Sydney Airport is an international airport in Sydney, Australia located 8 km south of Sydney city centre, in the suburb of Mascot. The airport is owned by the ASX-listed Sydney Airport Group, it is the primary airport serving Sydney, is a primary hub for Qantas, as well as a secondary hub for Virgin Australia and Jetstar Airways. Situated next to Botany Bay, the airport has three runways, colloquially known as the east–west, north–south and third runways. Sydney Airport is one of the world's longest continuously operated commercial airports and the busiest airport in Australia, handling 42.6 million passengers and 348,904 aircraft movements in 2016–17. It was the 38th busiest airport in the world in 2016. 46 domestic and 43 international destinations are served to Sydney directly. The airport's Air Traffic Control Tower is listed on the Commonwealth Heritage List; the land used for the airport had been a bullock paddock. Nigel Love, a pilot in the First World War, was interested in establishing the nation's first aircraft manufacturing company.
This idea would require him to establish an aerodrome close to the city. A real estate office in Sydney told him of some land owned by the Kensington Race Club, being kept as a hedge against its losing its government-owned site at Randwick, it had been used by a local abattoir, closing down, to graze sheep and cattle. This land appealed to Love as the surface was flat and was covered with a pasture of buffalo grass; the grass had been grazed so evenly by the sheep and cattle that it required little to make it serviceable for aircraft. In addition, the approaches on all four sides had no obstructions, it was bounded by a racecourse, gardens, a river and Botany Bay. Love established Mascot as a private concern, leasing 80 hectares from the Kensington Race Club for three years, it had a small canvas structure but was equipped with an imported Richards hangar. The first flight from Mascot was on November 1919 when Love carried freelance movie photographer Billy Marshall up in an Avro; the official opening flight took place on 9 January 1920 performed by Love.
In 1921, the Commonwealth Government purchased 65 hectares in Mascot for the purpose of creating a public airfield. In 1923, when Love's three-year lease expired, the Mascot land was compulsorily acquired by the Commonwealth Government from the racing club; the first regular flights began in 1924. In 1933 the first gravel runways were built. By 1949 the airport had three runways – the 1,085-metre 11/29, the 1,190-metre 16/34 and the 1,787-metre 04/22; the Sydenham to Botany railway line crossed the latter runway 150 metres from the northern end and was protected by special safeworking facilities. The Cooks River was diverted away from the area in 1947–52 to provide more land for the airport and other small streams were filled; when Mascot was declared an aerodrome in 1920 it was known as Sydney Airport. On 14 August 1936 the airport was renamed Sydney Airport in honour of pioneering Australian aviator Sir Charles Kingsford Smith. Up to the early 1960s the majority of Sydney-siders referred to the airport as Mascot.
The first paved runway was 07/25 and the next one constructed was 16/34, extended into Botany Bay, starting in 1959, to accommodate jet aircraft. Runway 07/25 is used by lighter aircraft, but is used by all aircraft including Airbus A380s when conditions require. Runway 16R is presently the longest operational runway in Australia, with a paved length of 4,400 m and 3,920 m between the zebra thresholds. By the 1960s, the need for a new international terminal had become apparent, work commenced in late 1966. Much of the new terminal was designed by Dixon Industries; the plans for the design are held by the State Library of New South Wales. The new terminal was opened on 3 May 1970, by HM Queen Elizabeth II; the first Boeing 747 "Jumbo Jet" at the airport, Pan American's Clipper Flying Cloud, arrived on 4 October 1970. The east-west runway was 2,500 m long; the international terminal was expanded in 1992 and has undergone several refurbishments since including one, completed in early 2000 in order to re-invent the airport in time for the 2000 Olympic Games held in Sydney.
