Maréchal Foch is an inter-specific hybrid French red wine grape variety. It was named after the French marshal Ferdinand Foch, who played an important role in the negotiation of the armistice terms during the closing of the First World War, it was developed in France, by grape hybridizer Eugene Kuhlmann. Some believe it to be a cross of Goldriesling with a Vitis riparia - Vitis rupestris cross. Others contend that its pedigree is uncertain and may contain the grape variety Oberlin 595, it ripens early, it is cold-hardy and resistant to fungal diseases. The berry size is small; the quality of wine produced by Marechal Foch vines is dependent upon vine age, the flavor profile associated with many new-world hybrid varietals is much reduced in examples made with fruit picked from older vines. Marechal Foch was commonly grown in the Loire, but today it is limited to a small number of hectares in Europe; because it is a hybrid variety, cultivation for commercial wines in Europe is restricted by European Union regulation.
It is more extensively grown in North America, including southern Ontario and Nova Scotia, as well as the eastern wine growing regions of the United States, where it ripens by the end of September. It is commonly grown in Minnesota and Ohio. In the west, it is grown in Colorado in Delta County. Additionally, it is grown in Oregon's Willamette Valley and Canada's Okanagan Valley and Comox Valley. Marechal Foch was introduced to Canadian vineyards in 1946 by Adhemar de Chaunac of Brights' wines, along with several other French hybrids. However, the extent to which Marechal Foch is grown in Canada has been much reduced, due to an extensive vine-pull program in the early 1980s designed to replace hybrids with species varietals. Marechal Foch is used to make a variety of styles of wine, ranging from a light red wine similar to Beaujolais to more extracted wines with intense dark "inky" purple colour and unique varietal character, sweet, Port-like wines. Wines made from Marechal Foch tend to have strong acidity, aromas of black fruits and, in some cases, toasted wheat, fresh coffee, bitter chocolate, vanilla bean, musk.
In the darker variants of the wine a strong gamey nose is often described. Extracted, more produced wines made from older plantings of Marechal Foch have been marketed as more expensive niche wines with a dedicated following; the grape varieties Léon Millot, Lucie Kuhlman, Marechal Foch came out of the same crossing, are therefore related. Foch, Kuhlmann 188.2, Marschall Foch List of grape varieties Marechal Joffre
Syrah known as Shiraz, is a dark-skinned grape variety grown throughout the world and used to produce red wine. In 1999, Syrah was found to be the offspring of two obscure grapes from southeastern France and Mondeuse Blanche. Syrah should not be confused with Petite Sirah, a cross of Syrah with Peloursin dating from 1880; the style and flavor profile of wines made from Syrah is influenced by the climate where the grapes are grown with moderate climates tending to produce medium to full-bodied wines with medium-plus to high levels of tannins and notes of blackberry and black pepper. In hot climates, Syrah is more full-bodied with softer tannin, jammier fruit and spice notes of licorice and earthy leather. In many regions the acidity and tannin levels of Syrah allow the wines produced to have favorable aging potential. Syrah is used as a blend. Following several years of strong planting, Syrah was estimated in 2004 to be the world's 7th most grown grape at 142,600 hectares, it can be found throughout the globe from France to New World wine regions such as: Chile, South Africa, the Hawke's Bay, New Zealand and Washington.
It can be found in several Australian wine regions such as: Barossa, Coonawarra, Hunter Valley, Margaret River and McLaren Vale. Syrah has a long documented history in the Rhône region of southeastern France, but it was not known if it had originated in that region. In 1998, a study conducted by Carole Meredith's research group in the Department of Viticulture and Enology at University of California, Davis used DNA typing and extensive grape reference material from the viticultural research station in Montpellier, France to conclude that Syrah was the offspring of the grape varieties Dureza and Mondeuse blanche. Dureza, a dark-skinned grape variety from the Ardèche region in France, has all but disappeared from the vineyards, the preservation of such varieties is a speciality of Montpellier. Mondeuse blanche is a white grape variety cultivated in the Savoy region, is still found in small amounts in that region's vineyards today. Both varieties are somewhat obscure today, have never achieved anything near Syrah's fame or popularity, there is no record of them having been cultivated at long distances from their present homes.
