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Visigoths

The Visigoths were an early Germanic people who along with the Ostrogoths constituted the two major branches of the Goths. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period; the Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups who had invaded the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient; the Visigoths under Alaric I invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 410. After the Visigoths sacked Rome, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD; the Visigoths first settled in southern Gaul as foederati to the Romans – a relationship established in 418. However, they soon fell out with their Roman hosts and established their own kingdom with its capital at Toulouse.

They next extended their authority into Hispania at the expense of the Vandals. In 507, their rule in Gaul was ended by the Franks under Clovis I, who defeated them in the Battle of Vouillé. After that, the Visigoth kingdom was limited to Hispania, they never again held territory north of the Pyrenees other than Septimania. A small, elite group of Visigoths came to dominate the governance of that region at the expense of those who had ruled there in the Byzantine province of Spania and the Kingdom of the Suebi. In or around 589, the Visigoths under Reccared I converted from Arianism to Nicene Christianity adopting the culture of their Hispano-Roman subjects, their legal code, the Visigothic Code abolished the longstanding practice of applying different laws for Romans and Visigoths. Once legal distinctions were no longer being made between Romani and Gothi, they became known collectively as Hispani. In the century that followed, the region was dominated by the Councils of the episcopacy. In 711 or 712, an invading force of Arabs and Berbers defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete.

Their king and many members of their governing elite were killed, their kingdom collapsed. During their governance of Hispania, the Visigoths built several churches, they left many artifacts, which have been discovered in increasing numbers by archaeologists in recent times. The Treasure of Guarrazar of votive crowns and crosses is the most spectacular, they founded the only new cities in western Europe from the fall of the Western half of the Roman Empire until the rise of the Carolingian dynasty. Many Visigothic names are still in use in modern Portuguese, their most notable legacy, was the Visigothic Code, which served, among other things, as the basis for court procedure in most of Christian Iberia until the Late Middle Ages, centuries after the demise of the kingdom. Contemporaneous references to the Gothic tribes use the terms "Vesi", "Ostrogothi", "Thervingi", "Greuthungi". Most scholars have concluded that the terms "Vesi" and "Tervingi" were both used to refer to one particular tribe, while the terms "Ostrogothi" and "Greuthungi" were used to refer to another.

Herwig Wolfram points out that while primary sources list all four names, whenever they mention two different tribes, they always refer either to "the Vesi and the Ostrogothi" or to "the Tervingi and the Greuthungi", they never pair them up in any other combination. This conclusion is supported by Jordanes, who identified the Visigoth kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the heirs of the 4th century Tervingian king Athanaric, the Ostrogoth kings from Theoderic the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungi king Ermanaric. In addition, the Notitia Dignitatum equates the Vesi with the Tervingi in a reference to the years 388–391; the earliest sources for each of the four names are contemporaneous. The first recorded reference to "the Tervingi" is in a eulogy of the emperor Maximian, delivered in or shortly after 291 and traditionally ascribed to Claudius Mamertinus, it says that the "Tervingi, another division of the Goths", joined with the Taifali to attack the Vandals and Gepidae. The first recorded reference to "the Greuthungi" is by Ammianus Marcellinus, writing no earlier than 392 and later than 395, recounting the words of a Tervingian chieftain, attested as early as 376.

The first known use of the term "Ostrogoths" is in a document dated September 392 from Milan. Wolfram notes that "Vesi" and "Ostrogothi" were terms each tribe used to boastfully describe itself and argues that "Tervingi" and "Greuthungi" were geographical identifiers each tribe used to describe the other; this would explain why the latter terms dropped out of use shortly after 400, when the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions. As an example of this geographical naming practice, Wolfram cites an account by Zosimus of a group of people living north of the Danube who called themselves "the Scythians" but were called "the Greutungi" by members of a different tribe livin

1977–78 Boston Bruins season

The 1977–78 Boston Bruins season was the Bruins' 54th season in the NHL. The season involved participating in the Stanley Cup finals; the 1977–78 Bruins set an NHL record by having 11 different skaters score 20 goals or more in a season. The eleven skaters are: Peter McNab Terry O'Reilly Bobby Schmautz Stan Jonathan Jean Ratelle Rick Middleton Wayne Cashman Gregg Sheppard Brad Park Don Marcotte Bob Miller Note: GP = Games played, W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, Pts = Points, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals againstNote: Teams that qualified for the playoffs are highlighted in bold. December 1: Following a fight with Alex Pirus, John Wensink skates over to the Minnesota bench and challenges the entire team but no player responds. ScoringGoaltending ScoringGoaltending Montreal wins the series 4–2. Larry Robinson won the Conn Smythe Trophy as playoff MVP. THIS IS AN INCOMPLETE LIST Don Cherry, Runner-Up, Jack Adams Trophy Brad Park, Defenceman, NHL First Team All-Star Bruins on Hockey Database

