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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, of the millions of types of viruses in the environment. Viruses are found in every ecosystem on Earth and are the most numerous type of biological entity; the study of viruses is known as a sub-speciality of microbiology. While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions, consisting of: the genetic material, i.e. long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts. The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures.

Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope, about one hundredth the size of most bacteria. The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity in a way analogous to sexual reproduction. Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material and evolve through natural selection, although they lack key characteristics that are considered necessary to count as life; because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", as replicators. Viruses spread in many ways. One transmission pathway is through disease-bearing organisms known as vectors: for example, viruses are transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap, such as aphids.

Influenza viruses are spread by sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route, passed by contact and entering the body in food or water. HIV is one of several viruses transmitted by exposure to infected blood; the variety of host cells that a virus can infect is called its "host range". This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection; some viruses, including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis, evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Several antiviral drugs have been developed; the word is from the Latin neuter vīrus referring to poison and other noxious liquids, from the same Indo-European base as Sanskrit viṣa, Avestan vīša, ancient Greek ἰός, first attested in English in 1398 in John Trevisa's translation of Bartholomeus Anglicus's De Proprietatibus Rerum.

Virulent, from Latin virulentus, dates to c. 1400. A meaning of "agent that causes infectious disease" is first recorded in 1728, long before the discovery of viruses by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892; the English plural is viruses, whereas the Latin word is a mass noun, which has no classically attested plural. The adjective viral dates to 1948; the term virion, which dates from 1959, is used to refer to a single viral particle, released from the cell and is capable of infecting other cells of the same type. Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected by microscopes. In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented the Chamberland filter with pores small enough to remove all bacteria from a solution passed through it. In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus: crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remained infectious after filtration to remove bacteria.

Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea. At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium—this was part of the germ theory of disease. In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck repeated the experiments and became convinced that the filtered solution contained a new form of infectious agent, he observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing, but as his experiments did not show that it was made of particles, he called it a contagium vivum fluidum and re-introduced the word virus. Beijerinck maintained that viruses were liquid in nature, a theory discredited by Wendell Stanley, who proved they were particulate. In the same year Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch passed the first animal virus through a similar filter: aphthovirus, the agent of foot-and-mouth disease. In the early 20th century, the English bacteriologist Frederick Twort discovered a group of viruses that infect bacteria, now called bacteriophages, the French-Canadian microbiologist Félix d'Herelle describe

Distributed constraint optimization

Distributed constraint optimization is the distributed analogue to constraint optimization. A DCOP is a problem in which a group of agents must distributedly choose values for a set of variables such that the cost of a set of constraints over the variables is minimized. Distributed Constraint Satisfaction is a framework for describing a problem in terms of constraints that are known and enforced by distinct participants; the constraints are described on some variables with predefined domains, have to be assigned to the same values by the different agents. Problems defined with this framework can be solved by any of the algorithms that are designed for it; the framework was used under different names in the 1980s. The first known usage with the current name is in 1990. A DCOP can be defined as a tuple ⟨ A, V, D, f, α, η ⟩, where: A is a set of agents; this function can be thought of as defining constraints between variables however the variables must not be Hermitian. Α ↦ a j implies that it is agent a j's responsibility to assign the value of variable v i.

Note that it is not true that α is either an injection or surjection. This is accomplished through summation: η ↦ ∑ s ∈ ⋃ S ∈ P ∑ v i ∈ S f; the objective of a DCOP is to have each agent assign values to its associated variables in order to either minimize or maximize η for a given assignment of the variables. A context is a variable assignment for a DCOP; this can be thought of as a function mapping variables in the DCOP to their current values: t: V → ∪. Note that a context is a partial solution and need not contain values for every variable in the problem. Given this representation, the "domain" of the function f can be thought of as the set of all possible contexts for the DCOP. Therefore, in the remainder of this article we may use the notion of a context as an input to the f function; the graph coloring problem is as follows: given a graph G = ⟨ N, E ⟩ and a set of colors C, assign each vertex, n ⊂ N, a color, c ≤ C


