The Tonight Show with Jay Leno
The Tonight Show with Jay Leno is an American late-night talk show hosted by Jay Leno that first aired from May 25, 1992, to May 29, 2009, resumed production on March 1, 2010 until its ending on February 6, 2014. The fourth incarnation of the Tonight Show franchise debuted on May 25, 1992, three days after Johnny Carson's retirement as host of the program; the program originated from NBC Studios in Burbank and was broadcast Monday through Friday at 11:35 p.m. in the Eastern and Pacific time zones. Unlike Carson or his predecessor Jack Paar, Leno only once used a guest host, preferring to host the series in person; the series, which followed the same basic format as that of its predecessors, ran until May 29, 2009, after which Leno was succeeded by Conan O'Brien. NBC signed Leno to a new deal for a nightly talk show in the 10:00 pm ET timeslot; the primetime series, titled The Jay Leno Show, debuted on September 14, 2009, following a similar format to the Leno incarnation of Tonight. Neither O'Brien's version of the program, which premiered June 1, 2009, nor The Jay Leno Show generated the ratings NBC had expected.
The network decided to move a condensed 30-minute version of Leno's show to O'Brien's time slot, O'Brien's Tonight Show a half-hour later. This decision met with opposition from O'Brien, whose stint on The Tonight Show ended January 22, 2010, after which he began his own talk show, Conan, on TBS; the Tonight Show with Jay Leno began its second incarnation, the sixth of the franchise, on March 1, 2010. Leno left The Tonight Show for good on February 6, 2014 and on February 17, was succeeded by Late Night host Jimmy Fallon, at which time the series returned to New York for the first time since 1972. Johnny Carson retired from The Tonight Show on May 22, 1992, was replaced by Jay Leno. David Letterman wanted to move into the earlier time slot from his late night spot after The Tonight Show, he was considered by many as the natural successor. Carson always favored Letterman. With his heart set on the earlier time slot, Letterman left NBC and joined CBS. Late Show with David Letterman, airing in the same slot, competed against The Tonight Show for the remainder of Leno's run.
Conan O'Brien slid into the late night time slot vacated by Letterman. On September 27, 2004, the 50th anniversary of The Tonight Show's debut, NBC announced Leno would be succeeded by O'Brien, in 2009. Leno explained he did not want to see a repeat of the hard feelings and controversy that occurred when he was given the show over Letterman following Carson's retirement, it was announced on July 21, 2008 that Leno would host his final episode of The Tonight Show on Friday, May 29, 2009 with O'Brien and James Taylor as his guests. O'Brien took over hosting duties commencing the following Monday, on June 1, 2009. On December 9, 2008, it was announced Leno would be hosting a new nightly show in September 2009, which aired at 10 pm EST, during the network's prime time period; the Jay Leno Show ended after a short run on February 9, 2010. On January 7, 2010, multiple media outlets reported that effective March 1, 2010, The Jay Leno Show would move from the 10 pm weeknight time slot to 11:35 pm and O'Brien's The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien would move from 11:35 pm to 12:05 am.
On January 12, 2010, O'Brien publicly announced in an open letter that he intended to leave NBC if they moved The Tonight Show to 12:05 am ET/PT to accommodate moving The Jay Leno Show to 11:35 pm Eastern/10:35 pm Central, due to poor ratings. After several days of negotiations, O'Brien reached a settlement with NBC that allowed him to leave NBC and The Tonight Show on January 22, 2010. On January 21, 2010, NBC announced. Jay Leno began his second tenure on March 2010, after the 2010 Winter Olympics; the show moved to Stage 11 in Burbank, the former home of The Jay Leno Show, with a similar set and theme song of The Jay Leno Show. Tonight Show bandleader Kevin Eubanks announced on April 12 he would be leaving The Tonight Show on May 28 after 18 years with Leno. Eubanks' replacement is former American Idol musical director Rickey Minor. Minor composed a new main theme. On July 1, 2010, Variety reported that only six months into its second life, Leno's Tonight Show posted its lowest ratings since 1992.
