Virtuosity is a 1995 American science fiction action film directed by Brett Leonard and starring Denzel Washington and Russell Crowe. Howard W. Koch Jr. served as an executive producer for the film. Virtuosity had an estimated budget of $30 million, but only made $24 million at the domestic box office; the film was released in the United States on August 4, 1995. In Los Angeles, Lt. Parker Barnes and John Donovan are tracking down a serial killer named SID 6.7 at a restaurant in virtual reality. SID causes Donovan to go into shock; the director overseeing the project, before Commissioner Elizabeth Deane and her associate, William Wallace, orders the programmer in charge of creating SID, Dr. Darrel Lindenmeyer, to shut down the project. Barnes is a former police officer imprisoned for killing political terrorist Matthew Grimes, who killed Parker's wife and daughter. Barnes killed innocent bystanders; this caused him to serve 17 years to life. Barnes meets with criminal psychologist Dr. Madison Carter following a fight between Barnes and another prisoner, Big Red.
Meanwhile, Lindenmeyer informs SID that he is about to be shut down because of the fail-safe having been tampered with. At SID's suggestion, Lindenmeyer convinces another employee, Clyde Reilly, that a virtual reality prostitute, Sheila 3.2, another project created by Lindenmeyer, can be brought to life. Lindenmeyer replaces the Sheila 3.2 module with the SID 6.7 module. Now processed into the real world, SID 6.7 kills Reilly. Once word gets out of SID being in the real world and Los Angeles Police Department Chief William Cochran offer Barnes a deal: if he catches SID and brings him back to virtual reality, he will be released. Barnes agrees, with help from Carter, they discover that Matthew Grimes, the terrorist who killed Barnes's wife and daughter, is a part of SID 6.7's personality profile. After killing a group of security guards, SID heads over to the Media Zone, a local nightclub, where he takes hostages. Barnes and Carter go to the nightclub to stop him; the next day, SID begins a killing spree at the Los Angeles Olympic Auditorium.
Barnes arrives at the Stadium to capture SID, finds him on a train, where another hostage is being held by SID. However, Barnes kills the hostage in front of horrified witnesses. Having caught up with Barnes after the incident, Carter tries to prove Barnes's innocence, but Barnes is sent back to prison. Barnes is freed from his prisoner transport by SID. Wallace and Deane are about to have Barnes terminated via a fail-safe transmitter implanted in him but Cochran destroys the transmitter after learning from Carter that Barnes didn't kill the hostage on the train. However, SID takes over a television studio. Lindenmeyer, having come out of hiding, sees what SID is doing and is impressed, but is held hostage by Carter. After a fight on the roof of the studio Barnes destroys SID, but is unable to learn where he hid Karin, they place SID back in VR to trick the location out of him. When SID discovers that he is back in virtual reality he goes into a rage. Cochran lets Carter out of VR. Barnes starts to go into the same shock that Donovan suffered, but Carter kills Lindenmeyer, saves Barnes.
Barnes and Carter return to the building that SID took over in the real world, save Karin from a booby trap set up by SID. After Karin is saved, Barnes destroys the SID 6.7 module. Denzel Washington as Lt. Parker Barnes, imprisoned after killing a man who killed his family Russell Crowe as SID 6.7, a virtual reality entity who becomes a regenerating android Kelly Lynch as Dr. Madison Carter, a criminal psychologist who teams with Barnes to understand SID's behavior Stephen Spinella as Dr. Darrel Lindenmeyer, who created SID 6.7 and Sheila 3.2 William Forsythe as Billy Cochran Louise Fletcher as Commissioner Elizabeth Deane William Fichtner as William Wallace Costas Mandylor as John Donovan Kevin J. O'Connor as Clyde Reilly Kaley Cuoco as Karin Carter, Madison's daughter Christopher Murray as Matthew Grimes Mari Morrow as Linda Barnes Johnny Kim as Lab Tech Heidi Schanz as Sheila 3.2 Traci Lords as Media Zone singer Gordon Jennison Noice as Big Red Michael Buffer as Emcee Washington restructured much of the story and dialogue during filming removing a romantic subtext between the Lt. Barnes and Dr. Carter characters from the original script.
Principal photography for the film began on January 25, 1995. Parts of the film were filmed at the abandoned Hughes Aircraft plant in Los Angeles; the film received mixed to negative reviews. It has a rotten score of 32% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 31 reviews, with 32% of the audience indicating they liked it, it has a score of 39 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 17 reviews. Roger Ebert, wrote that the movie was "filled with bright ideas and fresh thinking" and "still finds surprises" despite a somewhat cliché premise; the film was nominated for Best Picture at the Sitges Film Festival, losing to Citizen X. American Gangster, 2007 film starring Washington and Crowe in switched antagonist/protagonist roles Simulated reality Virtual reality Virtuosity on IMDb Virtuosity at AllMovie Virtuosity at Box Office Mojo
Marcus Joseph Wright was a lawyer, a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He was agent for collection of Confederate records for War of the Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, a U. S. War Department publication. Wright was born in Tennessee, he was admitted to the Tennessee bar, practiced law at Memphis. He was clerk of the common chancery court, he was lieutenant colonel of a Tennessee militia regiment designated the 154th Tennessee militia regiment. Wright's militia regiment was mustered into Confederate States Army service as the 154th Senior Tennessee Infantry. In 1861, Wright was ordered to establish a fortification at Randolph, Tennessee, on the Mississippi River. Fort Wright was Tennessee's first military training camp in the Civil War and is named after Marcus Joseph Wright. In the war Wright was the Confederate military governor of Columbus, from February 1862 until its evacuation, with his regiment was present at the Battle of Belmont and the Battle of Shiloh, where he was wounded.
