Menologion of Basil II
The Menologion of Basil II is an illuminated manuscript designed as a church calendar or Eastern Orthodox Church service book, compiled c. 1000 AD, for the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. It contains a synaxarion, a short collection of saints' lives, compiled at Constantinople for liturgical use, around 430 miniature paintings by eight different artists, it was unusual for a menologion from that era to be so richly painted. It resides in the Vatican Library. A full facsimile was produced in 1907; the manuscript is not technically a menologion, but a synaxarion: a liturgical book containing a list of the saints and their feast days with a short description of sixteen lines of text and a painting of a saint or grouping of saints. The more than 430 images are important examples of hagiography, the veneration of saints, in Byzantine illumination. Text and images cover only half of the religious calendar of the Byzantine liturgical year, so it is assumed that there was a second volume to the work, but this was never produced, since some pages within the manuscript were left unfinished.
The miniatures themselves have no liturgical role—it's possible that their purpose was to act as protectors of the Emperor. The manuscript inspired the illustration of a number of subsequent menologia; the work glorifies Emperor Basil II showing him as a warrior defending Orthodox Christendom against the attacks of the Bulgarian Empire, whose attacks on Christians are graphically illustrated. Figures like the archangels were depicted in military guise by the painters; the manuscript was copied and painted at Constantinople at the command of, or as a gift for, the Emperor Basil II. It was completed between the early years of the 11th century. In the course of the 14th century it came into the possession of a Genoese doctor who resided in Constantinople. In the 15th century it was acquired by Duke of Milan. At the beginning of the 17th century the cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati gave it to Pope Paul V and the manuscript now resides in the Vatican library; the artists who produced the images for the Menologion employed perspective and moved away from the flat depictions common up to that time.
The figures' gestures and drapery are depicted in a lifelike manner, with architecture and backgrounds well-rendered. Facial expressions are painted in a naturalistic style; the work thus demonstrates the painting style of the period, referred to as the Macedonian Renaissance in which painters returned to ancient models with gusto. Unusual for a Byzantine manuscript, the name of the painter of each illustration is recorded by a scribe at the edge of each image. A total of eight names can be recognised. One painter, by the name of Pantoleon, who may be referred to in other documents of the time, seems to have been in charge of the group, they worked together in a workshop connected to the Imperial court. The other painters are Georgios, Michael the Younger, Michael of Blachernai, Simeon of Blachernai and Nestor; the names are not the signatures of the artists themselves, since they are all recorded in the same handwriting. It is rare for artistic works from the Middle Ages to record the name of the artist, since it was not the individual artist so much as the meaning of the image, most important.
The reason for the recording of the names of the painters below their works in the Menologion of Basil II is not clear. Il Menologio di Basilio II. Turin 1907. Francesco D'Aiuto: El "Menologio de Basilio II". Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vat. Gr. 1613. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano / Diaconía Apostólica de la Iglesia de Grecia, Athen / Testimonio Compañia Editorial, Madrid 2008, ISBN 978-88-210-0789-7, ISBN 978-960-315-615-4, ISBN 978-84-95767-58-5. Evans, Helen C. & Wixom, William D. The glory of Byzantium: art and culture of the Middle Byzantine era, A. D. 843-1261, no. 55, 1997, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780810965072. In: El „Menologio‟ de Basilio II: Città del Vaticano, Vat. gr. 1613: libro de estudios con ocasión de la edición facsímil. Dirigado por Francesco D'Aiuto. Biblioteca Apostólica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2008. 47–75. Nancy Patterson Ševčenko: Menologion of Basil II. In: Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, Oxford, 1991, Bd.
