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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, visible to the human eye. Electromagnetic radiation in this range of wavelengths is called visible light or light. A typical human eye will respond to wavelengths from about 380 to 740 nanometers. In terms of frequency, this corresponds to a band in the vicinity of 430–770 THz; the spectrum does not contain all the colors. Unsaturated colors such as pink, or purple variations like magenta, for example, are absent because they can only be made from a mix of multiple wavelengths. Colors containing only one wavelength are called pure colors or spectral colors. Visible wavelengths pass unattenuated through the Earth's atmosphere via the "optical window" region of the electromagnetic spectrum. An example of this phenomenon is when clean air scatters blue light more than red light, so the midday sky appears blue; the optical window is referred to as the "visible window" because it overlaps the human visible response spectrum. The near infrared window lies just out of the human vision, as well as the medium wavelength infrared window, the long wavelength or far infrared window, although other animals may experience them.

In the 13th century, Roger Bacon theorized that rainbows were produced by a similar process to the passage of light through glass or crystal. In the 17th century, Isaac Newton discovered that prisms could disassemble and reassemble white light, described the phenomenon in his book Opticks, he was the first to use the word spectrum in this sense in print in 1671 in describing his experiments in optics. Newton observed that, when a narrow beam of sunlight strikes the face of a glass prism at an angle, some is reflected and some of the beam passes into and through the glass, emerging as different-colored bands. Newton hypothesized light to be made up of "corpuscles" of different colors, with the different colors of light moving at different speeds in transparent matter, red light moving more than violet in glass; the result is that red light is bent less than violet as it passes through the prism, creating a spectrum of colors. Newton divided the spectrum into six named colors: red, yellow, green and violet.

He added indigo as the seventh color since he believed that seven was a perfect number as derived from the ancient Greek sophists, of there being a connection between the colors, the musical notes, the known objects in the solar system, the days of the week. The human eye is insensitive to indigo's frequencies, some people who have otherwise-good vision cannot distinguish indigo from blue and violet. For this reason, some commentators, including Isaac Asimov, have suggested that indigo should not be regarded as a color in its own right but as a shade of blue or violet. Evidence indicates that what Newton meant by "indigo" and "blue" does not correspond to the modern meanings of those color words. Comparing Newton's observation of prismatic colors to a color image of the visible light spectrum shows that "indigo" corresponds to what is today called blue, whereas "blue" corresponds to cyan. In the 18th century, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote about optical spectra in his Theory of Colours. Goethe used the word spectrum to designate a ghostly optical afterimage, as did Schopenhauer in On Vision and Colors.

Goethe argued. Where Newton narrowed the beam of light to isolate the phenomenon, Goethe observed that a wider aperture produces not a spectrum but rather reddish-yellow and blue-cyan edges with white between them; the spectrum appears only. In the early 19th century, the concept of the visible spectrum became more definite, as light outside the visible range was discovered and characterized by William Herschel and Johann Wilhelm Ritter, Thomas Young, Thomas Johann Seebeck, others. Young was the first to measure the wavelengths of different colors of light, in 1802; the connection between the visible spectrum and color vision was explored by Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz in the early 19th century. Their theory of color vision proposed that the eye uses three distinct receptors to perceive color. Many species can see light within frequencies outside the human "visible spectrum". Bees and many other insects can detect ultraviolet light. Plant species that depend on insect pollination may owe reproductive success to their appearance in ultraviolet light rather than how colorful they appear to humans.