Tusey is today a hamlet of Vaucouleurs on the Meuse. It is first mentioned in documents of 859–65 as Tusey-sur-Meuse. From 22 October to 7 November 860 a church council was held there under King Charles the Bald. There was a royal palace at nearby Vaucouleurs; the importance of Tusey declined during the Middle Ages. A large cut stone, about one metre square, known locally as the borne d'Empire, "bollard of the Empire", is a boundary marker placed after the meeting at Quatre-Vaux between Philip IV of France and Albert I of Germany in 1299; the boundary markers that came out of this meeting were topped by bronze pieces, removed during the reign of Henry II. The hole for the bronze attachment is still visible on the stone. In 1832, Pierre Adolphe Muel established a foundry at Tusey. In 1840 he renamed the company Muel et Wahl. In 1862 Zégut took in 1874 Louis Gasne. From 1896 until 1904 it was in owned by Dufilhol et Chapal, passed on Dufilhol's death to Laurent Chevailler. Pierre Esch took over in 1935 and the foundry was shuttered in 1963.

Beck, Henry G. J.. "The Selection of Bishops Suffragan to Hincmar of Rheims, 845–882". The Catholic Historical Review. 45: 273–308. JSTOR 25016580. McKeon, Peter R.. "The Carolingian Councils of Savonnières and Tusey and their Background: A Study in the Ecclesiastical and Political History of the Ninth Century". Revue Bénédictine. 84: 75–110. Doi:10.1484/J. RB.4.00784

Ken Soble

Kenneth David Soble was a Canadian broadcasting executive, who became the owner of radio station CHML and was one of the founders of CHCH-TV, both of which were in Hamilton, Ontario. Under his management, CHCH withdrew from the CBC Television Network in 1961 to become Canada's first independent television station, he was the original applicant for what would become Canada's Global Television Network, although the application underwent numerous changes before being transferred to a separate company, unrelated to Soble's Niagara Television, in 1970. One indication of the esteem in which he was held was that the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation offered him the job of president of the network in late 1966. Soble was born in Toronto. Jacob Soble worked in a clothing factory, until he became unable to work. Ken left school at age 15. Soble's entry into broadcasting occurred by accident, circa 1927, when he helped a woman who needed a ride to the radio station where she worked, her name was Jane Gray, she had a radio drama troupe, the Jane Gray Players.

She showed her appreciation for the ride by giving him a chance to perform on the air. From that unpaid position, Soble found paid work at several stations, selling air time, doing some announcing of both music shows and sports programs. By 1936, he had started Metropolitan Broadcasting Service, Ltd.. Around that time, he got the idea for a radio amateur hour, similar to those on the air in the United States, such as the one hosted by Major Bowes. Ken Soble's Amateur Hour was first broadcast on CKCL in Toronto, but he was soon able to expand it to a regional network. Around 1936, after working for CKCL and CFRB, he became general manager of CHML in Hamilton. Meanwhile, during World War II, Soble decided to retire the Amateur Hour to concentrate on organizing entertainment programs for Canada's troops, but after the war, in 1946, the Amateur Hour returned to CHML by popular demand. In addition to supporting national causes, Soble funded the building of a Jewish Community Center in Hamilton. Soble became known for his devotion to local radio.

He believed that radio should both inform the public. While popular programs like the Amateur Hour provided entertainment, he wanted to further the mission of providing information, he felt that radio should help the public to "keep tabs on their elected representatives," so he began broadcasting Hamilton city council meetings on CHML in 1945. He expanded his radio news staff to make sure they were covering local politics, he was able to repay the kindness that Jane Gray had shown him so many years ago: when she wanted to return to radio after some time away from broadcasting, he hired her at CHML and gave her an advice and interview program. While well known as a radio executive, Soble was quick to embrace television. CHCH-TV, channel 11, in Hamilton, went on the air as a CBC affiliate in 1954, but in 1961, Soble decided to take the station independent, it worked out well: CHCH-TV became "the most profitable independent television station in Canada." One popular program Soble created for the station was Tiny Talent Time, a talent show for children twelve years old and under.

