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Vinland

Vinland, Vineland or Winland is the area of coastal North America explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed around AD 1000 five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot. Vinland was the name given to North America as far as it was explored by the Norse including both Newfoundland and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as far as northeastern New Brunswick. In 1960, archaeological evidence of the only known Norse site in North America was found at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of the island of Newfoundland. Before the discovery of archaeological evidence, Vinland was known only from Old Norse sagas and medieval historiography; the 1960 discovery proved the pre-Columbian Norse exploration of mainland North America. L'Anse aux Meadows may correspond to the camp Straumfjörð mentioned in the Saga of Erik the Red. Vinland was the name given to part of North America by the Icelandic Norseman Leif Eríksson, about AD 1000, it was spelled Winland, as early as Adam of Bremen's Descriptio insularum Aquilonis, written circa 1075.

Adam's main source regarding Winland appears to have been king Svend Estridson, who had knowledge of the "northern islands". The etymology of the Old Norse root, vin- is disputed. Adam of Bremen implies that the name contains Old Norse vín "wine": "Moreover, he has reported one island discovered by many in that ocean, called Winland, for the reason that grapevines grow there by themselves, producing the best wine." This etymology is retained in the 13th-century Grœnlendinga saga, which provides a circumstantial account of the discovery of Vinland and its being named from the vínber, i.e. "wineberry", a term for grapes or currants, found there. There is a long-standing Scandinavian tradition of fermenting berries into wine; the discovery of butternuts at the site implies that the Norse explored Vinland further to the south, at least as far as St. Lawrence River and parts of New Brunswick, the northern limit for both butternut and wild grapes. Another proposal for the name's etymology, was introduced by Sven Söderberg in 1898.

This suggestion involves interpreting the Old Norse name not as vín-land with the first vowel spoken as /iː/, but as vin-land, spoken as /ɪ/. Old Norse vin has a meaning of "meadow, pasture"; this interpretation of Vinland as "pasture-land" rather than "vine-land" was accepted by Valter Jansson in his classic 1951 dissertation on the vin-names of Scandinavia, by way of which it entered popular knowledge in the 20th century. It was rejected by Einar Haugen, who argued that the vin element had changed its meaning from "pasture" to "farm" long before the Old Norse period. Names in vin were given in the Proto Norse period, they are absent from places colonized in the Viking Age. Haugen's basis for rejection has since been challenged. There is a runestone which may have contained a record of the Old Norse name predating Adam of Bremen's Winland; the Hønen Runestone was discovered in Norderhov, shortly before 1817, but it was subsequently lost. Its assessment depends on a sketch made by antiquarian L. D. Klüwer, now lost but in turn copied by Wilhelm Frimann Koren Christie.

The Younger Futhark inscription was dated to c. 1010–1050. The stone had been erected in memory of a Norwegian a descendant of Sigurd Syr. Sophus Bugge read part of the inscription as ᚢᛁᚿ᛫ᛆᛁᚭ᛫ᛁᛌᛆuin aią isaVínlandi á ísa "from Vinland over ice"; this is uncertain. The main sources of information about the Norse voyages to Vinland are two Icelandic sagas, the Saga of Eric the Red and the Saga of the Greenlanders; these stories were preserved by oral tradition until they were written down some 250 years after the events they describe. The existence of two versions of the story shows some of the challenges of using traditional sources for history, because they share a large number of story elements but use them in different ways. A possible example is the reference to two different men named Bjarni. A brief summary of the plots of the two sagas, given at the end of this article, shows other examples; the sagas report. Thorfinn Karlsefni's crew consisted of 140 or 160 people according to the Saga of Eric the Red, 60 according to the Saga of the Greenlanders.

Still according to the latter, Leif Ericson led a company of 35, Thorvald Eiriksson a company of 30, Helgi and Finnbogi had 30 crew members. According to the Saga of Erik the Red, Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson and a company of 160 men, going south from Greenland traversed an open stretch of sea, found Helluland, another stretch of sea, another stretch of sea, the headland of Kjalarnes, the Wonderstrands, Straumfjörð and at last a place called Hóp, a bountiful place where no snow fell during winter. However, after several years away from Greenland, they chose to turn back to their homes when they realised that they would otherwise face an indefinite conflict with the natives; this saga references the place-name Vinland in four ways. First, it is identified as the land found by Leif Ericson. Karlsefni and his men subsequently find "vín-ber

Sway railway station

Sway railway station serves the village of Sway in Hampshire, England. It is located on the South Western Main Line from London Waterloo to Weymouth, it is 95 miles 45 chains down the line from Waterloo. The station is served by South Western Railway, who operate stopping services from London Waterloo to Poole throughout the day; the station has two platforms: Platform 1 - for through services towards Southampton. Platform 2 - for through services towards Bournemouth and Weymouth. Both platforms can only accommodate trains of up to five coaches, longer trains only open the doors in the first four or five coaches depending on the type of unit operating the service; the station was the location of a camping coach. A basic hourly service operates each way, with additional calls during the weekday business periods

David Ketchum

David Ketchum is an American character actor and director most famous for playing Agent 13 on the 1960s sitcom Get Smart.:386Ketchum studied physics at UCLA and joined other UCLA students in entertaining military personnel around the world for the USO. Ketchum had a radio program for seven years in California. On television, he portrayed Counselor Spiffy in Camp Runamuck, he was a regular on I'm Dickens, He's Fenster, playing the role of Mel Warshaw.:496-497Agent 13 was seen in recurring jokes on the show hiding in unusual places such as mailboxes or fire hydrants. Ketchum reprised the role in the 1989 TV movie Get Smart Again as well as an episode of 1995 revival of Get Smart on Fox. Ketchum co-wrote one episode of the third season of the original series, titled "Classification: Dead." He wrote scripts for other programs, including The Andy Griffith Show and Petticoat Junction. In 1962, his comedy album. Billboard gave it a 4-star prefix for strong sales potential. Films in which Ketchum appeared included Young Doctors in The Other Sister.

Ketchum married singer Louise Bryant. David Ketchum on IMDb