was in 2009–10. Valladolid spent 40 seasons in the top division: from 1948–64 except 1958–59 and 1961–62, from 1980–2004 except 1992–93, from 2007–10, it ranked 14th in the all-time La Liga table. They were in the category since 2010–11. Background at 2011–12 Segunda División: AD Alcorcón qualified to the playoffs in the last matchday, like Hércules CF and Córdoba, after winning 1–0 away against CD Numancia.

Alcorcón was a "modest team" that since its foundation in 1971 had spent in the lower leagues until 2010. They are well remembered for its achievement in 2009–10 season, when still in Segunda División B, it made worldwide headlines after defeated neighbours giants Real Madrid in Copa del Rey. Since it was popularized the expression "Alcorconazo" meaning this team makes a surprise against a successful rival. In that season they were champions in Segunda División B Group 2, they played play-offs to promote to Segunda División, they were eliminated by Granada CF for winners phase and they entered to next phases and eliminated Pontevedra CF and Ontinyent CF. Alcorcón had a regular 2011–12, being placed in the quiet zone all season but winning several consecutive matches in the spring. In the 41st round, they made another "Alcorconazo" and drew 1–1 at Valladolid, which meant the opposition did not depend on itself in the last matchday for direct promotion. Alcorcón had never been in La Liga, they were in the second division since last season, 2010–11.

Background at 2011–12 Segunda División: Hércules qualified to this phase in the last matchday like Alcorcón and Córdoba, after a necessary win at SD Huesca, sought to promote after being relegated from La Liga. The team's early season was a spectacular one, gathering 28 points out of 33 in the first eleven matches, leading for ten rounds during the 2011 autumn. Since November, however, it started to combine wins and losses, remaining however in the play-off zone until the end of league. Hércules' last participation in La Liga was in last season, having spent 20 seasons in La Liga: period 1935–42, 1945–46, from 1954–56, 1966–67, from 1974–82, 1984–85, 1996–97 and 2010–11. Hércules was 22nd in the all-time La Liga table, 13 points over long-standing rival and neighbours Elche CF, they were in Segunda División only since this related season. Background at 2011–12 Segunda División: Córdoba qualified to this stage in the last matchday, as Hércules and Alcorcón, after a 0–0 away draw against Celta de Vigo, criticised by Real Valladolid.

At time, an historical second division outfit, the Andalusia side's last top level participation was 40 years ago – in which it managed to defeat FC Barcelona and draw against Real Madrid at El Arcángel – and it finished fifth in the main category in 1964–65. It had a short spell in the third level in the 2000s, returning in 2007 after defeating Pontevedra CF and SD Huesca. Córdoba had a regular 2011–12 season, being in the play-off area for some matches, fighting last mid with neighbouring Almería for the final sixth-place succeeding. Córdoba's last participation in La Liga was in 1971–72; the club spent a further seven seasons in the main category, from 1962–69. It ranked 38th in the all-time La Liga table, they were in Segunda División since 2007–08. Background at 2011–12 Segunda División: 2011–12 Segunda División 2012–13 La Liga 2012–13 Segunda División

Alexander Gatehouse

Major-General Alexander Hugh Gatehouse DSO & bar MC was a senior British Army officer who commanded the 10th Armoured Division during the North African Campaign of World War II. He joined the British Army and was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Northumberland Fusiliers in 1914 and fought in World War I. After the war he transferred to the Royal Tank Corps in 1931, he was appointed commandant of the Mechanisation Experimental Establishment at Farnborough in 1933. He served in World War II as deputy commander of the 7th Armoured Brigade in the Western Desert from 1940, as commander of the 4th Armoured Brigade in the Western Desert from 1941 and as General Officer Commanding 10th Armoured Division from June 1942, his permanent rank was advanced to colonel on 6 November 1940, with seniority backdated to 1 July 1940. Having led the 10th Armoured Division at the Battle of Alam el Halfa in September 1942 and the Second Battle of El Alamein in October 1942 he became major-general in charge of administration at Washington D. C. at the end of the year, military attaché in Moscow in 1944 before retiring in 1947.

