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Virginia Key

Virginia Key is an 863-acre barrier island in Miami, United States in Biscayne Bay, south of Brickell and north of Key Biscayne. It is accessible from the mainland via the Rickenbacker Causeway; the island is occupied by the Virginia Key Beach Park, Miami Seaquarium, Miami-Dade's Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant, the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Other facilities include the former Miami Marine Stadium, the National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Fisheries Science Center, an office of the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. What is now Virginia Key was the southern end of a barrier island that extended from the New River inlet in Fort Lauderdale to just north of Key Biscayne. Early accounts by Spanish explorers indicated the existence of one or more inlets somewhere on the long spit of land enclosing the northern end of Biscayne Bay, but such inlets open and close over time. At the beginning of the 19th century, there was no inlet through the barrier island between the New River Inlet and Bear Cut, at the northern end of Key Biscayne.

Hurricanes in 1835 and 1838 opened a new inlet, Narrows Cut, separating Virginia Key from what is now Fisher Island at the south end of Miami Beach. The island was named by Frederick H. Gerdes of the United States Coast Survey in 1849, he noted that the island north of Key Biscayne had no name, had not existed as an island until'Narrows Cut' had broken through "ten or twelve" years before. He described Virginia Key as three miles long and one mile wide, with a fine Atlantic beach, but covered with mangroves. Scenes from the 1994 comedy film Ace Ventura: Pet Detective were shot here. In May 1945, seven civil rights activists supported by the local NAACP chapter staged a "wade-in" at the whites’ only Baker's Haulover Beach in Dade County Florida. Five men and two women protested Jim Crow era laws. In a Miami emerging from World War II this meant "colored" people could not share with whites the legendary beaches along and in the waters of Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean; the struggle for a "colored-only" beach in Miami signified the incipient civil rights revolution of the 1950s -1960s.

It was fueled by the anger of patriotic black servicemen who fought the racism of Nazi Germany only to return to a segregated America. Among the protesters was Attorney Lawson B. Thomas who would become the first Black appointed to Judge in the post-Reconstruction South. Lawyer Thomas remained on holding bail money for those who anticipated arrest; the NAACP had notified the local press and police of the time and place, hoping for arrests that would be central to a court challenge of local discrimination laws and policies. On instruction from local government representatives, police refused to cite the protestors, telling Thomas to contact County Commissioner Charles H. Crandon. Local businessmen and government officials had conceded something had to be done about the race problem; the economy was – and is – reliant upon its good reputation with tourists. A decision was made to compromise race restrictions on recreation by designating a "colored-only" beach on Virginia Key. Crandon and Thomas negotiated the establishment of the "Virginia Key Beach, a Dade County Park for the exclusive use of Negroes,".

It opened on August 1, 1945. There are several urban myths about the selection of Virginia Key by county officials, each with a kernel of truth – but there was an historic connection of at least several decades’ standing. A 1918 survey map of the "Abandoned Military Reservation" on Virginia Key located a "Negro Dancing Pavilion" on the island's southeastern shore of the "colored-only" beach. From 1945 to 1947, Miami's Blacks traveled to the beach by boat – public and private; the opening of the Rickenbacker Causeway in 1947 connected Virginia Key and Key Biscayne with the mainland and vehicular travel began. The new Park enjoyed instant popularity. For a time, county government honored the "separate but equal" status of Virginia Key Beach with its white counterpart, Crandon Park on Key Biscayne; the original temporary buildings were replaced by permanent construction, a miniature railroad carried beachgoers around the park, a seaside merry-go-round whirled riders of all ages. Still, Crandon Park was over 800 acres with two miles of beachfront and Virginia Key 82 acres with a half-mile of beach.

When Crandon Park got a zoo, Virginia Key Beach got a pond with ornamental plants and so things began to change. When wealthy residents of Key Biscayne and nearby Fisher Island needed a place to dump their garbage and pump their sewage, the breezes on Virginia Key Beach turned sour, the water clouded with effluents; the long-term environmental impact has yet to be determined. Still, Virginia Key Beach remained a popular sacred place within Miami's Black community. Segregation of Miami-Dade beaches ended in the early 1960s with another protest led by the late Rev. Theodore Gibson, Garth C. Reeves, the late Oscar Range and others. Crandon Park and Virginia Key Beach would no longer be used by one race or another, but open for all to enjoy; when beaches closer to Black residential neighborhoods desegregated, Virginia Key Beach declined both in use and upkeep. By the 1980s, picnicking families mingled with gay couples and nudists using Virginia Key Beach, too. In 1982, the County transferred the former colored-only park to the City of Miami with a deed restriction that it only be used as a park and that the