The airport additionally underwent another project development that began in 2010 to extend the transit zone which brought new duty free facilities, shops & leisure areas for passengers. The limitations of having only two runways that crossed each other had become apparent and governments grappled with Sydney's airport capacity for decades; the third runway was parallel to the existing runway 16/34 on reclaimed land from Botany Bay. A proposed new airport on the outskirts of Sydney was shelved in 2004, before being re-examined in 2009–2012 showing that Kingsford Smith airport will not be able to cope by 2030; the "third runway", which the Commonwealth government commenced development of in 1989 and completed in 1994, remained controversial because of increased aircraft movements over many inner suburbs. In 1995 the Common Cause - No Aircraft Noise party was formed to contest the state seat of Marrickville; the results of the election that year show that the party did not win a seat in parliament, but came close.
The party does not appear to have entere
Apia is the capital and the largest city of Samoa. From 1900 to 1919, it was the capital of German Samoa; the city is located on the central north coast of Samoa's second largest island. Apia falls within the political district of Tuamasaga; the Apia Urban Area has a population of 36,735 and is referred to as the City of Apia. The geographic boundaries of Apia Urban Area is from Letogo village to the new industrialized region of Apia known as Vaitele. Apia was a small village, from which the country's capital took its name. Apia village still exists within the larger modern capital of Apia which has grown into a sprawling urban area with many villages. Like every other settlement in the country, Apia village has its own matai chiefly leaders and fa'alupega according to fa'a Samoa; the modern capital Apia was founded in the 1850s and has been the official capital of Samoa since 1959. The harbour was the site of an infamous 15 March 1889 naval standoff in which seven ships from Germany, the US, Britain refused to leave harbour while a typhoon was approaching, lest the first moved would lose face.
All the ships were sunk, except the British cruiser Calliope, which managed to leave port at 1 mile per hour and ride out the storm. Nearly 200 American and German lives were lost, as well damaged beyond repair. Western Samoa was ruled by Germany as German Samoa from 1900 to 1914 with Apia as capital. In August 1914, the Occupation of German Samoa by an expeditionary force from New Zealand started. New Zealand governed the islands as the Western Samoa Trust Territory from 1920 until independence in 1962 – firstly as a League of Nations Class C Mandate and after 1945 as a United Nations Trust Territory. During the country's struggle for political independence in the early 1900s, organised under the national Mau movement, the streets of Apia became the center of non-violent protests and marches where many Samoans were arrested. In what became known as "Black Saturday", on 28 December 1929, during a peaceful Mau gathering in the town, the New Zealand constabulary killed paramount chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III.
Apia is situated on a natural harbour at the mouth of the Vaisigano River. It is on a narrow coastal plain with Mount Vaea, the burial place of writer Robert Louis Stevenson, directly to its south. Two main ridges run south on either side of the Vaisigano River, with roads on each; the more western of these is Cross Island Road, one of the few roads cutting north to south across the middle of the island to the south coast of Upolu. Apia features a tropical rainforest climate with consistent temperatures throughout the year; the climate is not equatorial because the trade winds are the dominant aerological mechanism and besides there are a few cyclones. Apia's driest months are August when on average about 80 millimetres of rain falls, its wettest months are December through March when average monthly precipitation exceeds 300 millimetres. Apia's average temperature for the year is 26 °C. Apia averages 3,000 millimetres of rainfall annually. Apia is part of the Tuamasaga political district and of election district Vaimauga West and Faleata East.
There is no city administration for Apia. Apia consists of independent villages. Apia proper is just a small village between the mouths of the Vaisigano and Mulivai rivers, is framed by Vaisigano and Mulivai villages, together constituting "Downtown Apia"; the Planning Urban Management Authority Act 2004 was passed by parliament to better plan for the urban growth of Samoa's built-up areas, with particular reference to the future urban management of Apia. The city's historical haphazard growth from village to colonial trading post to the major financial and business centre of the country has resulted in major infrastructural problems in the city. Problems of flooding are commonplace in the wet season, given the low flood-prone valley that the city is built on. In the inner-city village of Sogi, there are major shoreline pollution and effluent issues given that the village is situated on swamplands; the disparate village administrations of Apia has resulted in a lack of a unified and codified legislative approach to sewerage disposal.