In 1920 he married Helen Williams. Mead, Richard. Churchill's Lions: A Biographical Guide to the Key British Generals of World War II. Stroud: Spellmount. ISBN 978-1-86227-431-0. Smart, Nick. Biographical Dictionary of British Generals of the Second World War. Barnesley: Pen & Sword. ISBN 1844150496

Bangaru Bullodu

Bangaru Bullodu is 1993 Telugu drama film produced by V. B. Rajendra directed by Ravi Raja Pinisetty, it stars Nandamuri Balakrishna, Ramya Krishna Raveena Tandon in the lead roles with music composed by Raj-Koti. It marks Raveena Tandon's first venture in Telugu cinema; the film released the same day as Nippu Ravva, which starred Balakrishna. The film was recorded as a Hit at the box office. Bala Krishna / Balaiah is a villager who fights against his maternal uncle Ramadasu, an arrogant devotee of the Hindu god Rama who always says that Rama told him to do all his schemes, his daughter Rani is Balaiah's cousin who loves Balaiah so much and is willing to do anything for him. She beats up any young girl who goes near Balaiah; this is when Balaiah meets Priya, a teenage girl, Balaiah's other cousin from the city along with Tulasamma, Priya's caretaker. He falls in love with Priya as this outrages Rani and she begins to feel jealous. Rani and Priya challenge each other that if Priya can make Balaiah fall in love with him, Rani should apologize for her misbehavior and forget about Balaiah.

If Priya fails, she should leave the village. Balaiah proposes to Priya which she accepts, although not loving him. One day Priya takes the challenge too far when Balaiah is bitten by a poisonous snake because she asks him to get a ring from that snake on purpose; this is when she reveals that she wasn't in love with him. This angers Balaiah who ties the mangalasutra considering them husband. Though Balaiah doesn't love her anymore, he only tied it to show her not to mess with people's lives; this becomes a huge issue around the village. Balaiah's mother Annapurnamma tries to reunite the couple along with Rani, who on the inside is disappointed for not marrying Balaiah; when Priya is attacked by a bunch of goons one day, Balaiah saves her and Priya falls in love with him. However, Balaiah still doesn't consider her as his wife. Priya moves in Balaiah's home with Annapurnamma's acceptance. One day when a man tries to shoot Priya, he questions. Tulasamma reveals Priya's dark past. Tulasamma is a police officer, a colleague and friend of Priya's brother-in-law DIG Benarjee.

Benarjee killed arrested Nana. Nana, a powerful terrorist, sought revenge by killing Benarjee and his family. Priya is the only one who survived. In order for her to be safe, the police hid her in Nana's home town since people know it and that Nana will never figure out she's there, it is revealed that Priya is not Balaiah's cousin, they used him so that no one knows about this. Balaiah starts loving Priya and promises to protect her from Nana. Meanwhile, Nana finds out that Priya is in escapes from jail. Balaiah kills Nana and the film ends with Balaiah's first night with Priya and she arguing with Rani about who shall give him a glass of milk. Nandamuri Balakrishna as Bala Krishna / Balaiah Raveena Tandon as Priya Ramya Krishna as Rani Rao Gopal Rao as Ramadasu Allu Ramalingaiah as Kannappa Sharat Saxena as Commissioner Srikanth Devan as DIG Benerjee Devaraj as Nana Brahmanandam as Prisoner Babu Mohan as Paatha dasu Annapurna as Annapurnamma Srividya as Tulasamma Anitha as Ramadasu's wife Master Baladitya Art: Chanti Addala Choreography: Siva Subramanyam, D. K. S. Babu, Taara Stills: Sebastian Brothers Fights: Raju, Judo Ramu Dialogues - Screenplay: Satya Murthy Lyrics: Veturi Sundararama Murthy, Bhuvanachandra Playback Singers: SP Balu, Mano, S. P. Sailaja Story: Padma Kumar Music: Raj-Koti Editing: Gautham Raju Cinematography: Sarath Producer: V. B.

Rajendra Prasad Direction: Ravi Raja Pinisetty Banner: Jagapathi Art Pictures Release Date: 9 September 1993 Music composed by Raj-Koti. All songs are blockbusters. Music released on Lahari Music Company. Bangaru Bullodu on IMDb

CRIF High Mark Credit Information Services

CRIF High Mark Credit Information Services Pvt. Ltd. is an RBI approved credit bureau in India. It serves retail and rural, MSME, commercial and microfinance; the company is based in Mumbai. It launched its credit bureau operations in 2010 and has a database of over 120+ crore credit records as of July 2018. CRIF High Mark covers nearly 38 crore unique borrowers as of Oct 2018, it manages the world's largest microfinance credit bureau database. CRIF High Mark supports over 4,000 credit institutions including over 1,000 cooperative banks and insurance companies, providing them with credit information and scoring, decision and software. In addition, it works with telecom service providers, credit rating agencies and Sebi-registered brokers. Consumers can directly access their credit scores from CRIF High Mark, it keeps a record of repayment history and frauds on loans and credit facilities extended to individuals or businesses across the country. These services help lenders to analyse the risk profile of the borrower before extending new credit and keep non-performing loans in check.

