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Vipava, Vipava

Vipava is a town in western Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Vipava. Vipava is located near the numerous sources of the Vipava River, in the upper Vipava Valley, 102 metres above sea level, it used to be a part of the traditional region of Inner Carniola, but it is now regarded as part of the Slovenian Littoral. The region around the town was settled by the Illyrians and Celts in the pre-Roman era; some trace the name Vipava to the Celtic root vip. In 394, the Battle of the Frigidus took place in the vicinity of the town. In the late 6th century, Slavic tribes, ancestors of modern Slovenes, settled the area. In the late 8th century, the Vipava Valley was included in the Frankish Empire and the Christianization of Slovenes started. In the Middle Ages, the valley was first included in the Duchy of Friuli. Between 1340 and 1355, Vipava and its surroundings were contended between the Counts of Gorizia, the Patriarches of Aquileia and the Habsburg Duchy of Carniola. Modern Vipava was first mentioned in 1367.

In the same period, it was included in the County of Gorizia. After a short Venetian interim, Vipava fell under the Habsburg domain in 1501 and in 1535 it was included in Carniola. In the mid-16th century, it emerged as an important center of the Protestant Reformation, it remained part of Carniola until 1918, when it was occupied by the Italian troops and annexed to the Kingdom of Italy. In the period between 1922 and 1943, it was subjected to a violent policy of Fascist Italianization. Many locals joined the militant antifascist organization TIGR. During World War II, the entire area became an important center of Partisan resistance. In 1945, it was liberated by Partisan troops and in 1947 it became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, of independent Slovenia in 1991. Vipava is the site of five known mass graves from the end after the Second World War; the Cemetery Mass Grave is located next to the southwest wall of the Vipava Cemetery. It contained the remains of eight Slovene civilians murdered by the Yugoslav Army on 14 July 1945.

The identities of six victims are known. The remains of six were reinterred in the cemetery; the Military Cemetery Mass Grave is located by the west edge of the First World War military cemetery. It contains the remains of 15 Chetnik soldiers killed in late April or early May 1945. Three additional graves contain the remains of German prisoners of war that died of typhus at the nearby prison camp in 1945; the Vipava Field Mass Grave extends south of the dairy to Močilnik Creek. It is covered by the freeway and contains a large number of remains; the Princova Baronovka Mass Grave lies in the southern part of the town. The Bevk Street Mass Grave is located at Bevk Streek no. 16. Human remains were unearthed during excavations for the building there. Vipava is an important agricultural center of western Slovenia, it is renowned for its wine production. Tourism is important, as well as small and medium-sized businesses. Many locals work in the nearby town of Ajdovščina; the vast majority of the people of Vipava, around 93%, are Slovenes.

Others are descendants of immigrants from other regions of the former Yugoslavia. Over 96% of the people use Slovene as their first language; the native inhabitants speak a variant of the Inner Carniolan dialect of Slovene. Around 77% of the people are Catholic, a little less than 1% are adherents of Sunni Islam, others are irreligious; the parish church in the town belongs to the Diocese of Koper. Notable people that were born or lived in Vipava include: Drago Bajc, poet Andreas Baumkirchner, leader of an unsuccessful conspiracy against Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund von Herberstein and author Eva Irgl, TV host and politician Štefan Kociančič, theologian and translator Sebastian Krelj, Slovene Protestant writer and preacher Anton Lavrin, Austrian diplomat and Egyptologist Vipava on Geopedia Vipava Valley Tourist Association site

Esix Snead

Esix Snead is a former Major League Baseball outfielder for the New York Mets. Snead was known for his speed, with 507 stolen bases in only 9 minor league seasons, but only four in two brief appearances with the New York Mets. Snead attended the University of Central Florida, playing both baseball and football, was drafted by the St. Louis Cardinals in the 18th round of the 1998 Major League Baseball Draft. Throughout his entire career, Snead hit for a low batting average, but still stole high numbers of bases. In 1998 with the Low-A New Jersey Cardinals, he stole 42 bases in 58 games. With the Single-A Peoria Chiefs and High-A Potomac Cannons in 1999, he hit under the Mendoza Line, but stole 64 bases in 126 games; the 2000 season was Snead's career year. Playing for the Cannons again, he led all minor leaguers in stolen bases and stole a Carolina League record 109 bases, breaking Lenny Dykstra's record, made the All-Star game. In 2001, his final season in the Cardinals' organization, he played for Double-A New Haven.

On November 20, 2001, he was claimed off waivers by the New York Mets. Snead hit.252 with 64 stolen bases. He was called up to the majors and made his major league debut on September 3. On September 21, against the Montreal Expos, he got his first major league hit, a single, ended the game with a three-run walk-off home run, he spent all of 2003 with the Triple-A Norfolk Tides and produced more of the same, a.220 batting average and 61 stolen bases. His batting average improved in 2004 to.264 and he played 1 game in the majors for the Mets. Snead became a free agent at the end of the season and signed a minor league contract with the Atlanta Braves on November 10, 2004, he stole 46 bases for Triple-A Richmond. In a game against the Syracuse SkyChiefs, pitcher Dave Bush threw a ball between Snead's legs causing Snead to have to be held back by the catcher. After drawing a walk, he charged Bush while walking to first base and threw his batting helmet at him, causing both benches to clear. 20 members of the Braves were fined including Snead who drew a 10-game suspension.