The increase of vehicle ownership has resulted in traffic congestion in the inner city streets and the need for major projects in road-widening and traffic management. The PUMA legislation sets up the Planning Urban Management Authority to manage better the unique planning issues facing Apia's urban growth. Mulinu'u, the old ceremonial capital, lies at the city's western end, is the location of the Parliament House, the historic observatory built during the German era is now the meteorology office; the historic Catholic cathedral in Apia, the Immaculate Conception of Mary Cathedral, was dedicated 31 December 1867. It was pulled down mid-2011 due to structural damage from the earthquake of September 2009. A new cathedral was built and dedicated 31 May 2014. An area of reclaimed land jutting into the harbour is the site of the Fiame Mataafa Faumuina Mulinuu II building, the multi-storey government offices named after the first Prime Minister of Samoa, the Central Bank of Samoa. A clock tower erected.
The new market is inland at Fugalei. Apia still has some of the early, colonial buildings which remain scattered around the town, most notably the old courthouse from the German
Faleolo International Airport
Faleolo International Airport is an airport located 40 kilometres west of Apia, the capital of Samoa. Until 1984, Faleolo could not accommodate jets larger than a Boeing 737. Services to the United States, Australia, or New Zealand, could only land at Pago Pago International Airport in American Samoa. Since the airport's expansion most international traffic now uses Faleolo. Small turboprop aircraft continue to connect American Samoa and Samoa from Fagali'i Airport in the eastern suburbs of Apia; the site and location of the current airport was known as Faleolo Airfield. It was constructed by the United States Navy SeaBees after war broke out in the Pacific in 1942 and became an extension of U. S. Naval Station Tutuila and the Samoa Defense Group Area during the Pacific War. Faleolo Airfield was completed by the Seabees in July 1942 and U. S. Marine Fighting Squadron VMF-111 was moved from Tafuna Airfield to Faleolo Airfield after the aircraft runway was completed to protect the islands of Upolu and Savai'i from an anticipated Japanese invasion.
The original runway was 4,000 feet x 200 feet and was extended to 6,000 feet x 350 feet in March 1943 to accommodate a taxiway and space for basing of up to 57 fighter aircraft. Airfield support buildings and two hangars were constructed and completed in March 1943; until 1984, Faleolo could not accommodate jets larger than a Boeing 737. Services to the United States, Australia, or New Zealand, could only land at Pago Pago International Airport in American Samoa. Since the airport's expansion, the Airport now caters for most international traffic arriving from New Zealand, Fiji, Hawaii and USA; the airport is at an elevation of 58 feet above mean sea level. It has one runway designated 08/26 with an asphalt surface measuring 3,000 by 45 metres; the Pavement Classification Number for the runway is 058FBXT. Faleolo Tower has some jurisdiction over the airspace of American Samoa and Tonga as well as its own airspace, it is assisted by the tower at Nadi and the whole area is under Oceanic Control from Auckland, New Zealand.
On 13 January 1970, Polynesian Airlines Flight 308B, operated by Douglas C-47B 5W-FAC crashed into the sea shortly after take-off on an international non-scheduled passenger flight to Pago Pago International Airport, American Samoa. All 32 people on board were killed. In 2000, Air New Zealand flight NZ60 nearly overshot the runway due to a faulty instrument landing system, accidentally damaged by a digger; the pilots took a number of measures to prevent an accident, which were incorporated into a training video. Key points from the video that averted disaster included the pilots' unease about the ILS glideslope capture, the conflict between the aircraft's altitude and the functioning Distance Measuring Equipment, their familiarity with the approach into Faleolo which caused them to realise they were not where they were supposed to be, had the ILS been functioning correctly. For these reasons they initiated a go around, used the VOR/DME equipment for the second and successful approach. Current weather for NSFA at NOAA/NWS Accident history for APW at Aviation Safety Network
Virgin Australia Airlines (NZ)
Virgin Australia Airlines Limited Pacific Blue Airlines Limited, was an airline based in New Zealand. It was established as the New Zealand subsidiary of Australian airline Virgin Blue, it was a owned subsidiary of Virgin Australia Holdings. It was renamed Virgin Australia Airlines Ltd in December 2011 when its parent company decided to bring all its airlines under the one banner, it was based at Christchurch International Airport and operated air services between New Zealand and Australia as well as the Pacific Islands. It operated services on behalf of Virgin Samoa; the airline has brought all its flying under its parent VA Air Operating Certificate. The final New Zealand registered Virgin Australia aircraft ZK-PBL finished up flying 13 March 2015 as VA161 AKL-BNE, bringing a visible end to VANZ. With the withdrawal of ZK-PBL, the New Zealand register connection ended after 11 years of aircraft on the New Zealand register from January 23 2004 to March 14 2015; the airline was established in 2003 and started operations on 29 January 2004 with a service between Christchurch and Brisbane, Australia.