Consumers can check their own credit credit scores from the company's website. CRIF High Mark Credit Information Services Private Limited was known as High Mark Credit Information Services Private Limited. High Mark was founded in 2007 by Dr. Anil Pandya with a vision of setting up India’s most comprehensive and most inclusive credit bureau. In 2014, CRIF, an Italy based firm acquired majority stakes in the company and the name changed to CRIF High Mark. CRIF holds 70% in CRIF High Mark. CRIF High Mark's other shareholders include State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, SIDBI, Shriram City Union Finance, Alpha, a consortium of microfinance institutions. Established in 1988 in Bologna, CRIF is a global company specialising in the development and management of credit reporting, business information and decision support systems; the firm has an international presence operating over 50 countries across four continents. It has experience of delivering credit bureau solutions in countries like Italy, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Jamaica, Benin, Bangladesh, Tajikistan and, Indonesia.

CRIF has been recognized amongst the top 100 FinTech by IDC Financial Insights. 2005: Incorporated as a company 2007: Company started operations 2009: Received in-principle approval from RBI to set up as credit information company amongst 13 applicants 2010: Received license from RBI to operate as credit information company 2011: Launched India's first credit bureau services for microfinance industry in March 2011 2012: Won Silver Award at SKOCH Digital Inclusion 2012 for the company’s work towards digital financial inclusion 2014: CRIF, the earlier strategic investor, acquires a majority stake in High Mark in June 2014 2014: Conferred "The Grand Jury Special Mention Award at ‘The MANTHAN Awards 2014’ in South Asia and The Asia Pacific under the E-Business & Financial Inclusion category for setting up India's first Microfinance Credit Bureau. 2016: The sophisticated dedupe engine, OneIdentii, developed by CRIF High Mark, was recognized as the "most promising innovation" at the Technoviti Awards 2016 2016: CRIF launches a new centre for predictive analytics and decision solutions in Pune to support clients in Banking, Financial Services and Telecom sectors in India and South-East Asia 2016: Crossed 100 million credit decisions mark for Microfinance industry 2019: Sherlock Lending, an anti-fraud solution from CRIF High Mark, wins leading innovation award at Technoviti 2019 CRIF High Mark provides two type of credit scores - one for individual consumer called Personal Credit score and another for businesses called Business Credit Score or Commercial Credit Score.

The CRIF Credit score range is from 300-900, where a score close to 300 is considered to be poor while 900 is the best possible score. A score of over 700 is considered good; the Reserve Bank of India has mandated credit bureaus in India to give a full credit report free of charge to each customer every year. A consumer can check its own credit score free once in a year from CRIF High Mark's website. CRIF High Mark provides credit information to credit institutions such as banks and NBFCs, insurance companies, credit rating agencies, Sebi-registered brokers and to the consumers; the company provides risk management solutions, decision support and software solutions to its clients in these sectors. It offers data quality management services that include data quality profiling, data deduplication, data quality enhancement, as well as address quality assessment and improvement. CRIF High Mark provides market insight reports to help institutions benchmark themselves against competition and understand the penetration and growth.

Mar 2019: CRIF High Mark, CreditVidya Seal First-of-its-kind Partnership in India to provide lenders with credit scoring for new-to-credit and'thin-file' customers. Dec 2018: IDBI appointed CRIF High Mark Credit Information Services to receive early warning signals solution on its retail borrowers on a pilot basis; the bank is monitoring the accounts on a weekly basis through its credit monitoring group Jul 2018: Monexo, the first peer-to-peer lending company in India has tied-up with CRIF to access credit scores and other relevant financial data to aid in the loan disbursement decision making process June 2018: OML Technologies, a peer-to-peer lending company in India, has collaborated with CRIF High Mark to use its cutting-edge algorithm to ascertain the actuarial risk involved in providing credit to a borrower on the platform