Birds, can see into the ultraviolet, some have sex-dependent markings on their plumage that are visible only in the ultraviolet range. Many animals that can see into the ultraviolet range cannot see red light or any other reddish wavelengths. Bees' visible spectrum ends at about 590 nm. Birds can see some red wavelengths; the popular belief that the common goldfish is the only animal that can see both infrared and ultraviolet light is incorrect, because goldfish cannot see infrared light. Most mammals are dichromatic, dogs and horses are thought to be color blind, they have been shown to be sensitive to colors, though not as many as humans. Some snakes can "see" radiant heat at wavelengths between 5 and 30 μm to a degree of accuracy such that a blind rattlesnake can target vulnerable body parts of the prey at which it strikes, other snak

Nicholas J. Cifarelli

Nicholas John Cifarelli, M. D. was an Italian-American physician. He is known for starting the first Bioethics Advisory Committee in the United States. Dr. Cifarelli was born in Queens, New York on August 22, 1928. Nicholas, at a young age showed an appreciation for fine arts, he viewed sculpture at Roman Bronze, Inc.. He furthered his education in the arts, working eight years at the Metropolitan Opera, was privileged to see every classical ballet the opera presented; this exposure created a deep love of the classics and was his inspiration to become a sculptor, where he incorporated the time for this interest while practicing medicine. Dr. Cifarelli began as an undergraduate in 1946 at Saint Peter's College, he studied Chemistry, was a standout pitcher on the baseball team and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1949. Soon after he attended Georgetown University School of Medicine where he pursued a medical education. In 1954 he graduated with a medical degree. Cifarelli pursued his interest in Sculpture where he studied under Professor Salvatore at Columbia University in 1964.

He continued his education in this subject at Queens College in 1965. In 1971 he completed an extension course in Sculpture at UCLA, he took sculpture courses at Pasadena City College in Pasadena, CA from 1972-1973. After receiving his medical degree from Georgetown University Dr. Cifarelli went back to Queens, New York to start his medical internship at the Flushing Hospital & Medical Center. After completing his internship he started his medical residency, choosing the specialty of Internal Medicine at Flushing Hospital & Medical Center. After finishing his medical residency Dr. Cifarelli joined the United States Navy as a Medical Officer, he was stationed in Coronado, CA. After finishing his military service he relocated back to Queens, New York to begin a medical career as a private practice physician. After he gained some experience in private practice he decided to further his medical education and began his fellowship in Nephrology at the Bronx VA Hospital, in the Bronx, New York. Cifarelli practiced medicine in New York City until 1968.

In 1968 he moved to Los Angeles. Throughout his medical career in Los Angeles he was elected Chief of Staff at several different hospitals in the area, he held numerous other positions during his career. In 1985 he was granted the title of Clinical Assistant Professor in Medicine from the University of California, Los Angeles. In 1994 the San Gabriel Valley Medical Center named the medical library in his name to show their appreciation for the dedication Dr. Cifarelli put forth throughout his career. Cifarelli was a Fellow of the American College of Physicians, he retired in 1996. He became well known in 1984 when he pioneered the first Bioethics Advisory Committee in the United States at the San Gabriel Valley Medical Center. Cifarelli maintained a "pull the plug" mentality throughout his medical career, he believed the patient and their family should not have to suffer through debilitating illnesses when there was no quality of life. Sculpture was one of Cifarelli's passions. Cifarelli completed a lifelike sculpture of the world-renowned ballet dancer.

Some of Cifarelli's work has been showcased at The Sculptors III Gallery in Palm Springs, CA. Cifarelli died Christmas 2005 after battling an illness. At the time of his diagnosis he stated that he did not want to be put on life support which reflected the views that he stressed during his career. Previous to his death he resided in San Marino, CA with his family

Richard Heslop

Richard Heslop is a British director of music videos and films. He has produced videos for artists including Queen, The Cure, New Order, as well as programmes on Channel 4 and the BBC, he is a cameraman, writer and artist shooting and editing his own work. Richard Heslop bought his first super 8mm camera aged 10. Before becoming a director, Heslop operated a live multi-projection for 23 Skidoo on their travels through Europe in 1979 and took part in The Final Academy multi-projection performance with 23 Skidoo, William Burroughs and friends In 1981 he documented the Brixton riots and began a foundation course at the London College of Printing. There, he released his 7 Songs video with the music of 23 skidoo. Heslop graduated in 1984 from Saint Martin's School of Art with a BA honours in film/fine art, he released the Saw as a boxed VHS tape. In the film, a nine-year-old girl receives a giant bandsaw for her birthday and plays innocently and gleefully as it twists around her bedroom, it leads her on a dark and surreal journey of discovery.