2, S. 1341–1342. Ihor Ševčenko: The Illuminators of the Menologium of Basil II. In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers16, 1962, S. 248–276. Facsimile of Vat.gr.1613 from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Greek-Latin edition
November 11 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
November 10 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - November 12 All fixed commemorations below celebrated on November 24 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar. For November 11th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on October 29. Martyrs Victor and Stephanida, at Damascus Great-martyr Menas of Egypt Martyr Vincent of Spain Martyr Drakonas of Arauraka in Armenia, by beheading Venerable Theodore the Confessor, Abbot of the Studion Saints Valentine and Victorinus, martyrs venerated in Ravenna in Italy Saint Martin the Merciful, Bishop of Tours Saint Veranus, Bishop of Lyons in France Saint Cynfran, founder of a church in Gwynedd in Wales where there is a holy well Saint Rhediw, a saint recalled by the dedication of a church in Llanllyfni in North Wales. Saint Mennas, a Greek from Asia Minor who became a hermit in the Abruzzi in Italy in Santomena Saint Bertuin, born in England, he became a monk at Othelle a bishop, founded the monastery of Malonne Abbey near Namur in Belgium Saint Bartholomew the Younger, of Rossano, Calabria Saint Nicodemus the Younger, of Beroea in Macedonia Great-martyr Stephen-Urosh III of Decani Blessed Euthymius and Nestor, of Dečani Saint Neophytus and Saint Stephen Urosica, of Serbia Saint Milica of Serbia, Princess of Serbia Blessed Maximus of Moscow, Fool-for-Christ, Wonderworker Saint Martyrius, founder of Zelenets Monastery, Novgorod Martyrs of Zelenetsk:Hegumen Victor with the brotherhood.
New Hieromartyr Eugene Vasiliev, Priest Synaxis of the Saints of Dečani. Repose of Victor Sadkovsky, Archbishop of Chernigov Repose of Metropolitan Platon of Moscow Myrrh-streaming "Montreal" Iveron Icon of the Theotokos November 11/November 24. Orthodox Calendar. November 24 / November 11. HOLY TRINITY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH. November 11. OCA - The Lives of the Saints; the Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of Western Europe and the Americas. St. Hilarion Calendar of Saints for the year of our Lord 2004. St. Hilarion Press. P. 84. The Eleventh Day of the Month of November. Orthodoxy in China. November 11. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome; the Roman Martyrology. Transl. by the Archbishop of Baltimore. Last Edition, According to the Copy Printed at Rome in 1914. Revised Edition, with the Imprimatur of His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons. Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 1916. Pp. 347–348. Rev. Richard Stanton. A Menology of England and Wales, or, Brief Memorials of the Ancient British and English Saints Arranged According to the Calendar, Together with the Martyrs of the 16th and 17th Centuries.
London: Burns & Oates, 1892. Pp. 534–535. Greek Sources Great Synaxaristes: 11 ΝΟΕΜΒΡΙΟΥ. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. Συναξαριστής. 11 Νοεμβρίου. ECCLESIA. GR.. 11/11/2016. Ορθόδοξος Συναξαριστής. Russian Sources 24 ноября. Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла.. 11 ноября по старому стилю / 24 ноября по новому стилю. Русская Православная Церковь - Православный церковный календарь на 2016 год
Huesca is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon. It is the capital of the Spanish province of the same name and of the comarca of Hoya de Huesca. In 2009 it had a population of 52,059 a quarter of the total population of the province; the city is one of the smallest provincial capitals in Spain. Huesca celebrates its main festival Fiestas de San Lorenzo from 9 to 15 August. Huesca dates from pre-Roman times, was once known as Bolskan in the ancient Iberian language, it was once the capital of the Vescetani, in the north of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the road from Tarraco and Ilerda to Caesaraugusta. During Roman times, the city was known as Osca, was a Roman colony under the rule of Quintus Sertorius, who made Osca his base; the city minted its own coinage and was the site of a prestigious school founded by Sertorius to educate young Iberians in Latin and Roman customs. After Sertorius, it is thought, it appears to have been situated on silver mines. Eighteenth-century Spanish historian Enrique Flórez has pointed out the impossibility of one city supplying such vast quantities of minted silver as has been recorded by ancient writers under the terms argentum Oscense, signatum Oscense.
The Romanised city was made a municipium by decree of Augustus in 30 BC. The Arabs conquered the city in the late 8th century, the city came to be called Washqah, falling within the Upper March of the Emirate of Córdoba, it was ruled by a local governor appointed from Córdoba, but was subject to political turmoil and assassination as the Banu Qasi, Banu Amrus and Banu al-Tawil clans, as well as the Arista dynasty of Pamplona, struggled for control and independence from the Emirate. In the mid-10th century, Wasqah was transferred to the Banu Tujibi, who governed the Upper March from Zaragoza, it became part of the Taifa of Zaragoza in 1018 when they freed themselves from the disintegrating Caliphate. In 1094 Sancho Ramirez built the nearby Castle of Montearagón with the intention of laying siege to Wasqah but was killed by a stray arrow as he reached the city's walls, it was conquered in 1096 by Peter I of Aragon. In 1354, King Peter IV of Aragon founded the University of Huesca, which had a faculty of theology.
