click links in text for more info


A vine is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent stems, lianas or runners. The word vine can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in wicker work. In parts of the world, including the British Isles, the term "vine" applies to grapevines, while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. Certain plants always grow as vines. For instance, poison ivy and bittersweet can grow as low shrubs when support is not available, but will become vines when support is available. A vine displays a growth form based on long stems; this has two purposes. A vine may use rock exposures, other plants, or other supports for growth rather than investing energy in a lot of supportive tissue, enabling the plant to reach sunlight with a minimum investment of energy; this has been a successful growth form for plants such as kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle, both of which are invasive exotics in parts of North America. There are some tropical vines that develop skototropism, grow away from the light, a type of negative phototropism.

Growth away from light allows the vine to reach a tree trunk, which it can climb to brighter regions. The vine growth form may enable plants to colonize large areas even without climbing high; this is the case with ground ivy. It is an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight but little or no soil. A vine can root in the soil but have most of its leaves in the brighter, exposed area, getting the best of both environments; the evolution of a climbing habit has been implicated as a key innovation associated with the evolutionary success and diversification of a number of taxonomic groups of plants. It has evolved independently in several plant families, using many different climbing methods, such as: twining the stem around a support by way of adventitious, clinging roots with twining petioles using tendrils, which can be specialized shoots, leaves, or inflorescences using tendrils which produce adhesive pads at the end that attach themselves quite to the support using thorns or other hooked structures, such as hooked branches The climbing fetterbush is a woody shrub-vine which climbs without clinging roots, tendrils, or thorns.

It directs its stem into a crevice in the bark of fibrous barked trees where the stem adopts a flattened profile and grows up the tree underneath the host tree's outer bark. The fetterbush sends out branches that emerge near the top of the tree. Most vines are flowering plants; these may be divided into woody vines or lianas, such as wisteria and common ivy, herbaceous vines, such as morning glory. One odd group of vining plants is the fern genus Lygodium, called climbing ferns; the stem does not climb. The fronds unroll from the tip, theoretically never stop growing. A twining vine known as a bine, is one that climbs by its shoots growing in a helix, in contrast to vines that climb using tendrils or suckers. Many bines have rough downward-pointing bristles to aid their grip. Hops are a commercially important example of a bine; the direction of rotation of the shoot tip during climbing is autonomous and does not derive from the shoot's following the sun around the sky – the direction of twist does not therefore depend upon which side of the equator the plant is growing on.

This is shown by the fact that some bines always twine clockwise, including runner bean and bindweed, while others twine anticlockwise, including French bean and climbing honeysuckles. The contrasting rotations of bindweed and honeysuckle was the theme of the satirical song "Misalliance", written and sung by Michael Flanders and Donald Swann; the term "vine" applies to cucurbitaceae like cucumbers where botanists refer to creeping vines. Gardeners can use the tendency of climbing plants to grow quickly. If a plant display is wanted a climber can achieve this. Climbers can be trained over walls, fences, etc. Climbers can be grown over other plants to provide additional attraction. Artificial support can be provided; some climbers climb by themselves. Vines differ in size and evolutionary origin. Darwin classified climbing groups based on their climbing method, he classified five classes of vines – twining plants, leaf climbers, tendril bearers, root climbers and hook climbers. Vines are unique in that they have multiple evolutionary origins and a wide range of phenotypic plasticity.

They reside in tropical locations and have the unique ability to climb. Vines are able to grow in both deep shade and full sun due to their wide range of phenotypic plasticity; this climbing action prevents shading by neighbors and allows the vine to grow out of reach of herbivores. The environment where a vine can grow is determined by the climbing mechanism of a vine and how far it can spread across supports. There are many theories support

Memorials to Warren G. Harding

Among the memorials to Warren G. Harding, 29th president of the United States, are the following: Warren G. Harding High School, Ohio Warren G. Harding Middle School, Ohio Warren G. Harding High School. Harding Memorial, Ohio, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Marion Harding High School, Ohio Harding County, New Mexico is named in his honor. Ohio Northern University's College of Law was once named after him but was renamed. Harding Park Golf Club in San Francisco is named after him. Peace Treaty Marker in Somerville, New Jersey. In 1921, at the estate of New Jersey Governor Joseph S. Frelinghuysen, Warren Harding signed the peace treaty that ended America's involvement in World War I. Today, the estate has been replaced with mini-malls; the marker remains in a patch of grass near a Burger King parking lot along Route 28, just north of the Somerville traffic circle. Harding Charter Preparatory High School, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Harding Fine Arts Academy, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Harding Memorial, Washington.