Thus, both of Syrah's parents come from a limited area in southeastern France, close to northern Rhône. Based on these findings, the researchers have concluded Syrah originated from northern Rhône; the DNA typing leaves no room for doubt in this matter, the numerous other hypotheses of the grape's origin which have been forwarded during the years all lack support in the form of documentary evidence or ampelographic investigations, be it by methods of classical botany or DNA. Instead, they seem to have been based or on the name or synonyms of the variety. Varying orthography for grape names render dubious any name-based evidence of origins. Origins such as Syracuse or the famous Iranian city of Shiraz have been proposed while the genomic studies had yet to be done; the parentage information, does not reveal how old the grape variety is, i.e. when the pollination of a Mondeuse blanche vine by Dureza took place, leading to the original Syrah seed plant. In the year AD 77, Pliny the Elder wrote in his Naturalis Historia about the wines of Vienne, where the Allobroges made famous and prized wine from a dark-skinned grape variety that had not existed some 50 years earlier, in Virgil's age.
Pliny called the vines of this wine Allobrogica, it has been speculated that it could be today's Syrah. However, the description of the wine would fit, for example and Pliny's observation that vines of Allobrogica were resistant to cold is not consistent with Syrah, it is called Syrah in its country of origin, France, as well as in the rest of Europe, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa. The name "Shiraz" became popular for this grape variety in Australia, where it has long been established as the most grown dark-skinned variety. In Australia, it was commonly called Hermitage up to the late 1980s, but since that name is a French Protected Designation of Origin, this naming practice caused a problem in some export markets and was dropped; the grape's many other synonyms are used in various parts of the world, including Antourenein noir, Candive, Hignin noir, Marsanne noir, Sirac, Syrac and Sereine. Legends of Syrah's origins come from one of Shiraz; because Shiraz, Capital of the Persian Empire, produced the well-known Shirazi wine, legends claim the Syrah grape originated in Shiraz and was brought to Rhône.
At least two different versions of the myth are reported, giving different accounts of how the variety is supposed to have been brought from Shiraz to Rhône and differing up to 1,800 years in dating this event. In one version, the Phocaeans could have brought Syrah/Shiraz to their colony around Marseilles, founded around 600 BC by the Greeks; the grape would later have made its way to northern Rhône, never colonized by the Phocaeans. No documentary evidence exists to back up this legend, it requires the variety to vanish from the Marseilles region without leaving any trace; the legend connecting Syrah with the city of Shiraz in Iran may, however, be of French origin. James Busby wrote in Journal of a recent visit to the principal vin
Roussanne is a white wine grape grown in the Rhône wine region in France, where it is blended with Marsanne. It is the only other white variety, besides Marsanne, allowed in the northern Rhône appellations of Crozes-Hermitage AOC, Hermitage AOC and Saint-Joseph AOC. In the southern Rhône appellation of Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC it is one of six white grapes allowed, where it may be blended into red wines. Roussanne is planted in various wine-growing regions of the New World, such as California, Washington and Australia as well as European regions such as Crete and Spain; the berries are distinguished by their russet color when ripe—roux is French for the reddish-brown color russet, is the root for the variety's name. The aroma of Roussanne is reminiscent of a flowery herbal tea. In warm climates, it produces wines of richness, with flavors of honey and pear, full body. In cooler climates it is more delicate, with higher acidity. In many regions, it is a difficult variety to grow, with vulnerability to mildew, poor resistance to drought and wind, late and/or uneven ripening, irregular yields.
The Roussanne vine ripens late and is characterized by its irregular yields that can decrease further due to poor wind resistance. The vine is susceptible to powdery mildew and rot which makes it a difficult vine to cultivate. In recent years, the development of better clones has alleviated some of these difficulties; the grape prefers a long growing season but should be harvested before the potential alcohol reaches 14% which would result in the finished wine being out of balance. If picked too soon, the grape can suffer from high acidity. During winemaking, Roussanne is prone to oxidation without care being taken by the winemaker; the wine can benefit from a controlled use of oak. In blends, Roussanne adds aromatics and acidity with the potential to age and further develop in the bottle, it is that Roussanne originated in the northern Rhône where it is today an important component in the wines of Crozes-Hermitage, Saint-Joseph and the Saint-Péray AOC where it is used for both still and sparkling wine production.
