Nancy is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, the French province of the same name. The metropolitan area of Nancy had a population of 434,565 inhabitants at the 2011 census, making it the 20th largest urban area in France; the population of the city of Nancy proper was 104,321 in 2014. The motto of the city is Non inultus premor, Latin for "I'm not touched with impunity"—a reference to the thistle, a symbol of Lorraine. Place Stanislas, a large square built between March 1752 and November 1755 by Stanislaus I of Poland to link the medieval old town of Nancy and the new town built under Charles III in the 17th century, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first place in France and in the top four in the world; the earliest signs of human settlement in the area date to 800 BC. Early settlers were attracted by mined iron ore and a ford in the Meurthe River. A small fortified town named Nanciacum was built by Gérard, Duke of Lorraine around 1050.
Nancy was burned in 1218 at the end of the War of Succession of Champagne, conquered by Emperor Frederick II. It was rebuilt in stone over the next few centuries as it grew in importance as the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's next child; this turned out to be Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Duke François of Lorraine, who reluctantly agreed to exchange his ancestral lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; the exiled Polish king Stanislaus Leszczyński, father-in-law of the French king Louis XV, was given the vacant duchy of Lorraine. Under his nominal rule, Nancy experienced growth and a flowering of Baroque culture and architecture. Stanislaus oversaw the construction of Place Stanislaus, a major square and development connecting the old medieval with a newer part of the city.
After Stanislaus' death in 1766, the duchy of Lorraine returned to the status of a regular French province. Nancy lost its position as a residential capital city with patronage; as unrest surfaced within the French armed forces during the French Revolution, a full-scale mutiny, known as the Nancy affair, took place in Nancy in the latter part of summer 1790. A few units loyal to the government shot or imprisoned the mutineers. In 1871, Nancy remained French; the flow of refugees reaching Nancy doubled its population in three decades. Artistic, academic and industrial excellence flourished, establishing what is still the Capital of Lorraine's trademark to this day. Nancy and other areas of France were occupied by German forces from 1940. During the Lorraine Campaign of World War II, Nancy was liberated from Nazi Germany by the U. S. Third Army in September 1944, at the Battle of Nancy. In 1988, Pope John Paul II visited Nancy. In 2005, French President Jacques Chirac, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Polish President Aleksander Kwaśniewski inaugurated the renovated Place Stanislas.
It is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nancy is situated on the left bank of the river Meurthe, about 10 km upstream from its confluence with the Moselle; the Marne–Rhine Canal runs through the city, parallel to the Meurthe. Nancy is surrounded by hills that are about 150 m higher than the city center, situated at 200 m above mean sea level; the area of Nancy proper is small: 15 km2. Its built-up area is continuous with those of its adjacent suburbs; the neighboring communes of Nancy are: Jarville-la-Malgrange, Malzéville, Maxéville, Saint-Max, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy and Villers-lès-Nancy. The oldest part of Nancy is the quarter Vieille Ville – Léopold, which contains the 14th century Porte de la Craffe, the Palace of the Dukes of Lorraine, the Porte Désilles and the 19th century St-Epvre basilica. Adjacent to its south is the quarter Charles III – Centre Ville, the 16th–18th century "new town"; this quarter contains the famous Place Stanislas, the Nancy Cathedral, the Opéra national de Lorraine and the main railway station.
The population of the city proper experienced a small decrease in population from 2009 to 2014, placing it behind Metz as the second largest city in the Lorraine. However, the urban area of Metz experienced population decline from 1990 to 2010 while the urban area of Nancy grew over the same period, becoming the largest urban area in Lorraine and second largest in the "Grand Est" region of northeastern France. Within the Nancy metropolitan area in recent years, the city population declined at the same time as a small increase in the population of its urban area. Nancy has an oceanic climate, although a bit more extreme than most of the larger French cities. By the standards of France it is a "continental" climate with a certain degree of maritimy; the temperatures have a distinct variation of the temperate zone, both during the day and between seasons but without being different. Winters are dry in freezing climates. Summers are not warm enough. Mists are frequent in autumn and the winds are light and not too violent.