By September 2010, Leno's ratings in the adults 18-49 demographic had fallen below those of O'Brien when he had hosted The Tonight Show. NBC ratings specialist Tom Bierbaum commented that due to the host being out of late night television for a period of time and the subsequent 2010 Tonight Show conflict, Leno's ratings fall was "not a surprise at all". In October 2010, David Letterman beat Leno's program in the ratings, for the first time since Leno returned to hosting The Tonight Show. By May 2011, Leno's Tonight Show has held it since then. However, by August 2012, The Los Angeles Times was reporting that The Tonight Show was in serious trouble for a number of reasons, most notably that NBC has been losing money. While Leno offered to take a pay cut, at least 24 members of his staff were laid off. By March 2013, there were rumors that NBC would have Jimmy Fallon, hosting Late Night since 2009 when he succeeded O'Brien, become the next host of The Tonight Show when Leno's current contract ends in 2014 and NBC would move the show back to New York for the first time in over 40 years.
On May 13
Héctor Luís Camacho Matías known by his nickname "Macho" Camacho, was a Puerto Rican professional boxer and entertainer. Known for his quickness in the ring and flamboyant style, Camacho competed professionally from 1980 to 2010, was a world champion in three weight classes, he held the WBC super featherweight title from 1983 to 1984, the WBC lightweight title from 1985 to 1987, the WBO junior welterweight title twice between 1989 and 1992. In a storied amateur career, Camacho won three New York Golden Gloves tournaments, beginning with the Sub-Novice 112 lbs championship in 1978. During his professional career, Camacho had many notable fights against some of the biggest names in boxing, defeating Roberto Durán twice late in Duran's career, knocking out Sugar Ray Leonard to send him into permanent retirement, he fought Julio César Chávez, Félix Trinidad, Oscar De La Hoya, among others. During his years, Camacho expanded his popular role and appeared on a variety of Spanish-language reality television shows including Univision's' dancing show Mira Quien Baila and a weekly segment on the popular show El Gordo y La Flaca, named "Macho News".
However, he had much-publicized troubles with drug abuse and criminal charges. In 2005, Camacho was arrested for burglary, a charge to which he would plead guilty. In 2011 he was uninjured. In late 2012, Camacho was awaiting trial in Florida on charges of physical abuse of one of his sons. On November 20, 2012, Camacho was shot and wounded while sitting in a car outside a bar in his native Bayamón. Camacho died four days later. After lying in state for two days in Santurce, Camacho's remains were transported to New York for burial at request of his mother. Camacho was born in Puerto Rico, to Héctor Luis Camacho Sr. and his wife María Matías. He was the youngest of five children, which included a brother Felix and sisters Raquel and Esperanza; when he was three, his parents separated, his mother took the children with her to New York City. They lived in the James Weldon Johnson housing project in Spanish Harlem. Camacho attended local schools and ran into trouble as a teen, getting into street fights and landing in jail at fifteen.
Pat Flannery, a language teacher in high school, helped the youth, teaching him to read and "acting like a father figure". When Camacho learned boxing and karate as a teenager, Flannery guided him to the Golden Gloves competitions. Demonstrating talent as a boxer, Camacho chose that sport as a career; as an amateur, Camacho won three New York Golden Gloves Championships. Camacho won the 1978 112 lb Sub-Novice Championship, 1979 118 lb Open Championship, 1980 119 lb Open Championship. In 1979 Camacho defeated Paul DeVorce of the Yonkers Police Athletic League in the finals to win the title, and, in 1980, Camacho defeated Tyrone Jackson in the finals to win the Championship. Camacho's nickname of "Macho" has been explained in various ways. According to his father, he gave him the nickname. According to the New York Times, his mentor Pat Flannery is the one who gave him the nickname during his teens. According to Camacho himself, the nickname came as a result of American co-workers at a factory who couldn't pronounce his last name.