In recent years plantings of Roussanne have declined as Marsanne gains more of a foothold in the northern Rhône due to its high productivity and ease of cultivation. In the southern Rhône, Roussanne is a primary component in the white wines of Châteauneuf-du-Pape where it can comprise as much as 80–100% of the wine, it can be found in some white wines from the Côtes du Rhône AOC. Outside of the Rhône, the Roussanne is grown in Provence and the Languedoc-Roussillon région where it is sometimes blended with Chardonnay and Vermentino in some vin de pays. In Savoie, the grape is known as Bergeron where it produces aromatic wines in Chignin. Outside France it is grown in the Italian wine regions of Liguria and Tuscany where it is a permitted grape in Montecarlo bianco. In Australia, it was believed to have been brought to the continent to be blended with Shiraz. Documents dating as far back as 1882 have noted the presence of Roussanne plantings in Victoria. Today it is used both as a varietal wine.
In California, it is planted in the Central Coast AVA and the northern region of Yuba County. It has recently been grown in the northern Golan Heights and produced as a wine in Israel. Along with other Rhône varieties, it is grown in South Africa. In Washington State, the first experimental plantings of Roussanne were planted by White Heron Cellars in 1990. In recent years, plantings have increased as more Washington winemakers experiment with Rhone varietals with grapes from Ciel du Cheval, Alder Ridge and Destiny Ridge. Washington Roussanne is blended with Viognier and is characterized by its fruit salad profile of notes that range from apple, lime and citrus to cream and honey; the Texas High Plains is proving to be well suited for growing high quality Roussanne. In New Jersey, Unionville Vineyards grows Roussanne and other Rhone varieties. Unionville Vineyards plans to release their first Marsanne-Roussanne in 2015. In the 1980s, California winemaker Randall Grahm of Bonny Doon Vineyard smuggled cuttings of Roussanne that he got from a vineyard in Châteauneuf-du-Pape.
Under California regulations, vines from outside the state are quarantined for a lengthy period which includes inspection for grape diseases and ampelographical identification at University of California, Davis. Grahm imported his cuttings in his suitcase and planted them at his vineyard in the Santa Cruz Mountains where he began making a Rhone style blend with Marsanne. In 1994, Grahm sold some of his Roussanne cuttings to Sonoma Grapevine, one of the largest nurseries in the state, who began to propagate the vines and sell them to wineries and other nurseries which spread these Roussanne vines across the state. One of the wineries that bought these cuttings was the California cult winery, Caymus Vineyards, who planted them in their Monterey vineyards. In 1998, John Alban of Alban Vineyards was visiting Caymus and noted that the Roussanne plantings looked more like Viognier than Roussanne. Samples were sent for DNA analysis and the result proved that the plantings were indeed Viognier as were all the vines that came from Grahm's original "Roussanne" vineyard.
Wines made from Roussanne are characterized by their intense aromatics which can include notes of herbal tea. In its youth it shows more floral and fruit notes, such as pear, which become more nutty as the wine ages. Roussanne from the Savoie region is marked by pepper and herbal notes. Wine expert Oz Clarke notes that Roussanne wine and Roussanne dominated blends can drink well in the first 3 to 4 years of their youth before entering a "dumb pha
Sangiovese is a red Italian wine grape variety that derives its name from the Latin sanguis Jovis, "the blood of Jupiter". Though it is the grape of most of central Italy from Romagna down to Lazio and Sicily, outside Italy it is most famous as the only component of Brunello di Montalcino and Rosso di Montalcino and the main component of the blends Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Morellino di Scansano, although it can be used to make varietal wines such as Sangiovese di Romagna and the modern "Super Tuscan" wines like Tignanello. Sangiovese was well known by the 16th century. Recent DNA profiling by José Vouillamoz of the Istituto Agrario di San Michele all’Adige suggests that Sangiovese's ancestors are Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo; the former is well known as an ancient variety in Tuscany, the latter is an almost-extinct relic from the Calabria, the toe of Italy. At least fourteen Sangiovese clones exist, of. An attempt to classify the clones into Sangiovese grosso and Sangiovese piccolo families has gained little evidential support.