The school expanded, but by the end of the 16th century was eclipsed by the University of Zaragoza. The university was abolished in 1845. During the Spanish Civil War the "Huesca Front" was the scene of some of the worst fighting between the Republicans and Franco's army; the city didn't fall. Huesca celebrates its most important annual festival in August: the festival of San Lorenzo, a native of Huesca martyred in 268 AD; the anniversary of his martyrdom falls on August 10. The fiesta starts on 9 August and finishes on the 15. Many of the inhabitants dress in white for the duration. San Lorenzo, born in Huesca, was a deacon in Rome and a martyr who, according to legend, was burned on a grille by the Romans; the grille can be seen in a number of decorative works in the city. Huesca is the birthplace of film director Carlos Saura and his brother Antonio Saura, a contemporary artist. There is an international film festival held annually; the writer Oscar Sipan, winner of several literary prizes, was born in Huesca in 1974.
The celebrated illustrator Isidro Ferrer, though born in Madrid, lives in the city. Various streets in the centre of Huesca have been pedestrianised. Huesca lies at an altitude of 488 m above sea level. Close to the city lie the Sierra de Guara mountains, which reach 2,077 m; the geographical coordinates of the city are: 42° 08´ N, 0° 24´ W. Its municipal area is 161.02 km ² and borders the municipalities of Almudévar, Vicién, Monflorite-Lascasas Tierz, Loporzano, Igriés, Banastás, Alerre, Barbués and Albero Bajo. The city lies 71 kilometres from Zaragoza, 160 kilometres from Pamplona, 118 kilometres from Lleida, 380 kilometres from Madrid and 273 kilometres from Barcelona. Huesca has a humid subtropical climate. With semi-arid influences. Winters are cool and summers are hot, with daily maximums reaching up to 35 °C, while the rainiest seasons are autumn and spring; the average precipitation is 480 mm per year. Frost is common and there is sporadic snowfall, with an average of 3 snowy days per year.
A double line of ancient walls can still be seen in present-day Huesca. Nearby, in the territory of Quicena, lie the ruins of the Castle of Montearagón Monastery. Huesca Cathedral is a Gothic style Cathedral, built by king James I of Aragon around 1273 on the ruined foundations of a mosque. Work continued until the fifteenth century, the Cathedral is now one of the architectural gems of northern Spain; the doorway, built between 1300 and 1313, has carvings depicting the Apostles. The interior chapels, it includes a magnificent high altar made from alabaster, carved to represent the crucifixion, built between 1520 and 1533 by Damián Forment. The cloister and the bell-tower were built in the fifteenth century. Monastery of San Pedro el Viejo, erected between 1100 and 1241, is one of the oldest Romanesque structures in the Iberian Peninsula, it was rebuilt in the seve
Christianity has used symbolism from its beginnings. Each saint has a reason why they led an exemplary life. Symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church. A number of Christian saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem, in order to identify them; the study of these forms part of iconography in art history. They were used so that the illiterate could recognize a scene, to give each of the Saints something of a personality in art, they are carried in the hand by the Saint. Attributes vary with either time or geography between Eastern Christianity and the West. Orthodox images more contained inscriptions with the names of saints, so the Eastern repertoire of attributes is smaller than the Western. Many of the most prominent saints, like Saint Peter and Saint John the Evangelist can be recognised by a distinctive facial type – as can Christ. In the case of saints their actual historical appearance can be used.
Some attributes are general, such as the palm frond carried by martyrs. The use of a symbol in a work of art depicting a Saint reminds people, being shown and of their story; the following is a list of some of these attributes. Mary is portrayed wearing blue, her attributes include a blue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, woman with child, woman trampling serpent, crescent moon, woman clothed with the sun, heart pierced by sword, Madonna lily and rosary beads. Delaney, John P.. Dictionary of Saints. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13594-7. Lanzi, Fernando. Saints and their Symbols: Recognizing Saints in Art and in Popular Images. Translated by O'Connell, Matthew J. ISBN 9780814629703. Post, W. Ellwood. Saints and Symbols. SPCK Publishing. ISBN 9780281028948. Walsh, Michael. A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-3186-7. Whittemore, Carroll E.. Symbols of the Church. Abingdon Press. ISBN 0687183014. Calendar of saints Christian symbolism Christianization of saints and feasts Doctor of the Church Iconography List of canonizations, for a list of Catholic canonizations by date Martyrology Patron saint Weather saints "Christian Iconography".