He served on the staff of Major General Benjamin F. Cheatham during General Braxton Bragg's invasion of Kentucky where he fought at the Battle of Perryville. Wright was promoted to brigadier general on December 13, 1862, fought in the Tullahoma Campaign, at the Battle of Chickamauga and the Battle of Missionary Ridge. In 1863-64 he was in charge of the district of Atlanta. After the evacuation of the city he commanded at Georgia. At the end of the war, he commanded the District of West Tennessee, he was paroled May 1865 at Grenada, Mississippi. After the war, Wright returned to the practice of law at Memphis, He was Sheriff of Shelby County from 1870 to 1872, for a time was assistant purser of the United States Navy Yard in Memphis, Tennessee, he became the editor of the Columbia, Journal newspaper, on September 2, 1875, he married Pauline Womack of Alabama. Wright moved to Washington, D. C. to practice law. In 1878, Wright was appointed agent of the United States War Department for collecting Confederate military records.
He worked on this project until June 1917. He published numerous magazine articles and several books, including: Life of Gov. William Blount Life of General Scott Analytical Reference Tennessee in the War General Officers of the Confederate Army The Social Evolution of Woman Wright died in Washington, D. C. on December 27, 1922, was buried in Arlington National Cemetery on the south side of the Confederate Memorial. He is one of only two former Confederate generals interred in the cemetery. List of American Civil War generals This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Marcus Joseph Wright. Diary of Brigadier-General Marcus J. Wright, C. S. A.: April 23, 1861 - February 26, 1863. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1989. Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Johnson, Clint. In the Footsteps of Robert E. Lee.
Winston-Salem, N. C.: John F. Blair Publisher, 2001. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9. Arlington National Cemetery biography of Wright Works by Marcus Joseph Wright at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Marcus Joseph Wright at Internet Archive Works by Marcus Joseph Wright at Open Library Men of Mark in America Biographical Sketch Marcus Joseph Wright at Find a Grave
Karl Korinek was an Austrian constitutional scholar and educator. Korinek taught law at the University of Graz, the Vienna University of Economics and Business, the University of Vienna, the Danube University Krems. In 1978, Korinek was appointed to the Austrian Constitutional Court. Although a member of the Austrian People's Party and an outspoken conservative in private life, Korinek was considered non-partisan in his jurisprudence, he clashed with Wolfgang Schüssel on health care and immigration reform and with Jörg Haider on minority protection matters. Korinek has authored more than 250 scholarly papers. Respected across party boundaries, he is regarded as one of the most influential legal scholars in recent Austrian history. Karl Korinek was born December 12, 1940 in Vienna as the son of Franz Korinek, a lawyer and future politician, his wife Viktoria. Korinek grew up Catholic; the family was conservative. Korinek received his secondary education at the Gymnasium Mariahilf, a school with special emphasis on the classical humanities.
Following his graduation from the gymnasium in 1958, Korinek enrolled at the University of Vienna to study law, receiving his doctorate in 1963. He spent the next year working as a trainee at various Viennese courts. In 1964, he went to work as an in-house legal consultant for the Austrian Economic Chamber. In addition to his day job in the bureaucracy, Korinek continued to pursue an academic career. In 1970, he submitted his habilitation thesis to the Faculty of Legal and Political Science at the University of Salzburg. In 1973, he left the Chamber to accept an appointment to full professor of public law at the University of Graz. After three years in Graz, Korinek returned to the capital to become a professor at the Vienna University of Economics and Business, a position he held until he moved on to the University of Vienna in 1995. Starting in 1997, he taught at the Danube University Krems. In addition to his academic commitments, Korinek held a considerable number of extramural positions. From 1986 to 1992, Korinek was president of Austrian Standards International.
In 1999, he became a member of the board of directors of the Vienna State Opera. He served on the boards of directors of a number of publicly traded companies and NGOs, most notably the Uniqa Insurance Group and the ERSTE Foundation. In 1998, he was invited to join the Austrian Academy of Sciences. In 1978, Korinek was appointed to the Austrian Constitutional Court, he was promoted to vice president of the court in 1999, to president in 2003. Korinek retired from his university positions and from most other responsibilities when he assumed the presidency, he kept his seat on the board of the State Opera, a side job, dear to him. In early 2003, the cabinet of then-Chancellor Wolfgang Schüssel launched the Austria Convention, a conference of legal scholars and public intellectuals tasked with drafting a new constitution for Austria; the existing constitution, exceptionally bulky and difficult to navigate, had been posing serious technical challenges to legislators and constitutional justices for decades.
The Convention was charged with exploring reform. Korinek was a member of the Convention from its launch to its conclusion in 2005. Effective May 2008, Korinek retired from the court. Over the course of his career, Korinek wrote more than 250 scholarly articles. Korinek died on March 2017, after a protracted struggle with heart disease. Korinek is acknowledged as having been one of the Constitutional Court's most influential members during his tenure. Before he was appointed president of the court, Korinek has had more impact on the court's jurisprudence than would have been typical for a regular member. Commentators credit Korinek with having played a significant role in modernizing the tribunal's jurisprudence on constitutional rights questions. Korinek is credited for the fact that the court, under his leadership, has softened its traditional commitment to judicial restraint and has grown more assertive, protecting human rights principles more energetically and striking down laws more often.
Korinek has been noted for his impact as an educator. Commentators have called him "one of the greats" of Austrian legal instruction. Korinek is said to have played a prominent role in shaping the minds of several generations of Austrian jurists, he has been called the "doyen" of Austrian legal scholarship and one of the most distinguished personalities in the country's legal history. Korinek was regarded as a committed conservative. Like his father before him, he joined the Austrian People's Party, he was a member of the Cartellverband. Throughout his life, Korinek remained a devout Catholic, he was active in the Association of Catholic Graduates. Korinek cre