Young Sangiovese has fresh fruity flavours of strawberry and a little spiciness, but it takes on oaky tarry, flavours when aged in barrels. While not as aromatic as other red wine varieties such as Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Sangiovese has a flavour profile of sour red cherries with earthy aromas and tea leaf notes. Wines made from Sangiovese have medium-plus tannins and high acidity. Early theories on the origin of Sangiovese dated the grape to the time of Roman winemaking, it was postulated that the grape was first cultivated in Tuscany by the Etruscans from wild Vitis vinifera vines. The literal translation of the grape's name, the "blood of Jove", refers to the Roman god Jupiter. According to legend, the name was coined by monks from the commune of Santarcangelo di Romagna in what is now the province of Rimini in the Emilia-Romagna region of east-central Italy; the first documented mention of Sangiovese was in the 1590 writings of Giovanvettorio Soderini. Identifying the grape as "Sangiogheto" Soderini notes that in Tuscany the grape makes good wine but if the winemaker is not careful, it risks turning into vinegar.
While there is no conclusive proof that Sangiogheto is Sangiovese, most wine historians consider this to be the first historical mention of the grape. Regardless, it would not be until the 18th century that Sangiovese would gain widespread attention throughout Tuscany, being with Malvasia and Trebbiano the most planted grapes in the region. In 1738, Cosimo Trinci described wines made from Sangiovese as excellent when blended with other varieties but hard and acidic when made as a wine by itself. In 1883, the Italian writer Giovanni Cosimo Villifranchi echoed a similar description about the quality of Sangiovese being dependent on the grapes with which it was blended; the winemaker and politician, Bettino Ricasoli formulated one of the early recipes for Chianti when he blended his Sangiovese with a sizable amount of Canaiolo. In the wines of Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Sangiovese would experience a period of popularity in the late 19th and early 20th century.
In the 1970s, Tuscan winemakers began a period of innovation by introducing modern oak treatments and blending the grape with non-Italian varietals such as Cabernet Sauvignon in the creation of wines that were given the collective marketing sobriquet "Super Tuscans". In 2004, DNA profiling done by researchers at San Michele All'Adige revealed the grape to be the product of a crossing between Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo. While Ciliegiolo has a long history tied to the Tuscan region, Calabrese Montenuovo has its origins in southern Italy, where it originated in the Calabria region before moving its way up to Campania; this means that the genetic heritage of Sangiovese is half Tuscan and half southern Italian. Where the crossing between Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo occurred is not known, with some believing the cross happened in Tuscany while other ampelographers suggesting it may have happened in southern Italy. Evidence for this latter theory is the proliferation of seedless mutations of Sangiovese, known under various synonyms, throughout various regions of southern Italy including Campania, Corinto nero, grown on the island of Lipari just north of Sicily and Tuccanese from the Apulia region in the heel of the Italian boot.
In Campania, among the many seedless mutations of Sangiovese still growing in the region are Nerello from the commune of Savelli, Nerello Campotu from the commune of Motta San Giovanni, Puttanella from Mandatoriccio and Vigna del Conte. While the parentage of Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo for Sangiovese was established based on 50 genetic markers and is accepted by ampelographers, some wine texts publish contradictory information that Ciliegiolo is an offspring of Sangiovese; this belief is based on a 2007 study of 38 genetic markers stating that suggested that Ciliegiolo was the product of Sangiovese crossing with an obscure Portuguese wine grape, Muscat Rouge de Madère, once grown on the island of Madeira as well as the Douro and Lisboa wine regions of Portugal. In addition to support of fewer genetic markers, this alternative theory is disputed by geneticists such as José Vouillamoz and Masters of Wine like Jancis Robinson because Muscat Rouge de Madère has no history of being cultivated in Italy.
