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Violence against women

Violence against women known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence, are violent acts the victims of which are or women or girls. Such violence is considered a form of hate crime, committed against women or girls because they are female, can take many forms. VAW has a long history, though the incidents and intensity of such violence has varied over time and today varies between societies; such violence is seen as a mechanism for the subjugation of women, whether in society in general or in an interpersonal relationship. Such violence may arise from a sense of entitlement, misogyny or similar attitudes in the perpetrator, or because of his violent nature against women; the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states, "violence against women is a manifestation of unequal power relations between men and women" and "violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men."

Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations, declared in a 2006 report posted on the United Nations Development Fund for Women website:Violence against women and girls is a problem of pandemic proportions. At least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime with the abuser someone known to her. Violence against women can fit into several broad categories; these include. Some of the forms of violence perpetrated by individuals are: rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment, acid throwing, reproductive coercion, female infanticide, prenatal sex selection, obstetric violence, mob violence. There are forms of violence which may be perpetrated or condoned by the government, such as war rape. Many forms of VAW, such as trafficking in women and forced prostitution are perpetrated by organized criminal networks. Histrorically, there have been forms of organized WAV, such as the Witch trials in the early modern period or the sexual slavery of the Comfort women.

The World Health Organization, in its research on VAW, has analyzed and categorized the different forms of VAW occurring through all stages of life from before birth to old age. In recent years, there has been a trend of approaching VAW at an international level through means such as conventions or, in the European Union, through directives. A number of international instruments that aim to eliminate violence against women and domestic violence have been enacted by various international bodies; these start with a definition of what such violence is, with a view to combating such practices. The Istanbul Convention of the Council of Europe describes VAW "as a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination against women" and defines VAW as "all acts of gender-based violence that result in, or are to result in, sexual, psychological or economic harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.

The 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women of the United Nations General Assembly makes recommendations relating to VAW, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action mentions VAW. However, the 1993 United Nations General Assembly resolution on the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women was the first international instrument to explicitly define VAW and elaborate on the subject. Other definitions of VAW are set out in the 1994 Inter-American Convention on the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women and by the 2003 Maputo Protocol. In addition, the term gender-based violence refers to "any acts or threats of acts intended to hurt or make women suffer physically, sexually or psychologically, which affect women because they are women or affect women disproportionately"; the definition of gender-based violence is most "used interchangeably with violence against women", some articles on VAW reiterate these conceptions by suggesting that men are the main perpetrators of this violence.

Moreover, the definition stated by the 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women supported the notion that violence is rooted in the inequality between men and women when the term violence is used together with the term'gender-based.'In Recommendation Rec5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the protection of women against violence, the Council of Europe stipulated that VAW "includes, but is not limited to, the following": a. violence occurring in the family or domestic unit, inter alia and mental aggression and psychological abuse and sexual abuse, rape between spouses, regular or occasional partners and cohabitants, crimes committed in the name of honour, female genital and sexual mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, such as forced marriages.

Getaway (upcoming film)

Getaway is an upcoming supernatural horror film directed by Lilton Stewart III, written by Stef Beaton and Devan Schoelen, starring Beaton, Alex Brown, Georgie Storm Waite, Bobby Burkich, Rianne Senining, Stacey Patino and Charlotte Spencer. "The flick follows a group of unsuspecting teenagers who, in their last summer before college, find themselves in a secluded cabin in the woods where unusual occurrences unfold. In ghost story fashion, one tells the story of the urban legend, Momo, a strange spirit of a bird-like woman that taunts its victims with specific personal details and violent commands via text message and phone calls. What starts out as a harmless prank soon turns more sinister over the next 24 hours as the teens start disappearing without any motive or pattern." Stef Beaton Alex Brown Georgie Storm Waite Bobby Burkich Rianne Senining Charlotte Spencer Stacey Patino Getaway on IMDb

Rovsing's sign

Rovsing's sign, named after the Danish surgeon Niels Thorkild Rovsing, is a sign of appendicitis. If palpation of the left lower quadrant of a person's abdomen increases the pain felt in the right lower quadrant, the patient is said to have a positive Rovsing's sign and may have appendicitis. In acute appendicitis, palpation in the left iliac fossa may produce pain in the right iliac fossa; this anomaly occurs because the pain nerves deep in the intestines do not localize well to an exact spot on the abdominal wall, unlike pain nerves in muscles. Pain from a stomach ulcer or gallstone can be interpreted by the brain as pain from the stomach, gall bladder, duodenum, or first part of the small intestine, it will "refer" pain to the mid upper abdomen, the epigastrum. Because the appendix is a piece of intestine, it follows a similar referral pattern. An appendix with some early inflammation may give a non-specific irritation somewhere near the umbilicus. Should the inflammation become severe, it may irritate the inner lining of the abdominal cavity called the peritoneum.

This thin layer of tissue lies deep to the abdominal wall muscles. Now the pain has become "localized". If pressure is applied to the muscles of the right lower abdomen near a irritated appendix the muscle fibers in that area will be stretched and will hurt. A Rovsing's sign is elicited by pushing on the abdomen far away from the appendix in the left lower quadrant; the appendix, in a large majority of people, is located in the right lower quadrant. While this maneuver stretches the entire peritoneal lining, it only causes pain in any location where the peritoneum is irritating the muscle. In the case of appendicitis, the pain is felt in the right lower quadrant despite pressure being placed elsewhere. Most practitioners push on the left lower quadrant to see. If pain is felt in the right lower quadrant there may be an inflamed organ or piece of tissue in the right lower quadrant; the appendix is the prime suspect, although other pathology can give a "positive" Rovsing's sign. If left lower quadrant pressure by the examiner leads only to left-sided pain or pain on both the left and right sides there may be some other pathologic etiology.

This may include causes relating to the bladder, ascending colon, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or other structures. The eponym Rovsing sign is used in patients with horseshoe kidney, consisting of abdominal pain and vomiting with hyperextension of the spine. While Rovsing's test is performed in suspicion of appendicitis, its sensitivity and specificity have not been adequately evaluated, is considered by some to be an antiquated examination test. Abdominal exam McBurney's point Psoas sign Obturator sign