After a stellar amateur career, Camacho began a quick rise through the professional rankings, first in the featherweight and in the junior-lightweight division. He was so confident that he claimed he could beat world featherweight champions Salvador Sánchez and Eusebio Pedroza. However, Sánchez died. In the junior-lightweight division, he defeated the top contenders Irleis Cubanito Perez, Melvin Paul, John Montes, Refugio Rojas; when the World Junior Lightweight champion, Bobby Chacón, refused to go to Puerto Rico to defend his title against Camacho, the World Boxing Council declared the world championship vacant. Rafael Limón, defeated and lost the championship to Chacon, fought him for the vacant title, it was the first time. Camacho fought his first defense in San Juan, where he met Rafael Solis, a fellow Puerto Rican. Camacho got tested in this fight for the first time, was shaken in round three by a Solis uppercut, he knocked out Solis with a right to the chin in round five, retained the title.
Moving up to lightweight, Camacho won the United States Boxing Association title against Roque Montoya with a twelve-round decision. His victory in the next fight, broadcast on Home Box Office, made him a two-time world champion. Camacho beat the Mexican defending world champion, José Luis Ramírez in Las Vegas to win the WBC world Lightweight championship. Camacho won the fight by a unanimous twelve-round decision; the two other reigning world champions in his division at that time, Livingstone Bramble and Jimmy Paul, were reluctant to unify the crown with Camacho. Instead, he beat Freddie Roach before his next fight of importance came along, ten months after beating Ramírez, he met Edwin Rosario on June 13, 1986, at Madison Square Garden in New York City, a bout broadcast on HBO. The fight was notable for the shifts of dominance between the men. Camacho dominated rounds one to four, but had to hang on in rounds five and seven, when he felt Rosario's power, he came back to take rounds eight and nine, but Rosario came back to ta
Vincenzo Luvineri, better known as Vinnie Paz, is a Sicilian American rapper and the lyricist behind the Philadelphia underground hip hop group Jedi Mind Tricks. He is the frontman of the hip hop collective Army of the Pharaohs, he released his first solo album, Season of the Assassin in 2010. This was 18 years after Paz had started rapping, he released his second album God of the Serengeti in October 2012. In 2013, Paz confirmed that he was working with Army of the Pharaohs to release In Death Reborn, released in 2014. October 22, 2013 marked the release date of his second EP, his third solo LP The Cornerstone of the Corner Store was released on October 28, 2016. He released his fourth solo album The Pain Collector in September 2018. Paz was born in Sicily, where he lived for a short time before moving with his family to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he has both American citizenship. During the early 1990s, Paz realized he had a passion for music, started rapping at the age of 16. Taking the pseudonym "Ikonoklast".
Paz started rapping with fellow Jedi Mind Tricks member Stoupe in his basement. In 1996, Vinnie Paz released the Amber Probe EP; this was the debut EP from the duo and it was released in 1996. It featured guest appearance from The Lost Children of Babylon, it was in 1997, Jedi Mind Tricks released their debut album. The group only consisted of Vinnie Paz, Stoupe the Enemy of Mankind at this time and featured Apathy, Jus Allah, Black Thought. In 1998, Paz formed Army of the Pharaohs. Paz formed the horrorcore outfit with the original roster of Bahamadia, Chief Kamachi, Virtuoso, 7L & Esoteric, plus Jedi Mind Tricks' other members Stoupe the Enemy of Mankind and Jus Allah; the group first released the "Five Perfect Exertions" and "War Ensemble" 12" on Paz's short-lived Recordings in 1998, but the underground supergroup remained silent for several years. Together they released The Five Perfect Exertions. In 2000, Vinnie Paz, along with Jedi Mind Tricks, released Violent by Design. Stoupe and Vinnie recruited Camden, New Jersey rapper Jus Allah to join them on the album, while he was never inducted into the group, it can be assumed he became JMT's third member on the release, as his contributions were not marked as "featuring Jus Allah", while other close group affiliates such as Army of the Pharaohs members Chief Kamachi and Virtuoso were marked as featured guests.