Furthermore, while man
Nebbiolo, or Nebieul is an Italian red wine grape variety predominantly associated with its native Piedmont region, where it makes the Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita wines of Barolo, Roero and Ghemme. Nebbiolo is thought to derive its name from the Italian word nebbia which means "fog." During harvest, which takes place late in October, a deep, intense fog sets into the Langhe region where many Nebbiolo vineyards are located. Alternative explanations refers to the fog-like milky veil that forms over the berries as they reach maturity, or that the name is derived instead from the Italian word nobile, meaning noble. Nebbiolo produces lightly-colored red wines which can be tannic in youth with scents of tar and roses; as they age, the wines take on a characteristic brick-orange hue at the rim of the glass and mature to reveal other aromas and flavors such as violets, wild herbs, raspberries, truffles and prunes. Nebbiolo wines can require years of aging to balance the tannins with other characteristics.
Ampelographers believe that Nebbiolo is indigenous to the Piedmont region, though some DNA evidence suggests that it may have originated in Lombardy, just to the east. In the 1st century AD, Pliny the Elder noted the exceptional quality of the wine produced in Pollenzo region located northwest of what is now the Barolo DOCG zone. While Pliny does not explicitly name the grape responsible for these Pollenzo wines, his description of the wine bears similarities to descriptions of Nebbiolo-based wines, making this the first notation of wine made from Nebbiolo in the Piedmont region; the first explicit mention of Nebbiolo dates to 1268, in which a wine known as "nibiol" was described as growing in Rivoli near Turin. This was followed by a 1303 account of a producer in the Roero district described as having a barrel of "nebiolo". In the 1304 treatise Liber Ruralium Commodorum, the Italian jurist Pietro Crescenzi described wine made from "nubiola" as being of excellent quality. In the 15th century, statutes in the region of La Morra demonstrated the high esteem that the Nebbiolo vine had in the area.
According to these laws, the penalties for cutting down a Nebbiolo vine ranged from a heavy fine to having the right hand cut off or hanging for repeat offenders. The grape first captured attention outside Piedmont in the 18th century, when the British were looking for alternative wine sources to Bordeaux due to prolonged political conflicts with the French. However, the lack of easy transport from Piedmont to London would keep the Piedmontese wine from having the enduring relationship with British connoisseurship, associated with Bordeaux and Sherry. Nonetheless, plantings of Nebbiolo continued to grow during the 19th century until the phylloxera epidemic hit. With vast swaths of vineyards devastated by the louse, some vineyard owners decided to replant with different grape varieties, with Barbera being a significant beneficiary. Today, Nebbiolo covers less than 6% of Piedmont vineyards. In 2004, research at the University of California-Davis and Istituto Agrario di San Michele all’Adige found Nebbiolo to be related to Piedmont by way of two aromatic grape varieties — the Freisa grape of Piedmont and the French Rhone variety Viognier.
This research would further suggest a parent-offspring relationship between Nebbiolo and several Italian grapes including Freisa, Nebbiolo Rosé, Vespolina of the Piedmont region, the Lombardy grapes Negrara and Rossola nera. Additional DNA analysis suggest a parent-offspring relationship with the Lombardy grape Brugnola thought to be only a synonym for the Emilia-Romagna grape Fortana. Compared to the annual growth cycle of other Piedmontese grape varieties, Nebbiolo is one of the first varieties to bud and last variety to ripen with harvest taking place in mid to late October. In some vintages, producers are able to pick and complete fermentation of their Barbera and Dolcetto plantings before Nebbiolo is harvested. To aid in ripening, producers will plant Nebbiolo in the most favored sites on south and southwestern facing slopes, which give the grape more access to direct sunlight; the most ideal location is at an elevation between 150 and 300 meters and must provide some natural shelter from wind.
