click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Virtual reality

Virtual reality is a simulated experience that can be similar to or different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality can include entertainment and educational purposes. Other, distinct types of VR style technology include mixed reality. Standard virtual reality systems use either virtual reality headsets or multi-projected environments to generate realistic images and other sensations that simulate a user's physical presence in a virtual environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to look around the artificial world, move around in it, interact with virtual features or items; the effect is created by VR headsets consisting of a head-mounted display with a small screen in front of the eyes, but can be created through specially designed rooms with multiple large screens. Virtual reality incorporates auditory and video feedback, but may allow other types of sensory and force feedback through haptic technology. "Virtual" has had the meaning of "being something in essence or effect, though not or in fact" since the mid-1400s.

The term "virtual" has been used in the computer sense of "not physically existing but made to appear by software" since 1959. In 1938, French avant-garde playwright Antonin Artaud described the illusory nature of characters and objects in the theatre as "la réalité virtuelle" in a collection of essays, Le Théâtre et son double; the English translation of this book, published in 1958 as The Theater and its Double, is the earliest published use of the term "virtual reality". The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s; the term "virtual reality" was first used in a science fiction context in The Judas Mandala, a 1982 novel by Damien Broderick. One method by which virtual reality can be realized is simulation-based virtual reality. Driving simulators, for example, give the driver on board the impression of driving an actual vehicle by predicting vehicular motion caused by driver input and feeding back corresponding visual and audio cues to the driver.

With avatar image-based virtual reality, people can join the virtual environment in the form of real video as well as an avatar. One can participate in the 3D distributed virtual environment as form of either a conventional avatar or a real video. A user can select own type of participation based on the system capability. In projector-based virtual reality, modeling of the real environment plays a vital role in various virtual reality applications, such as robot navigation, construction modeling, airplane simulation. Image-based virtual reality systems have been gaining popularity in computer graphics and computer vision communities. In generating realistic models, it is essential to register acquired 3D data. Desktop-based virtual reality involves displaying a 3D virtual world on a regular desktop display without use of any specialized positional tracking equipment. Many modern first-person video games can be used as an example, using various triggers, responsive characters, other such interactive devices to make the user feel as though they are in a virtual world.

A common criticism of this form of immersion is that there is no sense of peripheral vision, limiting the user's ability to know what is happening around them. A head-mounted display more immerses the user in a virtual world. A virtual reality headset includes two small high resolution OLED or LCD monitors which provide separate images for each eye for stereoscopic graphics rendering a 3D virtual world, a binaural audio system and rotational real-time head tracking for six degrees of movement. Options include motion controls with haptic feedback for physically interacting within the virtual world in an intuitive way with little to no abstraction and an omnidirectional treadmill for more freedom of physical movement allowing the user to perform locomotive motion in any direction. Augmented reality is a type of virtual reality technology that blends what the user sees in their real surroundings with digital content generated by computer software; the additional software-generated images with the virtual scene enhance how the real surroundings look in some way.

AR systems layer virtual information over a camera live feed into a headset or smartglasses or through a mobile device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images. Mixed reality is the merging of the real world and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. A cyberspace is a networked virtual reality. Simulated reality is a hypothetical virtual reality as immersive as the actual reality, enabling an advanced lifelike experience or virtual eternity, it is most to be produced using a brain–computer interface and quantum computing. The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed because of how difficult it has been to formulate a definition for the concept of an alternative existence; the development of perspective in Renaissance Europe created convincing depictions of spaces that did not exist, in what has been referred to as the "multiplying of artificial worlds". Other elements of virtual reality appeared as early as the 1860s.