In 1925, a memorial was erected in Seattle at Woodland Park to commemorate the site of Harding's next-to-last public address on July 27, 1923. In 1977, the memorial was demolished and buried under the Woodland Park Zoo's African Savanna exhibit; the memorial's only surviving elements—two life-sized bronze statues of Boy Scouts that once saluted the image of Harding—were relocated to the headquarters of the Chief Seattle Council of the Boy Scouts of America. Warren G. Harding Masonic Lodge in Poulsbo, Washington. Montana Highway 2 over Pipestone Pass near Butte, Montana is named "The Harding Way" in his honor. Harding Icefield in Southcentral Alaska Harding Elementary in Kenilworth, New Jersey. Harding Township, New Jersey—Named in 1922 for the incumbent President. Harding Middle School in Des Moines, Iowa In a neighborhood of Ketchikan, north of the original townsite, three adjoining streets were named Warren, G and Harding following Harding's visit to the city; the railroad car in which Harding toured Alaska's "Westward" is on display at Pioneer Park in Fairbanks, directly inside the main entrance to the park.

The car is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The railroad car that returned Harding's body to Washington, The Superb, is on display at the Southeastern Railway Museum and, as of 2013, is undergoing restoration for public viewing; the car is listed on the National Register of Historic Places

League Cup (rugby league)

The League Cup was a knock-out competition for British rugby league football clubs between 1971 and 1996. It was for professional clubs with the exception of two amateur teams who were finalists of the BARLA National Cup. However, in the latter seasons the cup was expanded to include leading amateur and French teams, the latter as a precursor to their inclusion in the Challenge Cup; the rounds were played during the early part of the season, with the final taking place in January. The tournament was regarded as much less prestigious than the Challenge Cup, it was abandoned when Rugby League moved to be a summer sport. Although called the League Cup, the name of the competition was always referred to by its sponsorship name; the initial sponsors were the tobacco manufacturer John Player & Sons with Regal taking over in 1989 until the competitions end. Over the years, the competition was known as the Player's №6 Trophy, the John Player Trophy and the John Player Special Trophy, before becoming the Regal Trophy in 1989

George Eldredge

George Eldredge was an American actor who appeared in over 180 movies during a career that stretched from the 1930s to the early 1960s. He had a prolific television career during the 1950s, he was the older brother of actor John Dornin Eldredge. Eldredge was born George Edwin Eldredge in California, his father, Rev. George Granville Eldredge, was a Presbyterian minister in San Francisco, his mother was Julia Dornin Eldredge, the daughter of George D. Dornin, a California legislator and noted Daguerrotypist, Sarah Baldwin Dornin. In 1922, he married Phyllis Harms, they had two children, George Granville Eldredge and Helene Eldredge, he was a photographer for the Berkeley, California Police Department, prior to embarking on a film career, auditioned for and performed with the San Francisco Opera Company for two seasons in various supporting roles as a baritone. Between 1936 and 1963 Eldredge appeared in 182 films beginning with his role as an English spy in Till We Meet Again, he was cast as authority figures such as army generals and innumerable police officers.

