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Visby

Visby is a locality and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County, on the island of Gotland, Sweden with 24,330 inhabitants, as of 2017. Visby is the episcopal see for the Diocese of Visby; the Hanseatic city of Visby is arguably the best-preserved medieval city in Scandinavia and since 1995, it has been on the UNESCO World Heritage site list. Among the most notable historical remains are the 3.4 km long town wall that encircles the town center, a number of church ruins. Visby is a popular vacation destination for Scandinavians during the summer and receives thousands of tourists every year, it is by far the most populated locality outside the Swedish mainland. The Gotland University is in Visby, since 1 July 2013, it is a department of Uppsala University under the name Uppsala University–Campus Gotland. Visby is the sole county seat in Sweden accessible from the mainland only by boat and air; the name "Visby" comes from the Old Norse Vis, meaning " place of sacrifices", by, meaning "village".

In the Gutasagan the place is referred to as just Wi meaning "holy place, place of worship". Visby is sometimes called "The City of Roses" or "The City of Ruins"; the earliest history of Visby is uncertain, but it is known to have been a centre of merchandise around 900 AD. It was inhabited as early as the Stone Age because of the access to fresh water and a natural harbour. In the 12th century, Visby Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Mary, was constructed, it was reshaped in the 13th century to its current appearance, was opened in 1225, by the bishop of the Swedish city of Linköping. Several other churches were constructed in the ensuing centuries; the city flourished, thanks to the German Hanseatic League. The work on the ring wall was begun in the 12th century. Around 1300, it was rebuilt to reach its current height, acquiring the characteristic towers, although some towers were not constructed until the 15th century; the ringwall is still intact. In the first half of the fourteenth century Visby was at the height of its wealth and influence, it was during this time that Laws of Wisbuy, a set of maritime laws that had broad influence in the Baltic and beyond, were promulgated.

In 1361, Gotland was conquered by Valdemar IV of Denmark. 1,800 Gotlanders were killed in battle in front of the city. Valdemar tore down part of the wall, set up three huge beer barrels and threatened to turn his men loose to pillage the town unless they were filled with silver and gold; the Visby city fathers fulfilled the demand, with churches stripped of their valuables. Valdemar added "King of Gotland" to his title list, his treatment of Visby, a member of the Hanseatic League, precipitated that League into war with Denmark. In 1391, 1394 and 1398, it was taken and plundered by the Victual Brothers, pirates who sailed the Baltic Sea. An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered Gotland in 1398, destroyed Visby and expelled the Victual Brothers. In 1409, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark and Sweden. In 1411, the Norwegian and Swedish King Eric of Pomerania had the castle of Visborg constructed, settled himself there for twelve years, during which the city became a pirates' nest, the commerce halted.

As of 1470, the Hanseatic League rescinded Visby's status as a Hanseatic town. In 1525, the final blow came. In the Danish throne quarrel, the Lübeck, a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire and a leading member of the Hanseatic League, supported Frederick I, while Søren Norby the Danish governor of Gotland fought for Christian II after Christian's official resignation in 1523. While Norby fought a military action in Sweden, the Lübeckers attacked Visby and set the city on fire from four sites, but unlike widespread belief, several churches survived at first. The churches of St. James, St. Nicholas and St. Gertrude were sacked by Lübeck's army. With the reformation, all churches except St. John, which became the city parish, were closed. In 1528, the citizens of Visby sacked the church of the Holy Trinity, or the church of Our Lord in revenge for the plundering of their town. In 1533–34, the new Danish governor, Henrik Nielsen Rosenkrantz, demolished St. John's and St. Peter's churches to improve the defence of his castle Visborgs slott.

