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Virginia State Capitol

The Virginia State Capitol is the seat of state government of the Commonwealth of Virginia, located in Richmond, the third capital city of the U. S. state of Virginia. It houses the oldest elected legislative body in North America, the Virginia General Assembly, first established as the House of Burgesses in 1619; the Capitol was conceived of by Thomas Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clérisseau in France, based on the Maison Carrée in Nîmes. Construction began in 1785 and was completed in 1788; the current Capitol is the eighth built to serve as Virginia's statehouse due to fires during the Colonial period. In the early 20th century, two wings were added. In 1960, it was designated a National Historic Landmark. During the American Colonial period, Virginia's first capital was Jamestown, where the first legislative body, the Virginia House of Burgesses, met in 1619; the new government used four state houses at different times at Jamestown due to fires. The first Representative Legislative Assembly convened on July 30, 1619 at the Jamestown Church which served as the first Capitol.

With the decision to relocate the government inland to Williamsburg in 1699, a grand new Capitol building was completed in November 1705. Nearby was the grand Governor's Palace, it burned in 1747 and was replaced in 1753. On June 29, 1776, Virginians declared their independence from Great Britain and wrote the state's first constitution, thereby creating an independent government four days before Congress voted for the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia on July 4; the Capitol at Williamsburg served until the American Revolutionary War began, when Governor Thomas Jefferson urged that the capital be relocated to Richmond. The building was last used as a capitol on December 24, 1779, when the Virginia General Assembly adjourned to reconvene in 1780 at the new capital, Richmond, it was destroyed. When it convened in Richmond on May 1, 1780, the legislature met in a makeshift building near Shockoe Bottom. By 1788, the "Old Capitol" where the Virginia Ratifying Convention met was at the New Academy by the Chevalier Quesnay.

Plans were begun for a new building to serve the Commonwealth of Virginia. The site selected for a new, permanent building was on Shockoe Hill, a major hill overlooking the falls of the James River. Thomas Jefferson is credited with the overall design of the new Capitol, together with French architect Charles-Louis Clérisseau; the design was modeled after the Maison Carrée at Nîmes in an ancient Roman temple. The only other state to copy an ancient model is the Vermont State House, which based its portico on the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens. Jefferson had Clérisseau substitute the Ionic order over the more ornate Corinthian column designs of the prototype in France. At the suggestion of Clérisseau, it used a variant of the Ionic order designed by Italian student of Andrea Palladio, Vincenzo Scamozzi; the cornerstone was laid on August 18, 1785, with Governor Patrick Henry in attendance, prior to the completion of its design. In 1786, a set of architectural drawings and a plaster model were sent from France to Virginia, where it was executed by Samuel Dobie.

It was sufficiently completed for the General Assembly to meet there in October 1792. It is one of only twelve Capitols in the United States without an external dome; the building served as the Capitol of the Confederacy during the American Civil War. The Capitol, the adjacent Virginia Governor's Mansion, the White House of the Confederacy were spared when departing Confederate troops were ordered to burn the city's warehouses and factories, fires spread out of control in April 1865; the first Flag of the United States to fly over the capitol since secession was hoisted by Lieutenant Johnston L. de Peyster. U. S. President Abraham Lincoln toured the Capitol during his visit to Richmond about a week before his assassination in Washington, DC. From April 6 until April 10, 1865 Lynchburg served as the Capital of Virginia. Under Gov. William Smith, the executive and legislative branches of the commonwealth moved to Lynchburg for the few days between the fall of Richmond and the fall of the Confederacy.

After the end of the American Civil War, during the Reconstruction period, Virginia was under military rule for five years, ending in January 1870. In the ensuing months, a dispute over leadership of the Richmond government resulted in the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals holding a hearing on April 27, 1870, in the large courtroom on the second floor of the Capitol. Several hundred people crowded in. Before the proceedings could begin, the gallery fell to the courtroom floor; this added weight, in addition to the crowd there, caused the entire courtroom floor to give way, falling 40 feet into the House of Delegates chamber. The injured stumbled, crawled or were carried out onto the Capitol lawn during the mayhem that followed. Sixty-two people were 251 injured. There were no women believed to have been present; the dead included a grandson of Patrick Henry, three members of the General Assembly. Injured included both men contesting the Richmond mayoral position, the speaker of the House of Delegates, a judge and ex-governor Henry H. Wells.

Former Confederate general Montgomery D. Corse was blinded by the collapse. Despite demands for the building's demolition, the damage from the tragedy of 1870

2018 in Austria

Events in the year 2018 in Austria. President: Alexander Van der Bellen Chancellor: Sebastian Kurz 2-3 February — Cyclone Burglind12 February — Niklasdorf train collision May 28 – Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz announces to cut benefit for foreigners at 564 euros.he says “The fundamental rule we will introduce is that German will become the key to accessing the full minimum benefit,” “That means that whoever has insufficient language skills will not be able to claim the full minimum benefit". June 8 – Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz announces its closing seven mosques and could expel up to 40 imams from the country; the mosques were accused of preaching Salafi positions and they were funded by turkey. 1 January – Konrad Ragossnig, classical guitarist. 13 January – Walter Schuster, alpine skier 19 January – Ute Bock and humanitarian.26 February – Thomas Pernes, composer 3 March – Franz Pacher, engineer 21 March – Martha Wallner, actress 20 July – Heinz Schilcher, footballer.24 October – Rudolf Gelbard, Holocaust survivor

Paul Bigot

Paul Bigot was a French architect. Bigot was born in Calvados, he studied architecture at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, in the atelier of Louis-Jules André. He won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1900, he became a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts. He is known for Le Plan de Rome, a large architectural model of Ancient Rome, it is a plaster model of about 70 square metres at a scale of 1:400, showing Rome as it would have been in the time of the emperor Constantine I. The model is itself listed as an ancient monument. A second version is in the Royal Museums of History in Brussels. Bigot was the architect of the Institut d'art et d'archéologie, in Paris, completed in 1928. Le Plan de Rome website at University of Caen Biography: "Paul Bigot: a Norman in Rome" Modern Mechanix: Model of Rome Took Thirty Years to Build See: Designed / created by Arch. Paul Bigot, c. 1906–1911. News Report: REMARKABLE RESTORATION OF THE ANCIENT CITY MADE IN MODEL, THE NEW YORK TIMES. Cf. Martin. G. Conde, Rome.

Model's of Ancient Rome: Giuseppe Marcelliani. Works by Paul Bigot