On 1 August 2007, the ICAO code was changed from PBI to PBN. This was done in consultation with air traffic controllers to prevent confusion between the letter I and the number 1 in flight plans. On 21 August 2007, Pacific Blue announced its intention to begin domestic services in New Zealand with the first flights commencing 12 November 2007; the initial routes were Auckland -- Christchurch -- Wellington and Auckland -- Christchurch. Christchurch to Dunedin flights started. Pacific Blue announced its roll out of Premium economy seating across its fleet from March 2010 to match that of its sister Virgin Blue. Premium Economy is the front three rows of each aircraft – fitted with a unique red leather converter seat that folds from three abreast to two abreast when used in Premium Economy configuration. On 16 August 2010, it was announced that Pacific Blue would be withdrawing from the New Zealand domestic market, with aircraft being reallocated to tran-tasman and medium-haul routes; the last Pacific Blue domestic New Zealand service was operated on 17 October 2010, from Wellington to Auckland.
Pacific Blue was renamed Virgin Australia Airlines Ltd in December 2011, as part of a unification of the company's holdings under a common brand. In March 2015, the last New Zealand registered Virgin 737 ZK-PBL was withdrawn and placed on the Australian register, ending over 11 years of New Zealand AOC operations. All aircraft were distributed between Virgin Australia's domestic and international arms on the VH register. VANZ Auckland and Christchurch based pilots and cabin crew continue to fly the same routes and some of the same aircraft under the Virgin Australia International Airlines air operator certificate; the airline operated scheduled passenger services between New Australia. New Zealand served airports are: Auckland, Christchurch and Queenstown. Hamilton was served from Brisbane services ended in October 2012. International destinations served are: Brisbane, Gold Coast, Nadi, Port Vila, Nuku'alofa and Sydney. Cairns, Port Moresby, Honiara were served; the fleet consisted of all modern Boeing 737 aircraft: Virgin Group Virgin Atlantic Virgin America Virgin Australia: New Zealand
Politics of Samoa
Politics of Samoa takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic state whereby the Prime Minister of Samoa is the head of government. Existing alongside the country's Western styled political system is the fa'amatai chiefly system of socio-political governance and organisation, central to understanding Samoa's political system. From the country's independence in 1962, only matai could vote and stand as candidates in elections to parliament. In 1990, the voting system was changed by the Electoral Amendment Act which introduced universal suffrage. However, the right to stand for elections remains with matai title holders. Therefore, in the 49-seat parliament, all 47 Samoan Members of Parliament are matai, performing dual roles as chiefs and modern politicians, with the exception of the two seats reserved for non-Samoans. At the local level, much of the country's civil and criminal matters are dealt with by some 360 village chief councils, Fono o Matai, according to traditional law, a practice further strengthened by the 1990 Village Fono Law.