However Eldredge sometimes was cast against type, as in his role as the traitorous Dr. Tobor in the B movie, Captain Video: Master of the Stratosphere. Arguably his best known film role came in the 1945 cult exploitation film Mom and Dad where Eldredge portrayed Dan Blake, the father of a teenage girl who accidentally becomes pregnant because her parents withhold knowledge about sex from her. Although the mores of the time prevented most advertising for this film, it still became the number two moneymaker for 1945. In 2005 it received a National Film Preservation award from the Library of Congress. Throughout the 1950s Eldredge had a prolific television career, appearing on such programs as Peter Gunn, The Adventures of Superman, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Perry Mason, he had a recurring role as Dr. Spaulding in all three Spin and Marty series, featured on Disney's Mickey Mouse Club and was seen on Bat Masterson. Eldredge appeared as a Chamberlain in Demetrius and the Gladiators, a sequel to 20th Century Fox's biblical epic, The Robe.

Although he worked for several decades George Eldredge never became a major star. Many of his roles were small and his name was unlisted in the credits of the films he played in, his final role was an uncredited part in the 1963 film Johnny Cool. George Eldredge on IMDb Bio on All Movie site

Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Prince of Venice

Prince Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Prince of Venice called Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia, is a member of the House of Savoy. He is the son and heir of Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia and only male-line grandson of Umberto II, the last King of Italy. In his latter days, Umberto II created and gave the title of "Prince of Venice" to his grandson Emanuele Filiberto, but as heir-apparent to the disputed headship of the House of Savoy, Emanuele Filiberto styles himself as "Prince of Piedmont". Emanuele Filiberto grew up as an exile from Italy, in accordance with the provision of the Italian constitution prohibiting the male issue of the Savoy kings of Italy from entering or staying on Italian territory. Since returning to Italy he has made many appearances on national television, including his participation as a contestant in Ballando con le stelle, the Sanremo Music Festival, he is married to French actress Clotilde Courau. Emanuele Filiberto was born in Geneva, the only child of Vittorio Emanuele, a disputed head of the House of Savoy, his wife, Marina Ricolfi Doria, a Swiss former water ski champion.

On 10 November 2002, he accompanied his father and mother to Italy, following revocation of the provision in the Italian constitution that forbade the male Savoy descendants of kings of Italy from setting foot in the country. On the three-day trip, he accompanied his parents on a visit to the Vatican for a 20-minute audience with Pope John Paul II, he appeared in a TV commercial for a brand of olives, in which he said they made you "feel like a king". On 10 July 2003, the engagement of Emanuele Filiberto to Clotilde Courau, a French actress, was announced; the couple married on 25 September of that year at the Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri in Rome. There were some 1,200 guests at the wedding. Emanuele Filiberto and Clotilde Courau have two daughters: Princess Vittoria di Savoia, born on December 28, 2003 Princess Luisa die Savoia, born on August 16, 2006On December 28, 2019, their grandfather announced that the line of succession was to be changed to absolute primogeniture.

On the same date he created them Princess of Carignano and Marchioness of Ivrea and Princess of Chieri and Countess of Salemi. Emanuele Filiberto received the America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation in 2019. In 2015 Emanuele Filiberto engaged in a public spat on Twitter with aristocratic journalist Beatrice Borromeo who broke the story of his father's confession on video regarding the death of Dirk Hamer. Vittorio Emanuele had sued the newspaper for defamation, but in 2015 after it won the case, Borromeo tweeted"Vincere una causa è sempre piacevole, ma contro Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia la goduria è doppia!, "caro @efsavoia goditi questa sentenza" which provoked Emanuele Filiberto to defend his father. She had earlier publicly confronted him on camera with a copy of a book on the murder by Hamer's sister, whose preface she had written. In 2018 Emanuele Filiberto revealed that he is contemplating the launch of a royalist party to advocate for restoration of monarchy in Italy; the comment was made during the prince's interview with the news daily Libero, following release of polling data by the Istituto Piepoli that showed 15 percent of Italians favor the concept, while eight percent expressed support for Emanuele Filiberto as future king.