Precipitation tends to be less abundant than in the west of the country. Sunshine hours are identical to Paris and the snowy days are the same as Stra
Emmanuelle Béart is a French film actress, who has appeared in over 60 film and television productions since 1972. An eight-time César Award nominee, she won the César Award for Best Supporting Actress for the 1986 film Manon des Sources, her other film roles include La Belle Noiseuse, A Heart in Winter, Nelly and Mr. Arnaud, Mission: Impossible and 8 Women. Béart was born Emmanuelle Béhart-Hasson in St. Tropez, on the French Riviera, the daughter of Geneviève Galéa, a former model, of Croatian and Maltese descent, Guy Béart, a singer and poet, her father's family was Jewish. In her late teens she spent her summer vacation with the English-speaking family of a close friend of her father in Montreal, she stayed with Beverly Mellen and William Sofin and their two children Andrew and Sean Sofin, who took her in as their own. At the end of the summer the family invited her to stay with them and complete her baccalauréat at Collège international Marie de France, they have remained close friends. Béart got an acting role in 1976 film Tomorrow's Children.
In her teens she appeared in bit parts in television. Upon graduating from the Collège International Marie de France in Montreal, she returned to France to attend drama school in Paris. A short time she was cast in her first adult role in a film, in 1986 she achieved fame with her role opposite Yves Montand, playing the avenging daughter in French hit Manon des Sources. For her performance, she won the 1987 César Award for Best Supporting Actress. In 1995 she won the Silver St. George for Best Actress award at the 19th Moscow International Film Festival for her starring role in film A French Woman. In addition to her award for Best Supporting Actress, she has been nominated for another seven César Awards for Most Promising Actress and Best Actress. With Most Promising Actress nominations for Love on the Quiet. In the mid-1980s, Béart began a relationship with Daniel Auteuil. Béart was romantically linked to music producer David François Moreau and to film producer Vincent Meyer for two years until his suicide in May 2003.
She has three children: Nelly Auteuil, Johan Moreau. She married actor Michaël Cohen on 13 August 2008 at Genappe in Belgium, in 2009 they adopted a child from Ethiopia, named Surafel. Béart and Cohen separated in 2011. In addition to her screen work, Béart is known for her social activism, she is an ambassador for UNICEF, has made news for her opposition to France's anti-immigration legislation. In 1996, she made headlines when, defending the rights of the "sans-papiers", she was removed after her group’s occupation of a Parisian church. In March 2012, Béart spoke out against plastic surgery in Le Monde, saying that she regretted having an operation on her lips in 1990 when she was 27. Le grand Poucet Zacharius Raison perdue La femme de sa vie Et demain viendra le jour Les jupons de la révolution D'Artagnan et les trois mousquetaires Gaffez, Fabien. Emmanuelle Béart. Nouveau Monde Editions. ISBN 978-2-84736-090-5. Emmanuelle Béart on IMDb Emmanuelle Béart at AllMovie Emmanuelle Béart at AlloCiné
Béatrice Dalle is a French actress. Dalle was born in Finistère, France, as Béatrice Cabarrou. In 1985, she married the painter Jean-François Dalle, whom she divorced in 1988. Working as a model when she met filmmaker Jean-Jacques Beineix, Beineix cast her in the lead role of the 1986 film 37°2 le matin which received BAFTA and Oscar nominations for Best Foreign Language Film, made a star of Dalle, she went on to appear in a series of major roles in French films, including the 1989 film Chimère, entered into the 1989 Cannes Film Festival. She is seen in a feature role in the 1991 music video "Move To Memphis" by Norwegian band a-ha, she starred in Jim Jarmusch's Night on Earth in 1991. In 1997, she was cast in her first film made in the United States. In 2001, Dalle appeared in Trouble Every Day, in which she played a vampire. More she starred in the 2007 film À l'intérieur, in which she played a cruel psychopath stalking a pregnant woman. Dalle's personal life has been controversial, she has been arrested on several occasions for drug possession and assault.