On the album, Ikon the Verbal Hologram changed his name to Vinnie Paz, after the Rhode Island boxer Vinny Pazienza. In 2003, Jedi Mind Tricks released Visions of Gandhi; the album title was inspired by Foxy Brown's verse on the song "Affirmative Action" from Nas' 1996 album It Was Written, in which she raps "They praise Allah with visions of Gandhi". Vinnie Paz explained that it was "always something that stuck in my head but I never applied it to anything. I thought with everything going on in Palestine, the war with Iraq, Mumia's in jail. I just felt this is a time right now that the society need someone like Gandhi. So Visions of Gandhi just kind of reflects that." In the following year they released Legacy of Blood. In 2005, Paz shifted his focus back on to the supergroup Army of the Pharaohs, they worked to release The Torture Papers. It was released on March 2006 on Babygrande Records. After the release of this Paz went back to his group Jedi Mind Tricks and worked on fifth studio album, Servants in Heaven, Kings in Hell.
It was released September 2006 through Babygrande Records. In 2006, Vinnie Paz released The Sound & the Fury, it featured guest appearance from OuterSpace. It had 19 tracks. Paz got together members of Army of the Pharaohs to release Ritual of Battle, it was released September 2007 on Babygrande Records. The album's first single was "Bloody Tears", featuring Planetary, Doap Nixon, Vinnie Paz and was produced by DJ Kwestion; the song was based on the Castlevania tune of the same name. On November 11, 2008, Jedi Mind Tricks released A History of Violence; the album sold 4,451 units in its first week out. Just like most albums, it was released on Babygrande Records; the album followed multiple summer releases from the Jedi Mind Tricks camp, including the group's first DVD, titled Divine Fire: The Story of Jedi Mind Tricks, the Vinnie Paz-executive produced projects Jedi Mind Tricks presents Doap Nixon: Sour Diesel, Jedi Mind Tricks presents King Syze: The Labor Union, Jedi Mind Tricks presents OuterSpace: God's Fury.
In 2010, The Unholy Terror was released. It is the third studio album by Army of the Pharaohs; the release date was March 30, 2010. It was released through Paz's own Enemy Soil, it was during this time Paz released his debut solo album, Season of the Assassin. Many critics said. "Not only has he all-but perfected his grimy braggadocio, but he exhibits unique storytelling abilities that will make critics who dismiss him as just another hardcore rapper bite their tongues clean off." Said Sean Ryon, writer of HipHopDX. It was supposed to be called Assassin's Paz changed it due to legal issues with Ubisoft; the release date for the album was on June 22, 2010. A few months Paz released the Prayer for the Assassin EP; the EP contained four remixed tracks from Season of the Assassin and a music video for
Cranston, Rhode Island
Cranston, once known as Pawtuxet, is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. With a population of 80,529 at the 2010 census, it is the third largest city in the state; the center of population of Rhode Island is located in Cranston. Cranston is a part of the Providence metropolitan area. Cranston was named one of the "100 Best Places to Live" in the United States by Money magazine in 2006, it is according to CQ Press's research. According to the survey done by 24/7 Wall St website, Cranston ranked 36th on the list of “America’s 50 Best Cities to Live”The Town of Cranston was created in 1754 from a portion of Providence north of the Pawtuxet River. After losing much of its territory to neighboring towns and the city of Providence, Cranston itself became a city on 10 March 1910. Much of the land was purchased by Roger Williams from the Narragansett Indians in 1638 as part of the Pawtuxet Purchase, the first settler in the area was William Arnold, followed shortly by William Harris, William Carpenter and Zachariah Rhodes.
Stephen Arnold, a brother-in-law of Rhodes and William Arnold, built a gristmill on the Pawtuxet falls and laid out the "Arnold Road" connecting it to the Pequot Trail leading to Connecticut. Arnold's son, Benedict Arnold, became the first Governor of Rhode Island under the charter of 1663. After area residents were unable to agree upon a name for a new town for decades, the Town of Cranston was created by the General Assembly in 1754 from a portion of Providence north of the Pawtuxet River. Historians debate whether the town was named after Governor Samuel Cranston, the longest-serving Rhode Island governor or his grandson, Thomas Cranston, serving as Speaker of the Rhode Island House of Representatives at the time that the town was created. In the early 1770s town meetings were held at the taverns of Caleb Arnold and Nehemiah Knight where Cranstonians voted in favor of a resolution opposing the British Parliament's Coercive Acts, the town supported the Patriot cause during the Revolutionary War.