Emanuele Filiberto is, by strict primogeniture in the male-line, the heir apparent of the House of Savoy, Italy's former ruling dynasty. In June 2006 his distant cousin Amedeo, 5th Duke of Aosta, declared himself to be head of the house and rightful Duke of Savoy, maintaining that Vittorio Emanuele had forfeited his dynastic rights when he married Emanuele Filiberto's mother, Marina Ricolfi Doria, in 1971 without the required permission of his father and sovereign-in-exile, Umberto II. Emanuele Filiberto and his father applied for judicial intervention to forbid Amedeo from using the title Duke of Savoy. In February 2010, the court of Arezzo ruled that the Duke of Aosta and his son must pay damages totalling 50,000 euros to their cousins and cease using the surname Savoy instead of Savoy-Aosta; the Duke of Aosta appealed the dynastic dispute is still unresolved. House of Savoy: Knight of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation House of Savoy: Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies: Bailiff Knight Grand Cross of Justice of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Montenegrin Royal Family: Knight of the Order of Petrovic Njegos Montenegrin Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I Montenegrin Royal Family: Knight of the Order of Saint Peter of Cetinje Russian Imperial Family: Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky Abanyiginya Dynasty: Knight Grand Collar of the Royal Order of the Drum Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Bailiff Knight Grand Cross of Justice of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, 1st Class Monaco: Knight Grand Officer of the Order of Saint-Charles Kentucky: Kentucky colonel Official website of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy

Egg as food

Some eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, amphibians and fish, have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell and vitellus, contained within various thin membranes; the most consumed eggs are chicken eggs. Other poultry eggs including those of duck and quail are eaten. Fish eggs are called caviar. Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, are used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorized eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from cholesterol content, salmonella contamination, allergy to egg proteins. Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are kept throughout the world and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of 6.4 billion hens.

There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. In 2012, the European Union banned battery husbandry of chickens. Bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated; the chicken was domesticated for its eggs before 7500 BCE. Chickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs. In Thebes, the tomb of Haremhab, dating to 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs those of the pelican, as offerings. In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods and meals started with an egg course; the Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there. In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness; the word mayonnaise was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning center or hub.

Egg scrambled. The dried egg industry developed in the nineteenth century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry. In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and egg white into a light-brown, meal-like substance by using a drying process; the production of dried eggs expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies. In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, to solve a dispute about broken eggs between a farmer in Bulkley Valley and the owner of the Aldermere Hotel. Early egg cartons were made of paper. Bird eggs are a common one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking, they are important in many branches of the modern food industry. The most used bird eggs are those from the chicken and goose eggs. Smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, are used as a gourmet ingredient in Western countries. Eggs are a common everyday food in many parts of Asia, such as China and Thailand, with Asian production providing 59 percent of the world total in 2013.

The largest bird eggs, from ostriches, tend to be used only as special luxury food. Gull eggs are considered a delicacy in England, as well as in some Scandinavian countries in Norway. In some African countries, guineafowl eggs are seen in marketplaces in the spring of each year. Pheasant eggs and emu eggs are edible, but less available. In many countries, wild bird eggs are protected by laws which prohibit the collecting or selling of them, or permit collection only during specific periods of the year. In 2017, world production of chicken eggs was 80.1 million tonnes. The largest producers were China with 31.3 million of this total, the United States with 6.3 million, India at 4.8 million, Mexico at 2.8 million, Japan at 2.6 million, Brazil and Russia with 2.5 million each. A typical large egg factory ships a million dozen eggs per week. For the month of January 2019, the United States produced 9.41 billion eggs, with 8.2 billion for table consumption and 1.2 billion for raising chicks. Americans are projected to each consume 279 eggs in 2019, the highest since 1973, but less than the 405 eggs eaten per person in 1945.

During production, eggs are candled to check their quality. The size of its air cell is determined, the examination reveals whether the egg was fertilized and thereby contains an embryo. Depending on local regulations, eggs may be washed before being placed in egg boxes, although washing may shorten their length of freshness; the shape of an egg resembles a prolate spheroid with one end larger than the other and has cylindrical symmetry along the long axis. An egg is surrounded by a hard shell. Thin membranes exist inside the shell; the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae. The larger end of the egg contains an air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell, measured during candling. A fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA; as the size of the air cell increases and the quality of the egg decreas