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Virtuoso

A virtuoso is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability in a particular art or field such as fine arts, singing, playing a musical instrument, or composition. This word refers to a person who has cultivated appreciation of artistic excellence, either as a connoisseur or collector; the plural form of virtuoso is either virtuosi or the Anglicisation and the feminine forms are virtuosa and virtuose. According to Music in the Western civilization by Piero Weiss and Richard Taruskin:...a virtuoso was a accomplished musician, but by the nineteenth century the term had become restricted to performers, both vocal and instrumental, whose technical accomplishments were so pronounced as to dazzle the public. The defining element of virtuosity is the performance ability of the musician in question, capable of displaying feats of skill well above the average performer. In music, both critics and musicians have mixed opinions on virtuosity. While the skill implied is positive, musicians focused on virtuosity have been criticized for overlooking substance and emotion in favor of raw technical prowess.

More applied in the context of the fine arts, the term can refer to a "master" or "ace" who excels technically within any particular field or area of human knowledge—anyone or dazzlingly skilled at what they do. For instance, Ken Jennings's initial success on Jeopardy! was described as a "virtuoso performance." The meaning of virtuoso has its roots in the Italian usage of the 16th and 17th centuries, signifying an honorific term reserved for a person distinguished in any intellectual or artistic field. The term evolved with time broadening and narrowing in scope as interpretations went in and out of fashion and debates unraveled. A musician was considered a virtuoso by being an accomplished composer, theorist, or maestro, rather than a skilled performer. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the word shifted in meaning, many musicians applied it without considering merit, sometimes to themselves. Sébastien de Brossard in his Dictionnaire de Musique approached the word virtuoso by its Latin root virtu emphasizing exceptional training in theory.

This position was defended in Johann Gottfried Walther's Musicalisches Lexicon favoring the theorist over the performer. Johann Mattheson's Der brauchbare Virtuoso maintained the respect for the traditional "theoretische Virtuosen" but paid tribute to the "virtuosi prattici". Johann Kuhnau in his The Musical Charlatan defined the "true virtuoso" once again emphasizing theory describing the "highly gifted musician" or "performer virtuoso" as having nothing more than practical facility. In the late 18th century, people began to use the term to describe an instrumentalist or vocalist who pursued a career as a soloist; the tension about the merit of practical virtuosity started to grow at the same time and intensified in the 19th century, only to remain an open debate since then. Franz Liszt, considered one of the greatest of all virtuosos, declared that "virtuosity is not an outgrowth, but an indispensable element of music". Richard Wagner opposed the triviality and exhibitionist talents of the performer voicing his opinion strongly: The real dignity of the virtuoso rests on the dignity he is able to preserve for creative art.

He is the intermediary of the artistic idea Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons

Higashitsugaru District, Aomori

Higashitsugaru District is a rural district located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of September 2013, the district had an estimated population of 24,011 and an area of 652.83 km². Much of the city of Aomori was part of Higashitsugaru District. Hiranai Imabetsu Sotogahama Yomogita The area of Higashitsugaru District was part of Mutsu Province. At the time of the Meiji restoration of 1868, the area consisted of one towns and 137 villages under the control of Hirosaki Domain and 28 villages under the control of Kuroishi Domain. Aomori Prefecture was founded on December 13, 1871, Higashitsugaru District was carved out of the former Tsugaru District on October 30, 1878. With the establishment of the municipality system on April 1, 1889, Higashitsugaru District, organized into one town and 24 villages, was established; when a municipality is elevated to, or is absorbed into a city, it ceases to be part of a district. For example, when the village, Nonai was incorporated into the city of Aomori as a neighborhood, it ceased to be part of a rural district.

1898 – Aomori was elevated to city status. 1919 – Aburakawa was elevated to town status. 1928 – Kominato was elevated to town status 1939 – Aburakawa was merged into the city of Aomori 1941 – Kanita was raised to town status 1951 – Tsutsui was raised to town status 1955 – Kominato absorbed two neighboring villages to become the town of Hiranai. Imabetsu was raised to town status 1962 – Nonai was merged into Aomori. On March 28, 2005 - the town of Kanita and the villages of Tairadate and Minmaya were merged to form the new town of Sotogahama

Scandinavia, Wisconsin

Scandinavia is a village in the Town of Scandinavia in Waupaca County, United States. The population was 328 at the 2010 census. Scandinavia is located at 44°27′41″N 89°8′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.01 square miles, of which, 0.88 square miles of it is land and 0.13 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 363 people, 147 households, 97 families living in the village; the population density was 412.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 166 housing units at an average density of 188.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.2% White, 0.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.7% from other races, 0.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 147 households of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.0% were non-families.

27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the village was 36.5 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 51.0 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 349 people, 137 households, 90 families living in the village; the population density was 404.8 people per square mile. There were 152 housing units at an average density of 176.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.57% White, 0.29% Black or African American and 1.15% Native American. 0.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 137 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.2% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.16. In the village, the population was spread out with 29.5% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 32.4% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $42,500, the median income for a family was $48,125. Males had a median income of $36,339 versus $19,821 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,730. About 10.1% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.1% of those under age 18 and 24.5% of those age 65 or over. Scandinavia Public Library-Village of Scandinavia information