After losing much of its territory to neighboring towns and the city of Providence over the nineteenth century, Cranston itself became a city on 10 March 1910. Cranston is located at 41°46′N 71°27′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.9 square miles, of which, 28.6 square miles of it is land and 1.4 square miles of it is water. It is three percent of Rhode Island's total land mass; the following neighborhoods and villages are located in Cranston: The Cranston Public Schools School Committee consists of seven members. Committee members are elected to a two-year term, as of 2014, members are limited to five consecutive two-year terms; as of August 2018, the School Committee members are as follows: 1996 United States Champions 2015 New England Champions As of the 2010 US Census, there were 80,387 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the village was 81.93% White, 5.26% African American, 0.32% Native American, 5.17% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 4.6% from other races, 2.66% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.83% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 79,269 people, 30,954 households, 20,243 families residing in the city of Cranston; the population density was 2,774.6 persons per square mile. There were 32,068 housing units at an average density of 1,122.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.19% White, 3.69% African American, 0.30% Native American, 3.28% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.93% from other races, 1.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.56% of the population. There were 30,954 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city the population was spread out with 21.6% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females of age 18 or over, there were 92.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,108, the median income for a family was $55,241. Males had a median income of $40,031 versus $28,279 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,978. About 5.6 of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.5% of those ages 65 or older. The Rhode Island Department of Corrections has its headquarters and its adult prison facilities in Cranston; the Rhode Island Department of Children, Youth & Families operates the Rhode Island Training School, a juvenile correctional facility, in Cranston. The Rhode Island Division of Motor Vehicles is headquartered in Cranston; the City of Cranston operates under a mayor-council form of government. General city elections are held on the first Tuesday in November of every even-numbered year. Terms for elected officials begin on the first Monday in January of the year following their election.
The City Council consists of nine members: six representing each of the City wards, three citywide representatives. Council members are elected to a two-year term, are limited to five consecutive two-year terms.. The current Cranston City Council Presi
Eric Scott Esch, better known by his nickname "Butterbean", is an American retired professional boxer, mixed martial artist, professional wrestler who competed in the heavyweight division. He is a television personality, having appeared in several programs and been referenced by many others. Esch transitioned to professional boxing in 1994 following a successful stint on the Toughman Contest scene and went on to capture the World Athletic Association heavyweight and IBA super heavyweight championships. Beginning in 2003, he began fighting as a kickboxer and mixed martial artist, most notably in K-1 and the Pride Fighting Championships. Butterbean's combined fight record stands at 97 -- 24 -- 5 with 10 submissions. Esch was born in Atlanta, but at the age of four years old Esch and his family moved to St. Johns, only to move again at eleven years old to Jasper, Alabama with his family, he had a difficult childhood. While decking floors for manufactured homes at the Southern Energy Homes plant in Addison, his colleagues dared him to enter a local Toughman Contest, training in Bay City, Michigan.
He went on to begin his career in fight sports. Esch began his fighting career on the Toughman Contest scene in Texarkana, Arkansas in the early 1990s and went on to become a five-time World Toughman Heavyweight Champion with a record of 56–5 with 36 knockouts, he received the nickname "Butterbean" when he was forced to go on a diet in order to meet the Toughman 400 pound weight limit under the new age trainer Prozay Buell “the better Buell”. He made his professional boxing debut on October 15, 1994, beating Tim Daniels by decision in Birmingham, Alabama, he soon developed a cult following and became known as "King of the 4 Rounders". Speaking of his popularity in a 2008 interview with BoxingInsider, Esch stated: Esch ran up a string of wins by knockout, before being stopped in two rounds by Mitchell Rose on December 15, 1995. Butterbean went on the road, around the United States, winning 51 consecutive matches, including against Peter McNeeley. While the majority of his opponents were technically limited club-level fighters early in his career, he did move up the ranks to win the IBA Super Heavyweight Championship on April 12, 1997 with a second round technical knockout of Ed White at the Thomas & Mack Center in Las Vegas, Nevada.