Travis Caldwell

Travis Caldwell is an American actor. He starred as Charlie Monohan on ABC's The Gates and has appeared on NBC's Parenthood and TeenNick's Gigantic. Caldwell began his career appearing in an episode of Zoey 101 in 2006; that same year, he appeared in the short film Family Karma, along with Bruno Oliver, followed by two short films: The Tap in 2008 and The Juggler in 2009. Between 2007 and 2008, Travis appeared as a guest star on TV series such as Women's Murder Club, Miss Guided, the CBS series, Without a Trace. In 2010, appeared in the series of TeenNick and the NBC's, Parenthood, in addition to completing the film Hanna's Gold, with Luke Perry. In the same year, he was cast as Charlie Monohan, on the ABC's supernatural series, The Gates, along with Frank Grillo, Rhona Mitra, Marisol Nichols, Luke Mably, Skyler Samuels, Colton Haynes and James Preston. In 2011, Travis appears as a guest on Wizards of The Lying Game, he had a prominent role as Vinnie in the 2014 feature film Hello, My Name Is Frank, another prominent role as Johnny in the 2015 film Stolen from Suburbia.

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Swaraj Bhavan

Swaraj Bhavan is a large mansion located in Prayagraj, best known for once being owned by the Indian political leader Motilal Nehru and being home to the Nehru family until 1930. It is managed by the'Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund', Delhi and functions as a museum open to the public, it has 42 rooms and a number of memorabilia including a charkha used by Mahatma Gandhi, photographs of the Indian freedom movement, personal belongings of the Nehru family and an underground room, said to have been used for meetings. The building at 1 Church road, today called Swaraj Bhavan was called Mahmud Manzil, it was built in 1871 for Syed Ahmad Khan, the 19th century Indian Muslim leader and educationist, at the behest of the Lieutenant Governor of the NWP William Muir. The latter took the advice of Syed Ahmad Khan in administrative matters which necessitated Khan's presence in Allahabad. However, since Khan lived in Aligarh, he did not have a place to stay in Allahabad for prolonged visits. Muir suggested that Khan maintain a house in Allahabad too, where he could stay during such official visits.

A site consisting of 20 acres of land owned by a person called Shaikh Fayyaz Ali was selected for this purpose. It was located just 10 minutes drive from the Government House and Ali had received the land here as compensation for the losses incurred by him during the 1857 mutiny. Work to build a large house here commenced around 1868 and the house was completed in 1871, it was called "Mahmud Manzil" after Syed Ahmad Khan's son's name. It was occupied by Syed Mahmud, who lived here as a tenant when he became the Justice of the Allahabad High Court. Fayyaz Ali continued to live on the estate till his death in 1873 in a bungalow called Bungalow Fatehpur Bishwa that he had made here. However, the connection between Sir Muir, Syed Ahmad Khan and Mahmud Manzil are unverified as different sources yield different results. In 1873, when Fayyaz Ali died, the property was administered by the Allahabad court of wards, as his children were minors. Syed Khan continued to live here as a tenant. Subsequently the house changed hands and was sold in 1888.

In a commemorative essay by Indira Gandhi, the latter recollects that the house was sold to Rai Bahadur Permanand Pathak, the Judge of Shahjahanpur during this period. However, the house fell into a state of disrepair as it lay unoccupied for long periods of time. In 1900, the house and the estate attached to it were bought for Rs. 19,000 and named Anand Bhavan, "abode of happiness", by Pandit Motilal Nehru a prominent lawyer. Historian David Lelyveld has given a different sequence of events where the property was given an estate in 1861 in compensation for losses sustained during the revolt of 1857; this property was purchased by Syed Mahmud, a Justice of the Allahabad High Court, for Rs 9,000 in 1888. Motilal Nehru started to renovate the palatial residence; the house was in complete disrepair. Extensive renovation work was carried out over the next decade. Motilal used his frequent visits to Europe to buy the choicest china, he turned the mansion into a veritable palace,'an elaborate replica of an English country estate … bifurcated between East and West', with a retinue of a hundred people in the house.

Motilal called the house Anand Bhavan. At the house-warming party in 1871, Sir William Muir hoped that this large palatial home in Civil Lines of Allahabad would become the cement holding together the British Empire in India. Paradoxically, the house was bought by Motilal Nehru in 1900, went on to become a cradle to the Indian Freedom Struggle, to destroy British rule in India. Motilal Nehru was a prominent member of the Indian National Congress Party. Due to this, a number of noted leaders and party activists would visit the "Nehru House". Following the rise of Motilal's son, Jawaharlal Nehru, the mansion became the center of the Indian independence movement, it was informally the headquarters of the All India Congress Committee in the 1920s before it was donated by Motilal Nehru to the Indian National Congress in 1930, to serve as the party's official headquarters in the region. The Nehrus named that Anand Bhavan. Indira Gandhi, India's Prime Minister, donated Anand Bhavan to the nation in 1970 and turned it into a museum housing the books and memorabilia of her father and grandfather.

Today it is one of the country's best-run museums. Its pillared verandahs and high-ceilinged rooms have witnessed many trysts with destiny. Now, the Swaraj Bhavan premise conducts classes to teach crafts to children. A light and sound programme is organized here. There are four shows every day. List of tourist attractions in Allahabad