Antonin Artaud took the view that illusion was not distinct from reality, advocating that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard the drama on stage as reality. The first references to the more modern concept of virtual reality came from science fiction. Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an

Manlio Graziano

Manlio Graziano is an Italian scholar specializing in geopolitics and geopolitics of religions. He lives in Paris. Graziano graduated with first-class honors in French literature from the University of Turin, the city in which he taught for several years. After moving to France, he obtained his doctorate in Italian studies from the University Stendhal-Grenoble III, defending a thesis about Italian political identity. Thanks to the French geopolitician Michel Korinman and to Lucio Caracciolo, editor of the Italian geopolitical journal Limes, he entered the world of geopolitical studies, in which he specializes in geopolitics of religions, he teaches at the Paris Institute of International Affairs, Sciences Po, at the Sorbonne and at the American Graduate School in Paris. He publishes in Limes, he is the geopolitical columnist of La Voce di New York, he has collaborated with the journals Modern Italy, Geopolitical Affairs, International Affairs Forum, Outre-Terre, as well as with the Corriere della Sera and Il Sole 24 Ore.

The American edition of his book on Italian political identity, The Failure of Italian Nationhood, was reviewed by The New Yorker and The Economist. In June 2015 he was invited by the UN Correspondents Association to discuss his thesis about the geopolitics of religion at the United Nations headquarters in New York City. Besides Paris IV-La Sorbonne and the American Graduate School, Graziano teaches at the École des hautes études commerciales de Paris, at the Geneva Institute of Geopolitics, he gives lectures at the universities of Évry and Versailles, in the Parisian region. He worked at the four campuses of the Skema Business School, at the École supérieure de traduction et relations internationales in Lyon, at la Sorbonne-Nouvelle, at the universities of Nanterre, Grenoble III, Lyon II, he has given lectures and courses at the University of Turin, at the İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi, at Hofstra University, at Stony Brook University, at Brooklyn College, at the University of Glasgow, at the KU Leuven, at the Stockholms universitet, at the University of Bath and at the Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali in Rome.

Geopolitica. Orientarsi nel grande disordine internazionale, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2019 L'isola al centro del mondo. Una geopolitica degli Stati Uniti, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2018 What Is a Border?, Stanford University Press, 2018 In Rome We Trust: The Rise of Catholics in American Political Life, Stanford University Press, 2017 Holy Wars and Holy Alliance: The Return of Religion to the Global Political Stage, Columbia University Press, 2017 Essential Geopolitics: A Handbook. Manuel essentiel de géopolitique, Manlio Graziano, 2011 Il secolo cattolico. La strategia geopolitica della Chiesa, Laterza editore, Roma, 2010 The Failure of Italian Nationhood: The Geopolitics of a Troubled Identity, Palgrave-Macmillan, New York, 2010 Identité italienne et identité catholique. L’Italie laboratoire de l’Église, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2007 L’Italie aujourd’hui. Situation et perspectives après le séisme des années quatre-vingt-dix, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2004, with texts by Bruno Bongiovanni, Sabino Cassese, Valerio Castronovo, Michèle Merger, Christophe Mileschi, Gianfranco Pasquino, Paolo Rampini, Daniela Rechenmann, Sergio Romano, Vera Negri Zamagni and Alberto Toscano

Gerald Stanley Lee

Gerald Stanley Lee was an American Congregational clergyman and the author of numerous books and essays. Lee was "a frequent contributor of reviews to the Critic and other periodicals and wrote books on religion, modern culture, physical fitness."Lee was opposed to U. S. entry into World War I, writing essays and editorials characterizing the war as a clumsy effort of the nations involved to communicate their desires and one that could be settled without any U. S. intervention. This drew a harsh rebuke from G. K. Chesterton, who criticized Lee for imagining that the war underway could be ended by mere discussion and for treating the warring forces as if they were on equal moral footing. Lee and his wife Jennette and daughter Geraldine summered on Monhegan Island, for over 30 years, he published Mount Tom, in Northampton, Massachusetts. A collection of his writings from this period is in the book Thoughts from a Driftwood Desk by P. Kent Royka; the Shadow Christ The Lost Art of Reading The Voice of the Machines The Child and the Book Inspired Millionaires Crowds: A Moving-Picture of Democracy We.