In January, 2005, while making a film about prison life in Brest, Dalle met Guenaël Meziani, serving a 12-year prison sentence for assaulting and raping his ex-girlfriend. She married him after 24 one-hour visits, spoke on his behalf at hearings for his early release. However, according to a 2015 profile of Dalle, she said the marriage was "a complete disaster" once Meziani was released from prison, their divorce was finalized in July 2014. In 2018, Dalle was criticised for celebrating the escape from prison of a violent criminal serving a 25-year sentence for a robbery in which a police officer was killed. Interviewed on the French TV programme Divan in 2016, Dalle said that, when she used to work in a morgue and friends sold body parts of corpses, she said that, while on acid, she ate a dead man's ear. Ursini, James. "Beatrice Dalle: The earthy sensualist". Femme Fatale: Cinema's Most Unforgettable Lethal Ladies. Béatrice Dalle on IMDb Béatrice Dalle at AllMovie Béatrice Dalle at AlloCiné
This article is a general introduction to French literature. For detailed information on French literature in specific historic periods, see the separate historical articles in the template to the right. French literature is speaking, literature written in the French language by citizens of France. Literature written in French language, by citizens of other nations such as Belgium, Canada, Algeria, etc. is referred to as Francophone literature. France itself ranks first in the list of Nobel Prizes in literature by country. French literature has been for French people an object of national pride for centuries, it has been one of the most influential components of the literature of Europe; the French language is a Romance language derived from Latin and influenced principally by Celtic and Frankish. Beginning in the 11th century, literature written in medieval French was one of the oldest vernacular literatures in western Europe and it became a key source of literary themes in the Middle Ages across the continent.
Although the European prominence of French literature was eclipsed in part by vernacular literature in Italy in the 14th century, literature in France in the 16th century underwent a major creative evolution, through the political and artistic programs of the Ancien Régime, French literature came to dominate European letters in the 17th century. In the 18th century, French became the literary lingua franca and diplomatic language of western Europe, French letters have had a profound impact on all European and American literary traditions while at the same time being influenced by these other national traditions Africa, the far East have brought the French language to non-European cultures that are transforming and adding to the French literary experience today. Under the aristocratic ideals of the Ancien Régime, the nationalist spirit of post-revolutionary France, the mass educational ideals of the Third Republic and modern France, the French have come to have a profound cultural attachment to their literary heritage.
Today, French schools emphasize the study of novels and poetry. The literary arts are sponsored by the state and literary prizes are major news; the Académie française and the Institut de France are important linguistic and artistic institutions in France, French television features shows on writers and poets. Literature matters to the people of France and plays an important role in their sense of identity; as of 2006, French literary people have been awarded more Nobel Prizes in Literature than novelists and essayists of any other country. In 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, but he declined it, stating that "It is not the same thing if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre or if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre, Nobel Prize winner. A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution if it takes place in the most honorable form." For most of the 20th century, French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nation. The following French or French language authors have won a Nobel Prize in Literature: 1901 – Sully Prudhomme 1904 – Frédéric Mistral 1911 – Maurice Maeterlinck 1915 – Romain Rolland 1921 – Anatole France 1927 – Henri Bergson 1937 – Roger Martin du Gard 1947 – André Gide 1952 – François Mauriac 1957 – Albert Camus 1960 – Saint-John Perse 1964 – Jean-Paul Sartre 1969 – Samuel Beckett 1985 – Claude Simon 2000 – Gao Xingjian 2008 – J. M. G.