The national government controls the legislative assembly as it is formed from the party which controls the majority seats in the assembly. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the assembly, but the government controls legislation through its weight of numbers in the Fono; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The 1960 Constitution, which formally came into force with independence, is based on the British Westminster model of parliamentary democracy, modified to take account of Samoan customs. Two of Samoa's four highest ranking paramount chiefs at the time of independence were given lifetime appointments to jointly hold the office of head of state. Another paramount chief, Fiame Mata'afa Faumuina Mulinu'u II was elected into parliament and became the first Prime Minister of Samoa. Malietoa Tanumafili II held the post of Head of State alone since the death of his colleague, Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole, in 1963. Tanumafili died in May 2007 and his successor, Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi was elected by the legislature for a five-year term in June 2007.
At the time the Constitution was adopted it was anticipated that future Heads of State would be chosen from among the four Tama-a-Aiga'royal' paramount chiefs. However, this is not required by the Constitution and for this reason Samoa can be considered a republic rather than a constitutional monarchy like the United Kingdom. Parliament can amend the constitution through a simple majority of votes in the house; the Samoa system is hard model of parliamentary democracy where the executive and the legislative arms of government are fused together. The prime minister is chosen by a majority in the Fono and is appointed by the head of state to form a government; the prime minister's preferred cabinet of 12 is appointed and sworn in by the head of state, subject to the continuing confidence of the Fono, which since the rise of political parties in Samoa in the 1980s, is controlled by the party with the majority of members in the Fono. The unicameral legislature, named the Fono Aoao Faitulafono contains 49 members serving five-year terms.
Forty-seven are elected from ethnic Samoan territorial constituencies. Universal suffrage was extended in 1990. There are more than 25,000 matai in about 5 % of whom are women; the third Tamaaiga id Tuimalealiifano, the deputy Head of State or a member of the Council of Deputies when Samoa gained its independence in 1962. The judicial system is based on local customs; the Supreme Court of Samoa is the court of highest jurisdiction. The Court of Appeal has a limited jurisdiction to hear only those cases referred to it by the Supreme Court. Below the Supreme Court are the district courts; the chief justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the Head of State on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The most important court in Samoa is the Land and Titles court, consisting of cultural and judicial experts appointed by the supreme court; this court hears village title succession disputes. The court derives from the Native Land and Titles Court put in place under the German colonial administration in 1901.
Samoa's political stability is thought to be due in large part to the success of this court in hearing disputes. The current Chief Justice is Patu Tiava'asu'e Falefatu Sapolu. Previous chief justices have included Conrad Cedercrantz, Henry Clay Ide, William Lea Chambers, W. L. Taylor, C. Roberts, Charles Croft Marsack, Norman F. Smith and Gaven Donne Until about 1860 Samoa operated under an indigenous political system, Fa'amatai, with no centralised government. Villages were ruled autonomously by their matai and aligned themselves into district and sub-district political entities for common causes - such as war. However, the leading paramount titles of all districts were nationally recognised. Before the Tongan invasion and occupation of most of Upolu and Savai'i, the highest nationally recognised titles were the Tu'i Manu'a from the Manu'a islands in the far east of the Samoa Islands chain, the TuiAtua from Atua and the TuiA'ana from A'ana; the Tui Manu'a held the highest political power in Samoa and held political links with the Tui Tonga.
Atua and A'ana were the predominant powers in Upolu and Savaii but acquiesced to the Tui Manu'a in the traditional hierarchy. When the TuiTonga infiltrated the Upolu and Savaii, Atua and A'ana lost their pr
Brisbane Airport is the primary international airport serving Brisbane and South East Queensland. The airport services 31 airlines flying to 50 domestic and 29 international destinations, in total amounting in more than 22.7 million passengers who travelled through the airport in 2016. In 2016, an OAG report named Brisbane airport as the fifth-best performing large-sized airport in the world for on-time performance with 86.71% of arrivals and departures occurring within 15 minutes of their scheduled times, slipping from 88.31% the year before. Brisbane Airport is a major hub for both Virgin Australia and Qantas, a secondary hub for Qantas’ low cost subsidiary Jetstar. Tigerair Australia opened a base at Brisbane Airport on 11 March 2014. Brisbane has the third highest number of domestic connections in Australia following Sydney and Melbourne, it is home to Qantas' A330 and B737 heavy maintenance facilities. Virgin Australia has a smaller maintenance facility at the Airport, where line-maintenance on the Airline's 737 fleet is performed.