He made five successful title defences before relinquishing his championship in 2000. After his five-year winning streak was brought to an end with a majority decision defeat by heavyweight Billy Zumbrun in August 2001, he fought his first ten rounder against fifty-two-year-old former world heavyweight champion Larry Holmes at the Norfolk Scope in Norfolk, Virginia on July 27, 2002. While Holmes won a unanimous decision, Esch was credited with a controversial knockdown in the final round, shown in filmed replays as not being a knockdown, no punch having landed, it was a slip; this was one of only three fights in a 109 fight career, scheduled for more than four rounds. Butterbean ventured into the sport of kickboxing in 2003 when he was recruited by K-1 and debuted with a first-round knockout of Yusuke Fujimoto at K-1 Beast II 2003 in Saitama, Japan on June 29, 2003. K-1 was keen to match him up with Ernesto Hoost, but he declined to take the fight on the advice of a friend who warned him of the Dutchman's kickboxing prowess.
He instead faced Mike Bernardo in a non-tournament bout at the K-1 Survival 2003 Japan Grand Prix Final in Yokohama, Japan on September 21, 2003. He was floored twice with low kicks in the first round before being finished with a high kick in the second. In his first mixed martial arts bout, Esch took on Genki Sudo in an openweight affair at K-1 PREMIUM 2003 Dynamite!! in Nagoya, Japan on December 31, 2003. Despite having a 110 kg weight advantage over his foe, Butterbean was unable to capitalize as Sudo was unwilling to exchange strikes. "The Neo-Samurai" took Butterbean to the mat with a low, single-leg takedown at the end of round one and attempted a leglock only to be halted by the bell signaling the end of the round, a stalemate up until then. Early in round two, the fighters tumbled to the ground after Sudo attempted a dropkick on Esch, the Japanese grappling ace took full advantage of the American boxer's lack of grappling skill by securing a heel hook submission at the 0:41 mark. Returning to the kickboxing ring at K-1 Beast 2004 in Niigata on March 14, 2004, Butterbean lost a unanimous decision to Hiromi Amada as Amada peppered him with low kicks while Esch did little more than taunt his opponent throughout the match.
He was scheduled to fight Bob Sapp soon afterwards, but claims that Sapp's management withdrew their fighter after discovering that Amada had needed hospital treatment after his bout with Esch. Butterbean lost his third consecutive K-1 match at K-1 Beast 2004 in Shizuoka on June 26, 2004, losing to 225 cm giant Montanha Silva by unanimous decision. Competing in the eight man tournament at the K-1 World Grand Prix 2005 in Hawaii in Honolulu on July 29, 2005, Esch put an end to his losing streak when he scored a third round standing eight count en route to a unanimous decision victory over 150 kg brawler Marcus Royster in the quarter-finals. Despite the win, Butterbean sustained an injury to his left leg during the fight and could not continue and so Royster was entered back into the tournament in his place. Butterbean appeared twice in World Wrestling Federation professional wrestling events, competing in boxing matches b
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Roberto Durán Samaniego is a Panamanian former professional boxer who competed from 1968 to 2001. He held world championships in four weight classes: lightweight, light middleweight and middleweight, as well as reigns as the undisputed and lineal lightweight champion, the lineal welterweight champion, he is the second boxer to have competed over a span of five decades, the first being Jack Johnson. Durán was known as a versatile, technical brawler and pressure fighter, which earned him the nickname of "Manos de Piedra" for his formidable punching power and excellent defense. In 2002, Durán was voted by The Ring magazine as the fifth greatest fighter of the last 80 years, while boxing historian Bert Sugar rated him as the eighth greatest fighter of all time; the Associated Press voted him as the best lightweight of the 20th century, with many considering him the greatest lightweight of all time. Durán retired in January 2002 at age 50 following a car crash in October 2001, with a professional record of 119 fights, 103 wins, 70 knockouts.
Up until his fight with Wilfred Benítez in 1982, he was trained by legendary boxing trainer Ray Arcel. Roberto Duran is ranked #1 greatest lightweight boxer of all time and #4 greatest boxer of all time by Boxing Action Magazine. Roberto Durán was born on June 1951 in Guararé, Panama, his mother, Clara Samaniego, was a native of Guararé, his father, Margarito Durán Sánchez, was from Arizona, United States, of Mexican descent. He was raised in the slums of El Chorrillo in the district "La Casa de Piedra" Panama, he began sparring with experienced boxers at the Neco de La Guardia gymnasium when he was only eight years old. He made his professional debut in 1968 at the age of 16. Duran won his first 31 consecutive fights, scored knockout victories over future Featherweight Champion Ernesto Marcel and former Super Featherweight Champion Hiroshi Kobayashi, culminating in his first title bout in June 1972, where he defeated Ken Buchanan in Madison Square Garden, New York for the WBA Lightweight Championship.
Durán, as a 2-to-1 underdog, scored a knockdown against the defending champion just fifteen seconds into the opening round and battered him throughout the bout. He was well ahead on all three cards as the bell rang to end the 13th round, at which time Durán continued to throw a couple of extra punches as Buchanan lay on the ropes; as Duran continued punching, the referee, Johnny LoBianco, grabbed him to pull him away. He pulled down on Duran's arms, which led to a accidental low blow. Buchanan dropped to the canvas in pain, his trainer Gil Clancy said he had believed the blow to have been caused by a knee. Duran was not disqualified from the bout. Columnist Red Smith of The New York Times wrote that LoBianco had to award the victory to Durán if the punch was a low blow, as "anything short of pulling a knife is regarded indulgently" in American boxing. Buchanan said he left the fight "with sore balls". Durán followed up on his title winning performance with several non-title matches; that year, in another non-title bout, he lost a ten-round decision to Esteban De Jesús.
Durán got back on track with successful title defenses against Jimmy Robertson, Hector Thompson and future Lightweight Champion Guts Ishimatsu. In 1974, Durán avenged his loss to De Jesus with a brutal eleventh round knock out. In 1976, he defeated future Light Welterweight Champion Saoul Mamby. Overall, Durán made twelve successful defenses of his title and amassed a record of 62–1, his last defense coming in 1978 when Durán fought a third bout with De Jesus in a unification match wherein Durán once again knocked out De Jesus and captured his WBC Lightweight Championship. Durán gave up the Undisputed Lightweight Championship in February 1979. Vacating the Lightweight title was a buildup for an attempt at the Welterweight title. Durán earned a pair of wins against former WBC Welterweight Champion Carlos Palomino and Zeferino Gonzales, setting the stage for a title bout against then-undefeated WBC Welterweight Champion Sugar Ray Leonard; the venue chosen was the Olympic Stadium in Montreal. Durán resented the fact that he was getting only one-fifth the money Leonard would make despite the fact that he was entering the bout with an incredible 71–1 record.
On June 20, 1980, Durán captured the WBC Welterweight title by defeating Leonard via a 15-round unanimous decision. The fight became known as "The Brawl in Montreal". After defeating Leonard in Montreal, Duran gained iconic status in Panama. Leonard asked for the fight to be the following November. In their second fight, Leonard changed his tactics, using more footwork and movement than he had in their first fight, Duran was unable to get Leonard against the ropes. During the seventh round, after Leonard had gained a slight lead on the scorecards, he began taunting and mocking Duran. Halfway into the eighth round, Duran stopped fighting saying, "No más". In a 2016 interview, Duran claimed that what he said was, "No Sigo", he took some time to recover from that fight and gained more weight to contend for the WBC Light Middleweight title, but losing in his first attempt at a championship in that division on January 30, 1982, against Wilfred Benítez by a 15-round unanimous decision, this after having defeated Nino Gonzalez and Luigi Minchillo, two rated Light Middleweights, both by ten-roun