Augusta State University. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "Hagiographies and icons for many Orthodox saints". Orthodox Church in America. "Catholic Forum Patron Saints Index". Archived from the original on 2005-05-31. "Saints' Badges or Shields". "On the Canonizations of John Paul II". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28
Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings. Vinegar contains 5–20% acetic acid by volume; the acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol or sugars by acetic acid bacteria. There are many types of vinegar, depending upon the source materials. Vinegar is now used in the culinary arts: as a flavorful, acidic cooking ingredient, or in pickling; as the most manufactured mild acid, it has had a wide variety of industrial and domestic uses. The word vinegar arrived in Middle English from Old French, which in turn derives from Latin: vinum + acer; the conversion of ethanol and oxygen to acetic acid takes place by the following reaction: CH3CH2OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O Vinegar contains numerous flavonoids, phenolic acids, aldehydes, which vary in content depending on the source material used to make the vinegar, such as orange peel or various fruit juice concentrates. Vinegar was used for conservation by the Babylonians as much as 5,000 years ago.
Traces of it have been found in Egyptian urns from around 3000 BC. Commercial vinegar is produced either by a slow fermentation process. In general, slow methods are used in traditional vinegars, where fermentation proceeds over the course of a few months to a year; the longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria. Fast methods add mother of vinegar to the source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in one to three days; the source materials for making vinegar are varied: different fruits, alcoholic beverages, other fermentable materials are used. Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines without any additional flavoring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, raspberry and tomato; the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product. Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a market for high-price vinegars made from specific fruits.
Several varieties are produced in Asia. Persimmon vinegar, called gam sikcho, is common in South Korea. Jujube vinegar, called zaocu or hongzaocu, wolfberry vinegar are produced in China. Apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must, has a brownish-gold color, it is sometimes sold unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present. It can be sweetened for consumption. A byproduct of commercial kiwifruit growing is a large amount of waste in the form of misshapen or otherwise-rejected fruit and kiwifruit pomace. One of the uses for pomace is the production of kiwifruit vinegar, produced commercially in New Zealand since at least the early 1990s, in China in 2008. Pomegranate vinegar is used in Israel as a dressing for salad, but in meat stew and in dips. Vinegar made from raisins is used in cuisines of the Middle East, it is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor. Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East, used in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries. Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water or sap, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine, as well as in some cuisines of India and Sri Lanka Goan cuisine.
A cloudy white liquid, it has a sharp, acidic taste with a yeasty note. In the Philippines, there are other types of vinegar made from palm sap. Like coconut vinegar, they are by-products of tubâ production; the two of the most produced are nipa palm vinegar and kaong palm vinegar. Along with coconut and cane vinegar, they are the four main traditional vinegar types in the Philippines and are an important part of Filipino cuisine. Nipa palm vinegar is made from the sap of the leaf stalks of nipa palm, it imparts a distinctly musky aroma. Kaong palm vinegar is made from the sap of flower stalks of the kaong palm, it is sweeter than all the other Philippine vinegar types and are used in salad dressing. Vinegar from the buri palm sap is produced, but not the same prevalence as coconut and kaong vinegars. Kaong palm vinegar is produced in Indonesia and Malaysia, though it's not as prevalent as in the Philippines because the palm wine industry is not as widespread in these Muslim-majority countries. Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic aged vinegar produced in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy.
The original product — traditional balsamic vinegar — is made from the concentrated juice, or must, of white Trebbiano grapes. It is dark brown, rich and complex, with the finest grades being aged in successive casks made variously of oak, chestnut, cherry and ash wood. A costly product available to only the Italian upper classes, traditional balsamic vinegar is marked "tradizionale" or "DOC" to denote its Protected Designation of Origin status, is aged for 12 to 25 years. A cheaper non-DOC commercial form described as "aceto balsamico di Modena" became known and available around the world in the late 20th century made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar coloured and sweetened with caramel and sugar. Balsamic vine
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t