Le Clézio 2014 – Patrick Modiano Grand Prix de Littérature Policière – created in 1948, for crime and detective fiction. Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française – created 1918. Prix Décembre – created in 1989. Prix Femina – created 1904, decided each year by an female jury, although the authors of the winning works do not have to be women. Prix Goncourt – created 1903, given to the author of "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year". Prix Goncourt des Lycéens – created in 1987. Prix Littéraire Valery Larbaud – created in 1957. Prix Médicis – created 1958, awarded to an author whose "fame does not yet match their talent." Prix Renaudot – created in 1926. Prix Tour-Apollo Award – 1972–1990, given to the best science fiction novel published in French during the preceding year. Prix des Deux Magots – created in 1933. Middle Ages anonymous – La Chanson de Roland Chrétien de Troyes – Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion, Lancelot, ou le Chevalier à la charrette various – Tristan et Iseult anonymous – Lancelot-Graal known as the prose Lancelot or the Vulgate Cycle Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung – Roman de la Rose Christine de Pizan – "The Book of the City of Ladies" 16th century François Rabelais – La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel 17th century Honoré d'Urfé – L'Astrée Madame de Lafayette – La Princesse de Clèves 18th century Abbé Prévost – Manon Lescaut Voltaire – Candide, Zadig ou la Destinée Jean-Jacques Rousseau – Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse Denis Diderot – Jacques le fataliste (Jacques the Fata
Medieval French literature
Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. The material and cultural conditions in France and associated territories around the year 1100 unleashed what the scholar Charles Homer Haskins termed the "Renaissance of the 12th century" and, for over the next hundred years, writers, "jongleurs", "clercs" and poets produced a profusion of remarkable creative works in all genres. Although the dynastic struggles of the Hundred Years' War and the Black Death pandemic of the fourteenth century in many ways curtailed this creative production, the fifteenth century laid the groundwork for the French Renaissance. For historical background, see History of France, France in the Middle Ages or Middle Ages. For other national literary traditions, see Medieval literature. Up to 1340, the Romance languages spoken in the Middle Ages in the northern half of what is today France are collectively known as "ancien français" or "langues d'oïl".
The language in southern France is known as "langue d'oc" or the Occitan language family known under the name of one of its dialects, the Provençal language). The Western peninsula of Brittany spoke a Celtic language. Catalan was spoken in the South, Germanic languages and Franco-Provençal were spoken in the East; the various dialects of Old French developed into. Languages which developed from dialects of Old French include Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois, Gallo, Norman, Anglo-Norman, Poitevin and Walloon. From 1340 to the beginning of the seventeenth century, a generalized French language became distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages; this is referred to as Middle French. The vast majority of literary production in Old French is in verse; the French language does not have long and short syllables. This means that the French metric line is not determined by the number of beats, but by the number of syllables; the most common metric lengths are the ten-syllable line, the eight-syllable line and the twelve-syllable line.
Verses could be combined in a variety of ways: blocks of assonanced lines are called "laisses". The choice of verse form was dictated by the genre; the Old French epics are written in ten-syllable assonanced "laisses", while the chivalric romance was written in octosyllabic rhymed couplets. The earliest extant French literary texts date from the ninth century, but few texts before the eleventh century have survived; the first literary works written in Old French were saints' lives. The Canticle of Saint Eulalie, written in the second half of the ninth century, is accepted as the first such text, it is a short poem. The best known of the early Old French saints' lives is the Vie de saint Alexis, the life of Saint Alexis, a translation/rewriting of a Latin legend. Saint Alexis fled from his family's home in Rome on his wedding night and dwelled as a hermit in Syria until a mystical voice began telling people of his holiness. In order to avoid the earthly honor that came with such fame, he left Syria and was driven back to Rome, where he lived as a beggar at his family's house, unrecognized by all until his death.
He was only identified when the pope read his name in a letter held in the dead saint's hand. Although the saint left his family in order to devote his life more to God, the poem makes clear that his father and wife are saved by the Alexis' intercession and join him in Paradise; the earliest and best surviving text is in St. Albans Psalter, written at St Albans, England, in the second or third decade of the twelfth century; this provenance is indicative of the fact that many of the most important early texts were composed in Anglo-Norman dialect. At the beginning of the 13th century, Jean Bodel, in his Chanson de Saisnes, divided medieval French narrative literature into three subject areas: the Matter of France or Matter of Charlemagne the Matter of Rome – romances in an ancient setting the Matter of Britain – Arthurian romances, Breton lais The first of these is the subject area of the chansons de geste, epic poems composed in ten-syllable assonanced laisses. More than one hundred chansons de geste have survived in around three hundred manuscripts.