The film won first prize at the Huesca short film festival in Spain and was shown at Edinburgh Film Festival and ICA Synchronization of the Senses Festival. In 1984, Heslop was the camera operator for Derek Jarman's experimental film Imagining October, filmed on Super 8. Two years he directed his first music video The Queen is Dead by The Smiths and modelled in a Paris fashion show for Yohji Yamamoto and travelled to India to make documentary about the Kumbh Mela. In 1986 he made the film Procar in collaboration with Daniel Landin and Herbert Verhey with his Car Ensemble of the Netherlands for live performances in Amsterdam during the Romantic Aesthetics Festival. For this project, a two-day drive-in cinema was built in the centre of the city; the film was shown that year at the Berlin Film Festival and released as part of a compilation of British short films 1984-1987 called Fat Of The Land which included an early Tilda Swinton short The Sluggard by Joy Perino and work by Cerith Wyn Evens.

That year he filmed the performance of Laibach and Michael Clark in London: No Fire Escape In Hell and shot the music video for Laibach's Life is Life on location in Slovenia. In the 80s he started to create photo-montages, he continued his career as director of music videos, including clips for New Order, Happy Mondays, Pop Will Eat Itself and The Mighty Lemon Drops. During the same period he started Trigger Happy Films that would produce many videos including Unbelievable by EMF. In the late 80s, apart from beginning to document the rave scene in England, Heslop became cameraman on Derek Jarman's arthouse feature films The Garden and The Last of England. In 1991 for Channel 4, Heslop wrote and directed Floating, a 39 min film about a Docklands bus driver who, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, destroys his house to build an ark in his living room; this film was awarded Best Short Film in the Semaine de la Critique at the Cannes Film Festival in 1992. In 1996 Heslop was commissioned by the rock group Queen to direct a film for the track "I Was Born to Love You" on the Made In Heaven compilation, co-produced by the British Film Institute and Janine Marmot at Hot Property Films.

In 1997 Heslop directed commercials for Oil Factory Films which included the rebranding campaign of Fox's Biscuits for St Lukes in 1997. He did promos for HSBC, Kodak and X-AM jeans. Starting in 2000, Heslop directed shows for the BBC and Channel 4, including the TV series The Residents an 8 x 30min black comedy and began shooting a 35mm feature film State of the Party, a contemporary drama set in and about the dance culture scene, adapted from the book Disco Biscuits by Sarah Champion and Irvine Welsh; this project did not complete. In 2010, after making a music video for Dan Le Sac vs Scroobius Pip called "Get Better" Heslop set up I Like Films, Me Ltd with producers Ciska Faulkner and Philip Shotton to produce the feature film Frank which he both wrote and directed; the film was shot in the north of England and was completed in March 2012. It premiered at the Cambridge Film Festival and was nominated for BIFA's Raindance Award in 2012. In March 2014 Heslop showed his live multiple projections for 23 Skidoo as part of the BFI's This Is Now: Film and Video After Punk.

It covered underground film from 1979 to 1985. It ended with 23 Skidoo playing live at the BFI Southbank as a tribute to Heslop's'7 Songs' experimental music Video. In December 2014 Heslop directed Pour It On, an 8-minute short film piece, serving as a music video for New Build; the film featured a performance of Second Skin by London performance artist Rachel Gomme. The film premiered in the New York Times Style magazine in a review of the album "Pour It On" by Ilana Kaplan. Richard Heslop's experimental'The Raft Of The Medusa' was completed for BBC Radio 4 and aired April 12, 2015. Medusa is a tribute to the late Derek Jarman. Scratch Video Official website Richard Heslop on IMDb Richard Heslop on Vimeo FRANK on Facebook Aesthetica Magazine interview with Richard Heslop 2015