Kent Royka

Lighthouse of Ponta Garça

The Lighthouse of Ponta Garça is a beacon/lighthouse located along cliffs of the civil parish of Ponta Garça in the municipality of Vila Franca do Campo, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. The lighthouse was built in the 20th century, consists of a circular tower and rectangular communications block, comparable to other lighthouses in the archipelago, namely Ponte do Cintrão and Ponta do Rosais; the lighthouse was constructed between 1956 and 1957, by the Comissão Administrativa das Novas Instalações para a Marinha, in an area of Ponta Garça called Cinzeiro. In 1979, two sections of red lamp were installed to differentiate the areas protecting the zones of the islet of Vila Franca do Campo and the lower Lobeira; the beacon's illumination was accomplished with an acetylene lamp. But, in September 1980, the lighthouse was connected to the public electrical network, thus making the acetylene lamp redundant. During this installation, a new 100 W/220 V lamp was installed in the beacon. Seven years this lamp was replaced with a new 50 W/12 V lamp produced by a national manufacturer.

The lighthouse is located along the southern coast of the island of São Miguel, in the area referred to as Cinzeiro, about 101 metres above sea level. The complex is encircled by a white plastered wall, with alameda forming a "L", with gardens and a vegetable garden; the various buildings are surrounded by pasture. Over the wall protecting the lighthouse is a granite plaque, with the inscription: MINISTÉRIO DA DEFESA NACIONAL MARINHA AUTORIDADE MARÍTIMA NACIONAL DIRECÇÃO DE FARÓIS - CAPITANIA DO PORTO PONTA DELGADA FAROL PONTA DA GARÇA 1957; the lighthouse consists of lighthouse keepers' residence and several annexes. The 14 metres cylindrical tower is plastered and painted, identifiable by eight 14 metres high false radial buttresses that narrow closer to the circular balcony of overlapping rings, painted red. At the top of the lighthouse is a glass cupola, covered in metal and painted red and surmounted by weathervane; the tower includes four registers, the first marked by a rectangular doorway and frame, the two intermediaries by friezes and the last by a window, from which a staircase accesses the cupola.

The top register window is flanked by two circular oculi. Access to the lighthouse is made from the single-story rectangular auxiliary building, inclined towards the front; the front facade is plastered and painted, with the corners of exposed rock, with rectangular door flanked by two windows and surmounted by two groups of five rectangles. The lighthouse keepers' residence rectangular, is a simple building covered in tile; the facades are decorated with cornerstones, encircled by brickwork, painted white and terminated in cornices. The principal facade, oriented towards the east, is marked by a rectangular door flanked by two groups of low windows, interconnected by sill and top frame, consisting of six on the left and four on the right; the lateral facades are dotted by central windows and sills above and below the frames, while a covered awning consisting of reinforced cement pillars. Notes SourcesFurtado, Eduardo Carvalho Vieira, Guardiães do Mar dos Açores: uma viagem pelas ilhas do Atlântico, Portugal Relatório da Actividade do Ministério no ano de 1956, Portugal: Ministério das Obras Públicas, 1957

Altarnun

Altarnun is a village and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is located on the north-eastern edge of Bodmin Moor at grid reference SX 223 811; the parish of Altarnun includes the village of Fivelanes and the hamlets of Bolventor and Trewint, had a population of 976 according to the 2001 census. This increased to 1,084 according to the 2011 census. Other hamlets in the parish are Bowithick, South Carne, Lower Tregunnon, Tredaule; the area of the parish is the largest in Cornwall. By the time of the 2011 census the figures for the ward of Altarnun were provided; this ward contained 48 locations in the area and gave a population of 4,038. The moorland area of the parish is large and lies west of the village towards Rough Tor and southwards towards Dozmary Pool. There is a large conifer plantation at Wilsey Down Forest; the village is in the valley of the Penpont Water and the parish is divided by the A30 trunk road which passes through Fivelanes, once an important stopping place for stage coaches.