The chief theme of the earliest French epics was the court of Charlemagne, Charles Martel and Charles the Bald and their wars against the Moors and Saracens, or disputes between kings and their rebellious vassals. The oldest and most celebrated of the chansons de geste is The Song of Roland, seen by some as the national epic of France (comparable with Beowulf in England, the Song of the Nibelungs in Germany and the Lay
Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn is a French politician, former managing director of the International Monetary Fund, a controversial figure in the French Socialist Party due to his involvement in several financial and sexual scandals. He is referred to in the media, by himself, by his initials DSK. Strauss-Kahn was appointed managing director of the IMF on 28 September 2007, with the backing of his country's conservative president, Nicolas Sarkozy, he served in that capacity until his resignation on 18 May 2011 in the wake of allegations that he had sexually assaulted a hotel maid. Other allegations followed, he was a professor of economics at Paris West University Nanterre La Défense and Sciences Po, was Minister of Economy and Finance from 1997 to 1999 as part of Lionel Jospin's "Plural Left" government. He sought the nomination in the Socialist Party presidential primary of 2006, but was defeated by Ségolène Royal in November. Dominique Strauss-Kahn was born on 25 April 1949 in the wealthy Paris suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine.
He is the son of lawyer Gilbert Strauss-Kahn. Strauss-Kahn's father was born to a Catholic mother from Lorraine, he and his parents settled in Agadir, Morocco, in 1951, but after the 1960 earthquake moved to Monaco, where his father practiced law. While the family was living in Monaco, Strauss-Kahn went to school at the Lycee Albert 1er; the family returned to Paris, where he attended classes préparatoires at the Lycée Carnot. He graduated from HEC Paris in 1971 and from Sciences Po and the Paris Institute of Statistics in 1972, he sat and failed the entrance examination for École nationale d'administration, but obtained a bachelor degree in public law, as well as a PhD and an agrégation in economics at the Université Paris X. From 1977 to 1981, Strauss-Kahn lectured at the University of Nancy-II, first as an assistant, as assistant professor, before taking a position at the University of Nanterre. In 1982, he was appointed to the Plan Commission as head of the finance department, as Deputy Commissioner, a position he held until his election to the National Assembly in 1986.
After his ousting in the 1993 parliamentary elections, Strauss-Kahn founded DSK Consultants, a corporate law consulting firm. Upon resigning from the Jospin government, he resumed his academic duties, teaching economics at Sciences Po from 2000 until his appointment to the IMF in 2007. Strauss-Kahn was first an activist member of the Union of Communist Students, before joining in the 1970s the Centre d'études, de recherches et d'éducation socialiste led by Jean-Pierre Chevènement, future presidential candidate for the 2002 election. There, he befriended the future Prime Minister of France Lionel Jospin. After the election of President François Mitterrand in 1981, he decided to stay out of government, he got involved in the Socialist Party, led by Lionel Jospin, founded Socialisme et judaïsme. The next year, he was appointed to the Commissariat au plan as commissaire-adjoint. In 1986 he was elected Member of Parliament for the first time in the Haute-Savoie department, in 1988 in the Val-d'Oise department.
He became chairman of the National Assembly Committee on Finances, famously exchanging heated words with the Finance Minister Pierre Bérégovoy. In 1991, he was nominated by Mitterrand to be Junior Minister for Industry and Foreign Trade in Édith Cresson's social-democratic government, he kept his position in Pierre Bérégovoy's government until the 1993 general elections. After the electoral defeat of 1993, Strauss-Kahn was appointed by former Prime Minister Michel Rocard chairman of the groupe des experts du PS, created by Claude Allègre; the same year, he worked as a business lawyer. In 1994, Raymond Lévy, director of Renault, invited him to join the Cercle de l'Industrie, a French industry lobby in Brussels, where he met the billionaire businessman Vincent Bolloré and top manager Louis Schweitzer; this lobbyist activity earned him criticism from the alter-globalization left. In June 1995, he was elected mayor of Sarcelles and married Anne Sinclair, a famous television journalist working for the private channel TF1 and in charge of a political show, Sept sur Sept.