The Baltimore Orioles signed him on January 24, 2006, he played for Triple-A Ottawa. In 41 games, he batted.220 with 15 steals. The Orioles released Snead on May 21. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference

Sixtus of Esztergom

Sixtus was a Hungarian clergyman in the 13th century, who served as a skilled diplomat of King Béla IV of Hungary for decades. Sixtus was born around 1220 into a lower noble family, which possessed lands and fields in Hetény, his permanent honorary title of "magister" demonstrates his university degree. In contemporary records, he is first referred to as a cleric by Pope Innocent IV on 20 February 1245, when he authorized papal legate Giacomo Pecoraria to permit Sixtus' consecration and to grant him the right of possession of church benefices despite his "lack of origin"; the document says. Sixtus had a sister Joanna, who married a landowner in Szőllős, their marriage produced several children. His other brother-in-law Ampud of Macsala was a landowner in Hetény. Through the paternal branch, he was related to a courtier in Esztergom. Historian Péter Kis assumes Sixtus was identical with a namesake cleric, mentioned as a cantor of the Győr Chapter by four charters in the period between 1241 and 1248.

He argues Sixtus functioned as dean of Pressburg Chapter in 1253. Sixtus is first referred to as lector of the Esztergom Chapter in 1255. Through his extensive kinship in Esztergom County, he could compensate his nuclear family's low origin. Besides his duty to proclaim the Scripture readings used in the Liturgy of the Word, Sixtus was responsible for management of the cathedral school of Esztergom and teaching the clerics and the poor scholars, in accordance with Canon 18 of the Third Council of the Lateran, thus he was styled as "scholasticus" in contemporary documents. Additionally, Sixtus led the local place of authentication in this capacity. Thirty charters remain from Sixtus' term. For this role, Charles I of Sicily referred to him as "chancellor of Esztergom" in 1270. Sixtus also used this title thereafter. Sixtus resigned as lector, when he was sent as head of the Hungarian diplomatic mission to Rome, from 1258 to 1264, he became archdeacon of Komárom. On 15 July 1264, Pope Urban IV ordered Vincent, Bishop of Nyitra to provide a dignity and benefice for Sixtus either in Zagreb or other cathedrals, or in a church of the Archdiocese of Esztergom, because he "wants to leave" his position of archdeacon in Komárom.

After 1266, Sixtus returned to his office of lector in Esztergom. In August 1271, after Ottokar II of Bohemia invaded the lands north of the Danube and destroyed the archives of the Diocese of Nyitra, vice-ispán Michael, provost of Arad and Sixtus were mandated by King Stephen V to determine the borders of the diocese, cataloging its estates and churches upon the request of Bishop Vincent. In early 1272, Sixtus appeared as an ad-litem judge to investigate the credibility of the udvarnik lands countrywide. In this capacity, he traveled the counties of Veszprém, Zala and Vas, he last appears in contemporary sources on 17 April 1285. A certain Cyprian succeeded him as lector of Esztergom by 15 August 1286, suggesting Sixtus was deceased by then. In 1287, he is referred to as of "good memory". Sixtus made his last testament in 1272, along with cantor Valentine. Accordingly, his gifted lands in Hetény was inherited by the Archdiocese of Esztergom. Sixtus stipulated that the archbishop had to finish the construction of the St. Anne monastery in the area.

The monastery belonged to the Williamites. Both Urban IV in 1264 and Charles of Sicily in 1270 referred to Sixtus as a "royal cleric", which connected his diplomatic activity. At first, he was sent to Italy in 1258 to represent King Béla's interests at the Roman Curia, as some of his policies gave rise to many conflicts between the Hungarian royal court and the Holy See after the Mongol invasion. Sixtus sold some part of his inherited land in Hetény to his relative and neighbour Mikó Szécs, in order to finance his diplomatic mission to Rome, he stayed there as the permanent ambassador of the Kingdom of Hungary to the Papal States until 1264. For instance, Sixtus protested in the name of his king when Pope Urban IV appointed Timothy as Bishop of Zagreb without Béla's consultation in late 1263. At the same time, the king was angered by the fact too that Pope Urban allowed his opponent Cardinal Báncsa to be free to distribute Timothy's benefices in Hungary among his relatives; when the reconciliation of Béla and his rebellious son Duke Stephen proved to be only temporary in 1263, the king commissioned Sixtus to convince the pope to support Béla's interests and withdraw support from some pro-Stephen Hungarian prelates.

For his loyal service, Sixtus was granted royal land donations from his monarch and spouse Queen Maria Laskarina in Hetény and Radvány after returning home. According to the narratios of three of Béla's donation letters, " protected us and the right of our crown for many years". For his merits, Sixtus was appointed as titular papal chaplain by Pope Urban after 1264. During the years spent in Rome, his envoy companion was a certain Egyed from the Diocese of Győr. In 1270, Sixtus was among the members of the Hungarian delegation led by magister Ákos sent to Naples which escorted the twelve-year-old princess Mary to marry Charles the Lame. Before that he sold another part of Hetény for 70 silver coins to Mikó Szécs. For Charles of Anjou, Hungary was an important ally, when he forged alliances in the Balkan Peninsula