The vine is susceptible to coulure if there is wet weather during budbreak or flowering. While rains during this period can affect yield and quantity, rains that occur after the period of veraison can have a detrimental effect on quality; the most rated bottles of Piedmont Nebbiolo tend to come from vintages that had dry weather during September & October. Nebbiolo needs sufficient warmth to develop the sugars and fruit flavors needed to balance the grape's high acidity and tannins. In cooler climate areas, such as the subalpine regions of Carema and Donnaz, the grape will produce medium bodied wines with bracing acidity and tannins that need the benefit of a warm vintage. Nebbiolo does not adapt well to various vineyard soil types, preferring soils with high concentration of calcareous marl such as those found on the right bank of the Tanaro river around Alba where Barolo and Barbaresco are produced; the grape can thrive in sandy soils, such as those on the left bank of the Tanaro around the Roero district but the wines from this soil type tend not to be as perfumed - lacking in particular the classic tar aromas.
The acidic pH of the sandy Roero soils tend to produce early maturing wines. The lighter wines of Ghemme and Gattinara come from the acidic porphyry soils of the hills between Novara and Vercelli. In the lower Aosta Valley, the soil has a high
The Concord grape is a cultivar derived from the grape species Vitis labrusca that are used as table grapes, wine grapes and juice grapes. They are used to make grape jelly, grape juice, grape pies, grape-flavored soft drinks, candy; the grape is sometimes used to make wine kosher wine. Traditionally, most commercially produced Concord wines have been finished sweet, but dry versions are possible if adequate fruit ripeness is achieved, it is named after the town in Massachusetts. The skin of a Concord grape is dark blue or purple, is covered with a lighter-coloured epicuticular wax "bloom" that can be rubbed off, it is a slip-skin variety, meaning that the skin is separated from the fruit. Concord grapes have large seeds and are aromatic; the Concord grape is prone to the physiological disorder Black leaf. In the United States 417,800 tons were produced in 2011; the major growing areas are the Finger Lakes District of New York, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Southwestern Michigan, the Yakima Valley in Washington.
Concord grapes are used to make grape jelly and are only available as table grapes in New England. They are the usual grapes used in the jelly for the traditional peanut butter and jelly sandwich, Concord grape jelly is a staple product in U. S. supermarkets. Concord grapes are used for grape juice, their distinctive purple color has led to grape-flavored soft drinks and candy being artificially colored purple while methyl anthranilate, a chemical present in Concord grapes, is used to give "grape" flavor; the dark colored Concord juice is used in some churches as a non-alcoholic alternative to wine in the service of communion. Concord grapes have been used to make sacramental wine; the oldest sacramental winery in America, O-Neh-Da Vineyard, still produces a Concord wine for the altar. Non-toxic sprays that contain methyl anthranilate can be sprayed on the bushes as a cost-effective bird control management; the spray repellent renders the foliage unpalatable to the birds. The Concord grape was developed in 1849 by Ephraim Wales Bull in Massachusetts.
Bull planted seeds from wild Vitis labrusca and evaluated over 22,000 seedlings before finding what he considered the ideal Concord grape. Genetic testing confirmed that V. labrusca has one-third V. vinifera parentage. In 1853, Bull's grape won first place at the Boston Horticultural Society Exhibition, it was introduced to the market in 1854. Dr. Thomas Bramwell Welch developed the first Concord grape juice in his house in 1869. Through the process of pasteurization, the juice did not ferment. Welch transferred the juice operations to Westfield, New York, processing 300 tons of grapes into juice in 1897. Muscadine Scuppernong Concord Grape Association National Grape Cooperative
Grüner Veltliner is a white wine grape variety grown in Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. The leaves of the grape vine are five-lobed with bunches that are long but compact, deep green grapes that ripen in mid-late October in the Northern Hemisphere. In 2008, Grüner Veltliner plantations in Austria stood at 17,151 hectares, it accounts for 32.6% of all vineyards in the country all of it being grown in the northeast of the country. Thus, it is the most-planted grape variety in Austria; some is made into sparkling wine in the far northeast around Poysdorf. Along the Danube to the west of Vienna, in Wachau and Kamptal, it grows with Riesling in terraces reminiscent of Donau, on slopes so steep they can retain any soil; the result is a pure, mineral wine capable of long aging, that stands comparison with some of the great wines of the world. In recent blind tastings organized by the Austrian Wine Marketing Board, Grüner Veltliners have beaten world-class Chardonnays from the likes of Mondavi and Maison Louis Latour.