She ceased presenting this show after Strauss-Kahn's nomination as Minister of Economics and Finance in 1997 to avoid conflict of interest, while Strauss-Kahn himself would cede his place as mayor to François Pupponi in order to avoid double responsibilities. In 1997, Prime Minister Lionel Jospin appointed Strauss-Kahn as Minister for Economics and Industry, making him one of the most influential ministers in his Plural Left government. Although it was in theory contrary to the Socialist Party's electoral program, he implemented a wide privatization program, which included among others the IPO of France Télécom; the French economy achieved an excellent performance during his term of office: the GDP increased, whereas unemployment and public debt decreased. This helped to strengthen his popularity and managed to win the support of former supporters of Lionel Jospin and Michel Rocard, making him the leader of the reform-oriented group Socialisme et démocratie. Strauss-Kahn was an early proponent of reducing the working wee
18th-century French literature
18th-century French literature is French literature written between 1715, the year of the death of King Louis XIV of France, 1798, the year of the coup d'État of Bonaparte which brought the Consulate to power, concluded the French Revolution, began the modern era of French history. This century of enormous economic, social and political transformation produced two important literary and philosophical movements: during what became known as the Age of Enlightenment, the Philosophes questioned all existing institutions, including the church and state, applied rationalism and scientific analysis to society. In common with a similar movement in England at the same time, the writers of 18th century France were critical and innovative, their lasting contributions were the ideas of liberty, humanitarianism and progress, which became the ideals of modern western democracy. The 18th century saw the gradual weakening of the absolute monarchy constructed by Louis XIV, its power slipped away during the Regency of Philippe d'Orléans, the long regime of King Louis XV, when France lost the Seven Years' War with England, lost much of its empire in Canada and India.
France was forced to recognize the growing power of Prussia. The Monarchy ended with King Louis XVI, unable to understand or control the forces of the French Revolution; the end of the century saw the birth of the United States, with the help of French ideas and military forces. French society was hierarchal with the Clergy and Nobility at the top and The Third Estate who included everyone else. Members of the Third Estate the more wealthy and influential, began to challenge the cultural and social monopoly of the aristocracy; the Rise of the Third Estate was influential in the overthrow of the monarchy in the French Revolution in 1789. French thinking evolved thanks to major discoveries in science by Newton, Volta, Buffon and Monge, among others, their rapid diffusion throughout Europe through newspapers, scientific societies, theaters. Faith in science and progress was the driving force behind the first French Encyclopedia of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert; the authority of the Catholic Church was weakened by the conflicts between high and low clergy by the conflict between the State and Jesuits, who were expelled from the Kingdom in 1764.
The Protestants achieved legal status in France in 1787. The church hierarchy was in continual battle with the Lumieres, having many of their works banned, causing French courts to sentence a Protestant, Jean Calas, to death in 1762 for blasphemy, an act, condemned by Voltaire; the explorations of the New World and the first encounters with American Indians brought a new theme into French and European Literature. The exchange of ideas with other countries increased. British ideas were important such ideas as constitutional monarchy and romanticism, which influenced French writers in the following century; the visual arts of the 18th century were decorative and oriented toward giving pleasure, as exemplified by the Regency Style and Louis XV Style, the paintings of François Boucher, Jean-Honoré Fragonard and Chardin, portrait painters Quentin de La Tour and Van Loo. Toward the end of the century, a more sober style appeared, aimed at illustrating scenery and moral values exemplified by Greuze, Hubert Robert and Claude Joseph Vernet.
The leading figures in French music were François Couperin et Jean-Philippe Rameau, but they were overshadowed by other European composers of the century, notably Vivaldi, Mozart Haendel and Haydn. For art and architecture in the 18th century, see French Rococo and Neoclassicism Continuing the work of the so-called "Libertines" of the 17th century, the critical spirit of such writers as Bayle and Fontenelle, the writers who were called the lumières denounced, in the name of reason and moral values, the social and political oppressions of their time, they challenged the idea of absolute monarchy and demanded a social contract as the new basis of political authority, demanded a more democratic organization of central power in a constitutional monarchy, with a separation of powers among the executive and judicial branches of government Voltaire fought against the abuses of power by the government, such as censorship and letters of cachet, which allowed imprisonment without trial, against the collusion of the church and monarchy, for an "enlightened despotism" where kings would be advised by philosophers.
These writers, others such as the Abbé Sieyès, one of the main authors of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, became known as the philosophes. They came from the wealthy upper class or Thir