Itoiz

Itoiz was the name of a Basque music band from the coastal towns of Mutriku and Ondarroa, started off in 1978 and disbanded in 1988. Born in times of turmoil for the Basque Autonomous Community, Itoiz stems from a dancing music band called Indar Trabes, which performed in evening festivities of towns. Throughout their existence spanning ten years, Itoiz dealt with several styles ranging from folk to progressive rock to pop. In 1978, the members of the band Indar Trabes elaborated an LP album due for release in the Durango Basque Book and Music Fair, they decided to rebrand the group on the grounds that the previous name was associated to evening dancing performances. They chose Itoiz, their first album featured whimsical lyrics, wrapped up in progressive rock music. During the next three years they went through various reshuffles in the line-up, the music grew more complex and elaborated, but the symphonic sound remained until their third album Alkolea. In 1983 they launched the successful album Musikaz blai, which gave up previous progressive and jazzy music patterns, switching to pop-rock along the lines of prevailing music trends.

Juan Carlos Pérez explained, "We used a progressive rock rhythmic pattern to fashion songs, while Jean-Marie Ecay brought in a new one, the one we called'Fleetwood Mac rhythm', a binary rhythmic pattern we didn't know before. He brought along the song concept too, of a chorus. Up to that point, we made small conceptual pieces, songs with a long development."The LP album Espaloian was released next in 1985 to critical and public acclaim, featuring such hits as "Clash eta Pistols", "Espaloian" and "Hegal egiten". Unexpectedly for frontman Pérez, this more natural album earned them numerous concerts and record turnouts. Despite the band's high popularity, they came in for bitter criticism and had to put up with hostile attitudes on the part of other bands on the rise in the Basque Country in the middle 80s as well as their public; these bands stood for the punk and rebellious music movement gaining momentum at the time with which they had to share the bill. "For the bands of the RRV, we represented the establishment's demands, commercialism, we were politically correct.

The situation was difficult. We had to face up to the people's attacks." Another LP followed, but by that year Jean-Marie Ecay had quit the group and went onto another bigger Spanish band. Juan Carlos Pérez was alone in charge of the whole artistic production and friction among members of the band started to mount; as Pérez was tired of the situation within the band, he decided to break it up with a last live album, Eremuko dunen atzetik dabil The original line-up inherited from the band Indar Trabes went through various changes, parentheses took place too. Accordingly, the band's music expertise and exigence in performance improved gradually; some members worth highlighting: Juan Carlos Pérez: Guitar and voice Foisis: Bass guitar José A. Fernández: Piano and keyboards Estanis Osinalde: Drums Joseba Erkiaga: Flute Germán Ors: Guitar Jimmi Arrabit: Drums Jean-Marie Ecay: Guitar Xabi Pery: Guitar Itoiz: Contains some tracks that have struck a chord in Basque music, such as romantic "Lau teilatu", elected by popular vote in the 2000s best Basque song ever.

Ezekiel: A conceptual work developed around the axis of prophet Ezekiel. Alkolea: The sound remains signature Itoiz sound. Song "Marilyn: sagardotegia eta jazzmana" is its catchiest attraction. Musikaz blai: A full-fledged pop album with elaborate, landmark tracks like "As noites da Radio Lisboa" or "To Alice", alongside catchy "Marea gora". Espaloian: Confirms Itoiz's know-how and craft with such abiding songs as "Hegal egiten", "Clash eta Pistols", etc. Ambulance: Rockier sound, dirtier. Final live album. Itoiz 1978-1988. A compilation comprising all the albums in Itoiz's history, as well as a booklet describing the band's history. Official website Review on Itoiz from a progressive rock standpoint Review on Basque progressive music Website dedicated to Itoiz Website in Basque Footage taken from a gig Itoiz's video clip out of pop hit song Hegal Egiten Song Ezekielen Prophezia in a gig