A Norman church was built in Altarnun in the 12th century, but the present church was built in the 15th century from unquarried stone from Bodmin Moor. The church is dedicated to mother of St David. A Celtic cross from the time of St Nonna is located by the church gate; this cross consists of a cross head resting on a stone base. Another cross is located at Two-gates by the road about half a mile north of the church. Other crosses are known as Sanctuary Cross, Halvana Cross, Occasiney Cross, Trekennick Cross, Tresmeak Cross and St Vincent's Mine Cross; as the largest parish church on Bodmin Moor, the Church of St Nonna is known as the Cathedral of the Moor. It was built in the 15th century in the Perpendicular style, with its bell tower standing 109 ft high, it is notable for a fine Norman font and old woodwork, including the screen, bench-ends and communion rails which date to 1684. The screen is one of the finest 15th century examples in Cornwall. John Wesley visited Trewint, lodging in Digory Isbell's home, now a museum of Wesley and Methodism.

Altarnun features in the novel Jamaica Inn by Daphne du Maurier set in the parish's former coaching house by the same name. The village was the birthplace of sculptor Neville Northey Burnard, it was surveyed for the Survey of English Dialects. Cornish bagpipes Gueltas, a Breton commune twinned with Altarnun Shaw, Thomas Trewint in its Historical Setting Altarnun Pipes Genuki: Altarnun

Larry Teal

Larry Teal is considered by many to be the father of American orchestral saxophone. Laurence Lyon Teal earned a bachelor's degree in pre-dentistry from the University of Michigan. Although he came to the University of Michigan to study dentistry, he soon became involved with Wilson's Wolverines—a jazz band with a more than local following, he toured Europe with them for several years and returned to the States only to be recruited by Glen Gray's Casa Loma Orchestra of Detroit, one of the important society orchestras of the period. He earned a Doctor of Music from the Detroit Institute of Musical Arts in 1943. Teal carved out his own niche in Detroit's musical life, he was a member of radio station WJR's live studio orchestra and he was a member of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra from 1943 to 1964. Not only did he play sax, as one might expect, but he performed on clarinet and was the DSO's first desk flutist, a rare enough feat and unheard of now. Additionally, he staffed it with players from the orchestra.

It was one of the most reputable and prestigious of its kind in the country. His studio near Wayne University where many high school and collegiate students studied saxophone. Don Sinta was one of those students, considered a virtuoso in saxophone by many while he was a music major at Wayne. Mr. Teal was sought after as a professional musician by both classical and popular musical organizations, he became the first full-time professor of saxophone at any American university when he was appointed to the faculty of the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor in 1953. He remained the professor of saxophone there until he retired in 1974, at which time he was given the title "professor emeritus." During his 21 years at the university, Teal taught over 100 college saxophone students, many of whom went on to become successful teachers and performers. In this way he had an unusual degree of influence over the direction and quality of classical saxophone teaching in America, his students included: Donald Sinta, who succeeded him as professor of saxophone at the University of Michigan Steven Mauk, professor of saxophone at Ithaca College Patrick Meighan, retired professor of saxophone at Florida State University John Sampen, now professor of saxophone at Bowling Green State University Joe Henderson Josh Rodriguez John Nichol, professor of saxophone at Central Michigan University Jerry D. Luedders, professor of music and saxophone at California State University, Northridge Fred W. Becker and Teacher Dr. Randall E. Reese, Associate Professor of Music at Armstrong Atlantic State University Dr. Max Plank, retired professor of saxophone at Eastern Michigan University David Henderson, professor of saxophone at University of the Pacific Kenny Millions Larry Teal Jr.

Dr. Yusef Lateef Bennie Maupin, adjunct faculty at CalArts Lynn Klock, retired professor of saxophone at University of Massachusetts Amherst Teal wrote several books for use by saxophone students and teachers, including: The Art of Saxophone Playing ISBN 0-87487-057-7 Melodies for the Young Saxophonist The Saxophonist's Workbook "Musician? It's Not Logical." Ann Arbor News, May 9, 1974. Print. "Recital to honor man who made the saxophone'legit.'" Ann Arbor News, January 18, 1985. Print; the Art of Saxophone Playing by Larry Teal, Google Books Preview