Outside of Austria, Grüner Veltliner is the second most grown white grape variety in the Czech Republic, encompassing 2,120 hectares and resulting in 11% of Czech wine production. In recent years a few US wineries have started to grow and bottle Grüner Veltliner, including wineries and vineyards in Massachusetts, Maryland, the North Fork of Long Island AVA and Finger Lakes AVA regions of New York State, Napa Valley, Clarksburg AVA, Monterey AVA and Santa Ynez Valley AVA in California, Ashtabula County, Southern New Jersey winery Bellview Winery and along the Lake Michigan Shore AVA of Southwest Michigan. Gruner Veltliner is planted in Australia in the Adelaide Hills wine region in South Australia, as well as the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada; some ampelographers have long assumed that Grüner Veltliner is not related to the other varieties with "Veltliner" in their name, or that it is only distantly related. A first DNA analysis in the late 1990s secured Traminer as one parent of Grüner Veltliner, but was not able to identify the other parent among the candidates studied.
The other parent was found to be an unnamed variety of which only a single, abandoned old and weakened vine was found in Sankt Georgen am Leithagebirge outside Eisenstadt in Austria. The grape is therefore referred to as St. Georgener-Rebe or "St. Georgen-vine". Grüner Veltliner has a reputation of being a food-friendly wine and is a popular offering on restaurant wine lists, it is made into wines of many different styles - much is intended for drinking young in the Heuriger of Vienna, a little is made into sparkling wine, but some is capable of long aging. The steep, Donau-like vineyards of the Danube west of Vienna produce pure, mineral Grüner Veltliners intended for laying down. Down in the plains and peach flavors are more apparent, with spicy notes of pepper and sometimes tobacco. Grüner Veltliner has been believed to date back to Roman times, with its name being derived from Veltlin in northern Italy, though ampelographers and wine historians have yet to find a link between the grape and the Italian commune.
The grape is indigenous to Austria. The current name appeared in a document for the first time in 1855. Only by the 1930s was Grüner Veltliner established as the standard name of the grape; until the Second World War it was regarded as just another Austrian grape. It took Lenz Moser's Hochkultur system of vine training to get the best out of it, it expanded in plantation from the 1950s to become Austria's most planted variety. In recent years, Grüner Veltliner has seen an uptick in interest following the results of a 2002 wine tasting organized by Masters of Wine Jancis Robinson and Tim Atkin. Here Grüner Veltliner from Austria beat out several acclaimed white Grand cru wines from Burgundy. In 2007, DNA analysis confirmed that Grüner Veltliner was a natural crossing of Savagnin and an obscure Austrian grapevine from the village of Sankt Georgen am Leithagebirge located outside Eisenstadt in the Burgenland region of eastern Austria; the vine was first found in 2000 in an overgrown part of a pasture in a location where there had not been any vineyard since the late 19th century, is assumed to have been the last vine in this location for over a century.
Local experts were not able to determine the variety of the vine. Only when it was threatened to be ripped out in 2005 additional samples were taken and analyzed at Klosterneuburg. Genetic analysis in the following years by Ferdinand Regner was able to determine that St. Georgener-Rebe is a parent variety to Grüner Veltliner. St. Georgener-Rebe was once known under the synonym Grün Muskatellar but appears to have no direct relationship to the Muscat family of grapes. In February 2011, the single surviving vine of St. Georgener-Rebe, thought to be over 500 years old, was vandalized and cut in several places by an unknown assailant; the vine survived with the Austrian government designating the vine as a protected natural monument. Ampelographers are propagating cuttings of the vine for vineyard plantings and commercial cultivation. Through its parent, Savagnin, Grüner Veltliner is a half sibling of Rotgipfler and is either a grandchild or a half-sibling to Pinot noir which has a parent-offspring relationship with Savagnin.
The nature of this relationship is unclear since DNA profiling has not yet determined between Pinot and Savagnin which grape is the pare