St. Mary's Cathedral became the new city parish. Gotland was again taken into Sweden's possession in 1645, by the Treaty of Brömsebro, after 300 years of Danish rule; the city developed as things were left as they were. In the mid 18th century, after a plague had reduced Visby's population, some attempts were made by Swedish government officials to improve living standards, but little was accomplished. Not until the early 19th century did Visby once again attract commerce and a harbour industry. At the same time – 1808 – Gotland was conquered by Russia, but was peacefully taken back by the Swedes after only a couple of months. Visby is the name of the locality, or town, as well as the name of the larger area surrounding it, Visby socken. In 1936, the socken was incorporated within the newly formed Visby stad, the only locality with historical city status on Gotland. Visby socken comprises the same area as the administrative Visby District, established on 1 January 2016; as of 2019, Visby Cathedral, Visborg Church and Terra Nova Church in Visby belong to Visby Cathedral parish (Visby

Marcos de Niza

For the High School in Tempe, see Marcos de Niza High School. Fray Marcos de Niza was a Franciscan friar, he is credited with being the first European in what is now the State of Arizona in the United States. He emigrated to America in 1531 for exploration of new land, after serving his order zealously in Peru and Guatemala, de Niza was chosen to explore the country north of Sonora, whose wealth was depicted in the accounts of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. In 1537 he arrived in Mexico City at the request of the viceroy Antonio de Mendoza. Preceded by Estevanico, the Moroccan-Berber companion of Cabeza de Vaca in his wanderings and the Black Mexican of Zuni traditions, Culiacán in March 1539, crossed south-eastern Arizona near the present-day Lochiel, penetrated to the Zuni or the Seven Cities of Cibola, in September returned to Culiacán, he saw Cibola only from a distance, his description of it as equal in size to Mexico City was exact. Fray Marcos was made provincial superior of his order for Mexico before the second trip to Zuni, returned in 1541 to Mexico City in shame, where for a time was able to exercise the highest office of the Franciscans, in the province.

SourcesMaura, Juan Francisco. El gran burlador de América:Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Colección Parnaseo-Lemir. Valencia:Universidad de Valencia, 2008.http://parnaseo.uv.es/lemir/Textos/Maura.pdf The Spanish Pioneers. Charles F. Lummis: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/33095?msg=welcome_strangerAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Marcos de Niza". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Http://www.psi.edu/about/staff/hartmann/coronado/journeyofmarcosdeniza.html The Mysterious Journey of Friar Marcos de Niza | www.psi.edu https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fni09 NIZA, MARCOS DE | tshaonline.org

Serena Viti

Serena Viti is a Professor and the head of Astrophysics at University College London. She is part of the Stars, Star Formation and Galaxy Evolution Research group in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. In March 2019 she received an ERC Advanced Grant for her MOPPEX proposal. Viti was an undergraduate at Queen Mary and Westfield College, where she gained a BSc in Astrophysics in 1994, she was awarded a PhD from University College London for her work on the infrared spectra of cool stars and sunspots in 1997. After her PhD, Viti became a post-doctoral fellow at UCL in the field of star formation and astrochemistry, followed by a fixed-term lectureship at the CNR in Rome as a Herschel Scientist, she returned to UCL in October 2003 for an STFC Advanced Fellowship and became a lecturer of Astrophysics in 2004. She was promoted to Reader in 2007 and to Professor of Astrophysics in 2012. Viti became head of the Astrophysics department at UCL in 2016. Viti is on the editorial board for Molecular Astrophysics.

She is the current secretary of the European Astronomical Society, was a Royal Astronomical Society council member, serves on several STFC panels and committees. The central focus of her research is in the field of astrochemistry and the study of molecules in space, she is a member of the International Astronomical Union, the Royal Astronomical Society, the European Astronomical Society and the Astrophysical Chemistry Society. She led an exhibition on astrochemistry at the 2004 Royal Society Summer Exhibition. Viti has co-authored a book on observational molecular astronomy. Viti was awarded the Royal Astronomical Society Fowler Award for Astronomy in 2006 and the Australian Astronomical Observatory Distinguished Visitor Fellowship in 2015