SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Visayas

The Visayas, or the Visayan Islands, are one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon and Mindanao. Located in the central part of the archipelago, it consists of several islands surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast extremity of the entire Sulu Sea, its inhabitants are predominantly the Visayan peoples. The major islands of the Visayas are Panay, Cebu, Bohol and Samar; the region may include the provinces of Palawan and Masbate whose populations identify as Visayan and whose languages are more related to other Visayan languages than to the major languages of Luzon. There are three administrative regions in the Visayas: Western Visayas, Central Visayas and Eastern Visayas; the Negros Island Region existed from 2015 to 2017, separating Negros Occidental and its capital Bacolod from Western Visayas and Negros Oriental from Central Visayas. The region has been dissolved since; the etymology of Visayas is unknown. The word "Bisaya" was first documented in Spanish sources in reference only to the non-Ati inhabitants of the island of Panay and parts of Negros.

They were described by the Spanish as being "white people" with no tattoos. In contrast, the Spaniards called the inhabitants of other Visayan islands as the Pintados in reference to their practice of tattooing their entire bodies, it is unlikely that "Bisaya" was used as a collective endonym by the related native Visayans prior to the Spanish arrival. Visayans more refer to themselves by their ethnic groups, like Sugbuanon, Karay-a, Bol-anon, so on, it was the Spanish who applied the term to the people of the entire Visayas within a few decades after encountering the natives of Panay based on the erroneous conclusion that the other languages were mere "dialects" of Panay Visayan and that they all belong to the same ethnic group. From the 1950s to 1960s, there were common spurious claims by various authors that "Bisaya" is derived from "Sri Vijaya", arguing that the Visayans were either settlers from Sri Vijaya or were subjects of Sri Vijaya; this claim is based only on the resemblance of the word "Bisaya" to "Vijaya".

But as the linguist Eugene Verstraelen pointed out, "Vijaya" would evolve to become "Bidaya" or "Biraya", not "Bisaya", based on how other Sanskrit-derived loanwords become integrated into Philippine languages. There are claims that it was the name of a folk hero or that it originated from the exclamation "Bisai-yah!" by the Sultan of Brunei, visiting Visayas for the first time. However these claims have all been refuted by anthropologists as baseless; the name has been hypothesized to be related to the Bisaya ethnic group of Borneo, the latter is incidentally recounted in the Maragtas epic as being the source of the settlers in Panay. However evidence for this is still paltry; the languages of the Bisaya of Borneo and the Bisaya of the Philippines do not show any special correlation. After the Magellan expedition, King Philip II of Spain sent Miguel López de Legazpi in 1543 and 1565 and claimed the islands for Spain. Subsequently, the Visayas region and many kingdoms began converting to Christianity and adopting western culture.

By the 18th and 19th centuries, the effects of colonization on various ethnic groups turned sour and revolutions such as those of Francisco Dagohoy began to emerge. Various personalities who fought against the Imperial Spanish Colonial Government arose within the archipelago. Among the notable ones are Graciano Lopez Jaena and Martin Delgado from Iloilo, Aniceto Lacson, León Kilat and Diego de la Viña from Negros, Venancio Jakosalem Fernandez from Cebu, two personalities from Bohol by the name of Tamblot, who led the Tamblot Uprising in 1621 to 1622 and Francisco Dagohoy, the leader of the Bohol Rebellion that lasted from 1744 to 1829. Negros stood as an independent nation in the Visayas in the form of the Cantonal Republic of Negros, before it was absorbed back to the Philippines because of the American takeover of the archipelago. On 23 May 2005, Palawan was transferred from MIMAROPA to Western Visayas under Executive Order No. 429, signed by Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, the president at that year.

However, Palaweños criticized the move, citing a lack of consultation, with most residents in Puerto Princesa and all Palawan municipalities but one, preferring to stay in MIMAROPA. Administrative Order No. 129 was issued on 19 August 2005 that the implementation of E. O. 429 be held in pending approval by the president of its Implementation Plan. The Philippine Commission on Elections reported the 2010 Philippine general election results for Palawan as a part of the Region IV-B results; as of 30 June 2011, the abeyance was still in effect, with Palawan and its capital city remaining under MIMAROPA. On 29 May 2015, the twin provinces of Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental were joined together to form the Negros Island Region under Executive Order No. 183, signed by President Benigno Aquino III. It separated both, the former province and its capital city from Western Visayas and the latter province from Central Visayas. On 9 August 2017, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Executive Order No. 38, revoking the Executive Order No. 183 signed by President Benigno Aquino III on 29 May 2015, due to the reason of the lack of funds to esta

Ohio State Route 682

State Route 682 is a north–south state highway in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Ohio. The southern terminus of State Route 682 is at a trumpet interchange with US 33, US 50 and SR 32 in Athens, its northern terminus is at SR 13 in the village of Ohio. SR 682, designated in the late 1930s, exists within Athens County, serves as a southern bypass for the city of Athens, it passes near the main campus of Ohio University. The entirety of SR 682 is located in the central part of Athens County, it is not a component of the National Highway System, a system of highways deemed most important for the economy and defense of the nation. When it was established in 1937, SR 682 ran from the SR 56 junction just southwest of Athens to the point where SR 682 meets the connector road to US 33 just southwest of Chauncey, northwest of where SR 682 crosses over the Hocking River. At the time, this was where SR 682 met the predecessor to what would become the first routing of US 33 through this area, known at the time as SR 31.

By 1961, a new stretch of expressway opened to the south of Chauncey. A re-routing of US 33 out of Chauncey and onto this new expressway resulted in an extension of SR 682 northeasterly into the village along the former two-lane routing of US 33 up to the state highway's current northern terminus at the SR 13 junction. By 1969, SR 682 was extended southeasterly through Athens to its current southern terminus at US 33, US 50, SR 32; the entire route is in Athens County

Marxism–Leninism–Maoism–Prachanda Path

Marxism–Leninism–Maoism–Prachanda Path refers to the ideological line of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal known as the UCPN. It is considered a development of Marxism–Leninism–Maoism and named after the leader of the UCPN, Pushpa Kamal Dahal known as Prachanda. Prachanda Path was proclaimed in 2001; the ideology was inspired by the example of the Communist Party of Peru, which refers to its ideological line as "Marxism–Leninism–Maoism–Gonzalo Thought". Prachanda Path does not claim to make an ideological break with Marxism, Leninism or Maoism, but rather to be an extension of these ideologies based on the politics of Nepal; the doctrine came into existence after the party determined that the ideologies of Marxism and Maoism could no longer be practiced as they been in the past. The party adopted Prachanda Path as they felt it was a suitable ideology based on the reality of Nepalese politics. Militarily and in the context of the 1996–2006 armed conflict in Nepal, central to the ideology was the achievement of revolution through the control of rural areas and the encirclement of urban settlements.

Today, Prachanda's positions are seen by some Marxist–Leninist–Maoists around the world as "revisionist" and are criticized by revolutionary organizations within Nepal. These criticisms focus on the entry of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal into mainstream party politics in Nepal; these criticisms have drawn on the cooperation between UCPN-M under Pushpa Kamal Dahal and the Communist Party of Nepal. Marxism–Leninism–Maoism Nepalese Civil War People's Liberation Army, Nepal People's Multiparty Democracy Prachanda Unified Communist Party of Nepal A collection of articles by Prachanda and other leaders of the CPN Prachanda, follower of modern revisionism critique of Prachanda Path