The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body, it is highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are unused; the violin has four strings tuned in perfect fifths with notes G3, D4, A4, E5, is most played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can be played by plucking the strings with the fingers and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow. Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres, they are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz. Electric violins with solid bodies and piezoelectric pickups are used in some forms of rock music and jazz fusion, with the pickups plugged into instrument amplifiers and speakers to produce sound.

Further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music. The name fiddle is used regardless of the type of music played on it; the violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection. In Europe, it served as the basis for the development of other stringed instruments used in Western classical music, such as the viola. Violinists and collectors prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed. Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of less famous makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins" coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony and Mirecourt.

Many of these trade instruments were sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers. The parts of a violin are made from different types of wood. Violins can be strung with Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings. A person who makes or repairs violins is called a violinmaker. One who makes or repairs bows is called an bowmaker; the word "violin" was first used in English in the 1570s. The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, diminutive of viola"; the term "viola" comes from the expression for "tenor violin" in 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, Medieval Latin vitula" as a term which means "stringed instrument," from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy... or from related Latin verb vitulari, "to exult, be joyful." The related term "Viola da gamba" means "bass viol" is from Italian "a viola for the leg"." A violin is the "modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio." The violin is called a fiddle, either when used in a folk music context, or in Classical music scenes, as an informal nickname for the instrument.

The word "fiddle" was first used in English in the late 14th century. The word "fiddle" comes from "fedele, fidel, earlier fithele, from Old English fiðele "fiddle,", related to Old Norse fiðla, Middle Dutch vedele, Dutch vedel, Old High German fidula, German Fiedel, "a fiddle; as to the origin of the word "fiddle", the "...usual suggestion, based on resemblance in sound and sense, is that it is from Medieval Latin vitula." The earliest stringed instruments were plucked. Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz. Similar and variant types were disseminated along East-West trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, the Byzantine Empire; the direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and the European rebec. The first makers of violins borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lyra.

These included the lira da braccio. The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-century northern Italy; the earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words "violino" and "vyollon" are seen in Italian and French documents. One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. By this time, the violin had begun to spread throughout Europe; the violin proved popular, both among street musicians and the nobility. One of these "noble" instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin; the finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for its powerful and beautiful tone, similar to that of a Guarneri. "The Messiah" or "Le Messie" made.

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Pedro Amador (soldier)

Pedro Antonio Amador was a Spanish sergeant of the Presidio of Loreto, present at the establishments of the pueblos of San Diego and Monterey in Alta California. Amador was born in the son of José Amador and María Josefa Carpio, he had two children with María de la Luz Ruiz. Before 1778, at Mission Loreto, he married María Ramona Noriega widow, with whom he had eleven children who were taught to read and write by their mother. After Ramona's death in 1802, on 12 April 1804, at Mission Santa Clara, he married the widow Teresa Pinto, his son, José María Amador, became the owner of Rancho San Ramón. Amador County was named in his honor

Max Glick

Max Glick is a Canadian television comedy-drama series, which aired on CBC Television from 1990 to 1991. Based on the Morley Torgov novel The Outside Chance of Maximilian Glick and its 1988 film adaptation, the series centred on Maximilian Glick, a young Jewish boy coming of age in Beausejour, Manitoba in the 1960s; the series starred Josh Garbe as Max, Alec Willows and Linda Kash as his parents Henry and Sarah, Jan Rubeš and Susan Douglas Rubeš as his grandparents Augustus and Bryna, Melyssa Ade as his classmate and love interest Celia, Jason Blicker as Rabbi Teitelman. Jan and Susan Rubeš were the only cast members; the series was created by Stephen Foster and Phil Savath, the producer and screenwriter of the original film. Critics compared the series to the contemporaneous American series The Wonder Years; the series aired 26 episodes over two seasons in the fall of 1990 and 1991, aired in reruns in 1992. It was not renewed for a third season; the series received three Gemini Award nominations at the 6th Gemini Awards in 1992, for Best Guest Performance in a Series, Best Costume Design and Best Original Music Score for a Series.

Max Glick on IMDb