It debuted in 1957 and it ran for more than thirty years, until it was canceled in 1992. In 1953, Soble purchased the Barton Arena as well as the Hamilton Tigers hockey team of the OHA Senior League, he bought the Hamilton Cubs of the OHA Junior League. Subsequently, he became a governor of the Hamilton Tiger Cat football club. In addition to being a radio station manager and owner, the owner of a sports franchise, he was asked by the mayor of Hamilton to help the city with its public housing crisis in 1961, he won public support for the city's urban renewal plans, was subsequently appointed to the Ontario housing advisory committee, became its chairman. He was involved in many other civic projects, including backing a medical school for Hamilton's McMaster University. In an era before cable TV became well-known, Soble was envisioning turning CHCH-TV into a "satellite superstation." He wanted to establish a new Canada-wide television network, submitting a brief to the Board of Broadcast Governors in 1966 proposing a satellite-fed network to be branded as NTV.

Soble had formulated the plan after failing in a bid to acquire CTV. Soble died on December 16, 1966, he had been ill for a several weeks, both overwork and exhaustion were cited as factors in his death. The official cause of death was a heart attack, he was only 55 years old. His death was mourned by political figures, broadcasting colleagues, many people who re

Davide Tonani

Davide Tonani is an Italian footballer who plays for ASD Union Feltre. Born in Mede, Tonani joined Lombardy side F. C. Internazionale Milano in 2005, he played from Giovanissimi Regionali under-14 team to Allievi Nazionali under-17 team in 2009. He scored 12 goals in regular season, behind Simone Dell'Agnello and Giuseppe Angarano as third highest scorer of the team; the team finished as the runner-up. In August 2009 Inter decided to sell him to Chievo along with Filippo Fracaro, Edile Micheletti Awoh and youngster Francesco D'Ascanio, he was the member of Primavera under-20 team along with Micheletti Awoh. In June 2010 he was signed in co-ownership deal for a peppercorn fee of €500. On 22 June 2011 Chievo signed Tonani and Rincón outright, while Michele Rigione joined Inter outright. Marco Andreolli bought back by Chievo. On 19 August 2011 he joined Pro Vercelli in another co-ownership deal, he made his league debut on 25 September, substituted Pietro Iemmello in the second half. He played in Campionato Berretti, the Lega Pro equivalent of Primavera League.

Davide Tonani at Tuttocalciatori


Kemar Donaldson popularly known as Kranium, is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall singer known for his 2013 hit single "Nobody Has To Know" which gave him an international recognition and led him to the Atlantic Records record label. The nephew of Screwdriver, he was in Montego Bay before moving to Miami, Florida in the United States in 2005, he moved to New York City one year later. His career began with a series of appearances in the tri-state area, he opened shows for Serani, I-Octane and Tarrus Riley. His song, "Nobody Has to Know", produced by PLMR Productions, played on ethnic radio stations in New York City, including the influential Hot 97 FM. "Nobody Has To Know" sold more than 39,000 copies in 2015, peaking at no. 32 on the Reggae Digital Songs chart. Kranium has been working with producers including TJ Records and Cash Flow. Rumors The Bilingue's Time Midnight Sparks Nobody Has to Know We Can Between Us Lifestyle Draw Me Out History Beach House Stamina Lil Luv Moonlight Can't Give A...

Swagga Buck Ride It Rumors Gotta Believe Spydog Rebel Moon This Morning El Obraje Dos Sonrisas, Una Lagrima Envuelto en el Silencio Interlude No Te Tortures Nobody Haffi Know Sleepless Nights Summer Chill Sex Addict What We Need Pressure Bust Pipe No Commoners Manos cruzadas Up and Away Sin Tener Más Want Yesos de Familia Can't Believe (with Ty Dolla Sign, ft. WizKid Risky (with Davido So Me Move