Vishnu is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. The "preserver" in the Hindu triad, Vishnu is revered as the supreme being In Vaishnavism as identical to the metaphysical concept of Brahman, is notable for adopting various incarnations to preserve and protect dharmic principles whenever the world is threatened with evil and destructive forces. In the Smarta Tradition of Hinduism Vishnu is one of the five equivalent deities worshipped in Panchayatana puja. Vishnu means'all pervasive', according to Medhātith,'one, everything and inside everything'. Vedanga scholar Yaska in the Nirukta defines Vishnu as'viṣṇur viṣvater vā vyaśnoter vā', meaning'one who enters everywhere', adding'atha yad viṣito bhavati tad viṣnurbhavati', meaning'that, free from fetters and bondage is Vishnu'. In the tenth part of the Padma Purana, Danta lists 108 names of Vishnu; these include the ten primary avatars and descriptions of the qualities, attributes, or aspects of God. The Anushasana Parva of the Mahabharata and the Garuda Purana both list over 1000 names for Vishnu, each name describing a quality, attribute, or aspect of God.
Known as the Vishnu Sahasranama,'Vishnu' here is defined as'the omnipresent'. Other notable names in this list include Hari, Kala, Vāsudeva, Atman and Prakrti. MahaVishnu - known as Karanodakasayi Vishnu - is another important name that denotes his being the source and creator of the multiverse as the total material energy. Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Vishnu are expansions of MahaVishnu. In Hindu mythology, Vishnu is depicted as having: A dark blue to black complexion Earrings in the shape of sharks A garland of flowers hanging from His neck; the shrivatsa mark on His chest The Kaustubha gem on His chest Four arms: Upper-left hand holding the Panchajanya shankha Lower-left hand holding a padma Upper-right hand handing the Sudarshana Chakra Lower-right hand the Kaumodaki gada Yellow-coloured silk trousersThe bow of Vishnu is known as Sharanga and His sword is known as Nandaka. A traditional depiction of Vishnu is that of Him reclining on the coils of the serpent Shesha, accompanied by his consort Lakshmi, as he "dreams the universe into reality".
In Vaishnavism, the so-called'Hindu Triad' represents the three fundamental forces through which the universe is created and destroyed in cyclic succession. Each of these forces is represented by a Hindu deity: Brahma: Represents Rajas Vishnu: Represents Sattva Shiva: Represents Tamas All have the same meaning of three in One; the concept of the avatar within Hinduism is most associated with Vishnu, the preserver or sustainer aspect of God within the Hindu Trimurti. The avatars of Vishnu descend to empower the good and to destroy evil, thereby restoring Dharma and relieving the burden of the Earth. An oft-quoted passage from the Bhagavad Gita describes the typical role of an avatar of Vishnu: Vedic literature, in particular the Puranas and Itihasa, narrate numerous avatars of Vishnu; the most well-known of these avatars are Krishna, Rama. Krishna in particular is venerated in Vaishnavism as the ultimate, transcendental source of all existence, including all the other demigods and gods such as Vishnu.
In the Mahabharata, Vishnu states to Narada that He will appear in the following ten incarnations: Appearing in the forms of a swan, a tortoise, a fish, O foremost of regenerate ones, I shall display myself as a boar as a Man-lion as a dwarf as Rama of Bhrigu's race as Rama, the son of Dasaratha as Krishna the scion of the Sattwata race, lastly as Kalki. Specified avatars of Vishnu are listed against some of the Puranas in the table below. However, this is a complicated process and the lists are unlikely to be exhaustive because: Not all Puranas provide lists per se A list may be given in one place but additional avatars may be mentioned elsewhere A personality in one Purana may be considered an avatar in another Some avatars consist of two or more people considered as different aspects of a single incarnation The Dashavatara is a list of the so-called Vibhavas or ‘10 Avatars’ of Vishnu; the Agni Purana, Varaha Purana, Padma Purana, Linga Purana, Narada Purana, Garuda Purana, Skanda Purana
An Outline of Psychoanalysis is a work by Sigmund Freud. Returning to an earlier project of providing an overview of psychoanalysis, Freud began writing this work in Vienna in 1938 as he was waiting to leave for London. By September 1938, he had written three-quarters of the book, which were published together in 1940, a year after his death. James Strachey writes that while "the Outline must be described as unfinished... it is difficult to regard it as incomplete," given its comprehensive treatment of the subject matter. In the work's preface, Freud argues that the purpose of the Outline is to "bring together the tenets of psycho-analysis and to state them, as it were, dogmatically—in the most concise form and in the most unequivocal terms."Composed of three sections, the works opens with a description of the psychic apparatus, including its spatial organization and differentiation into agencies. The ego, which develops through contact with the outside world, attempts to reconcile the needs of the id, the superego, reality.
The id represents the hereditary past. Drives, which are conservative and located in the id, represent somatic needs for the psyche. Eros and the destruction, or death, whether antagonists or combined in biological functions, are the two fundamental impulses. In the work’s second part, Freud discusses the “technique” of psychoanalysis. Freud them presents an example of. In the work’s third part, Freud discusses the relationship between the preconscious and unconscious and the external world, he discusses the nature of the "internal world" of the mind
H. James Birx, is an American anthropologist and a professor of Anthropology at Canisius College in Buffalo, New York, he is a distinguished research scholar at the State University of New York at Geneseo. Birx spent his childhood on the combination farm and travelers motel operated by his parents in the small town of Bloomfield in the Finger Lakes Region of New York. Graduating from Bloomfield Central High School in 1959, Birx completed his undergraduate studies at the nearby SUNY Geneseo before moving on to complete his M. A. in Anthropology and his Ph. D. in Philosophy, both from the SUNY Buffalo. As of 2019, he serves as a full professor of Anthropology at Canisius College where he lectures on Anthropology in Film and early Biological Anthropology, he is a Distinguished Research Scholar in the SUNY Geneseo's Department of Anthropology and he holds a winter semester course entitled "Human Culture and Evolution" for the Doctoral Program of the University of Belgrade in Serbia. He has been a visiting professor at the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, twice a Visiting Scholar at Harvard University, has lectured at universities around the world.
He received the 2003 Professional Achievement Award from the State University of New York at Geneseo. Birx has written eight books and edited six more, is the editor of the five-volume Encyclopedia of Anthropology, he is the editor of the World Lecture Series in Anthropology. Dr. H. James Birx Scholarship, State University of New York College of Arts and Sciences at Geneseo Theories of Evolution, Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd, 1984. ISBN 978-0398049027 Craniometry of the Orchid Site Ossuary Buffalo, Persimmon Press, 1991. ISBN 0-9615462-5-5 Interpreting Evolution Amherst, Prometheus Books, 1991. ISBN 0-87975-439-7 Science and Society, Russian Academy of Sciences St. Petersburg, State University St. Petersburg, Russia, 2000 Advances in Evolution & Paleontology, University of Zaragoza, Spain, 2001. ISBN 84-8465-079-0 Values, Society & Evolution Auburn, Legend Books, 2002. ISBN 0-9657898-5-3 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's Philosophy of Evolution, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1971.. 267 pages.
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