Other airlines, namely QantasLink, Alliance Airlines conduct maintenance at their respective facilities at the Airport. The airport has international and domestic passenger terminals, a cargo terminal, a general aviation terminal and apron as well as two runways. JETGO Australia operated from Brisbane Airport until its demise in 2018. Brisbane's first airport was Eagle Farm Airport, built in 1925 on former agricultural land in the suburb of Eagle Farm located 6 km north-east of Brisbane or 5 km south-west of Brisbane Airport's Domestic Terminal. Although Qantas started operations there in 1926, most of the flights in Brisbane operated at the Archerfield Airport, which contained a superior landing surface. While in operation, Charles Kingsford Smith landed at Eagle Farm on 9 June 1928, after completing the first trans-pacific flight in his Fokker F. VII, the Southern Cross. There is now a museum containing the original aircraft, along with a memorial located within the Brisbane Airport precinct.
During the Second World War, Brisbane was the headquarters of the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in the South West Pacific Area, General Douglas MacArthur. The United States armed forces upgraded the airfield to cater for military flights, bringing it to such a standard that it became the main civilian airport for the city. By the 1960s it was clear that the facilities at Eagle Farm Airport were inadequate for a city of Brisbane's size and anticipated growth. Many long-haul international services to Asia were required to make an en route stop, disadvantaging the city to lure prospective carriers and business opportunities; some of the infrastructure at Eagle Farm airport was incorporated into today's Brisbane airport. For example, the north-east end of the main runway survives as taxiway Papa of the present airport, while the Eagle Farm international terminal is now the Brisbane Airport cargo terminal; the Federal Government announced the construction of Brisbane Airport to be built north east of Eagle Farm Airport.
The new airport was built by Leighton Holdings and opened in 1988 with a new domestic terminal and two runways. The new airport was built on the former Brisbane residential suburb of Cribb Island, demolished to make way for the airport. Large amounts of sand were pumped from nearby Moreton Bay to raise the swamp land above the tidal range; the 1988 facilities included: a domestic terminal. In 1995 the current international terminal opened, it has been expanded since that time. In 1997, as part of the privatisation of numerous Australian airports, the airport was acquired for $1.4 billion from the Federal Airports Corporation by Brisbane Airport Corporation under a 50-year lease. Since that time, BAC has assumed ultimate responsibility for the operations of Brisbane Airport including all airport infrastructure investment with no government funding. BAC's shareholders are major Australian and international organisations and significant institutional investors, including Queensland Investment Corporation, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Colonial First State and IFM Investors.
80 per cent of BAC shareholders are Australian "mums and dads" with their savings invested in superannuation and other funds. Brisbane Airport is categorised as a Leased Federal Airport. Brisbane Airport has two passenger terminals; the international terminal was built in 1995 and has 14 bays with aerobridges, four of these are capable of handling A380s. There are four layover bays; the terminal has four levels: level 1 houses most airline offices and baggage handlers, level 2 handles arrivals, level 3 houses the departure lounge and other offices, level 4 houses departure check-in. The airport contains an Emirates first class lounge, the first outside Dubai that has direct access to the A380 aerobridges, has Air New Zealand, Singapore Airlines and Plaza Premium lounges. There is a five-storey long term carpark and a smaller short term carpark within close proximity to the terminal; the international terminal redevelopment began in February 2014. The A$45 million redevelopment is designed by Brisbane architectural practices Richards and Spence and Arkhefield.
Queensland artists, Sebastian Moody and Mirdidingkingathi Juwarnda Sally Gabori, were commissioned for the artworks. The international terminal at Brisbane Airport was the first airport in the world to roll out a B
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer