Malia Cohen is an American elected official in San Francisco, California. She serves as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing Supervisorial District 10, born in the Richmond District and a graduate of Lowell High School, she resides in the Potrero Hill neighborhood. Cohen received her B. A. in Political Science from Fisk University, in the 2010 election, she initially finished third out of a field of 22, but eventually won the election based on ranked choice voting. In October 2013, Cohen introduced legislation that expanded an existing San Francisco law making it illegal to sell firearms with magazines capable of holding more than 10 rounds. In 2014, Cohen was re-elected for a term to represent District 10 after being challenged by Marlene Tran. In 2015, Cohen publicly defended San Franciscos sanctuary city Laws, after the shooting death of Kathryn Steinle by an undocumented immigrant, OReilly had been critical of San Francisco and its elected officials. OReilly said that Cohen should be placed under arrest for her comments defending San Franciscos Sanctuary City Policy and she married Warren Pulley in 2016, a workers compensation attorney.
Office of Supervisor Malia Cohen Campaign website
Italian Americans are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Italy, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Italian Americans are the fourth largest European ethnic group in the United States, about 5.5 million Italians immigrated to the United States from 1820 to 2004. Immigration began in earnest during the 1870s, when more than twice as many Italians immigrated than during the five previous decades altogether. The 1870s were followed by the greatest surge of immigration, which occurred in the period between 1880 and 1914 and brought more than 4 million Italians to America. This period of large scale immigration ended abruptly with the onset of the First World War in 1914 and, except for one year, further immigration would be greatly limited by a number of restrictive laws passed by Congress in the 1920s. Approximately 84% of the Italian immigrants came from Southern Italy and Sicily, after unification, the Italian government initially encouraged emigration to relieve economic pressures in the South.
After the American Civil War, which resulted in over a million killed or wounded, immigrant workers were recruited from Italy. In the United States, most Italians began their new lives as manual laborers in Eastern cities, mining camps, Italian Americans gradually moved from the lower rungs of the economic scale in the first generation to a level comparable to the national average by 1970. By 1990, more than 65% of Italian Americans were managerial, the Italian-American communities have often been characterized by strong ties with family, the Catholic Church, fraternal organizations and political parties. Today, over 17 million Americans claim Italian ancestry, third only to Brazil with 31 million, and Argentina and their descendants in America have helped to shape the country and, in turn, have adapted to it. They have gained prominence in politics, the media, the arts, the culinary arts. Italian navigators and explorers played a key role in the discovery, christopher Columbus, the explorer who first reached the Americas in 1492–1504, was Italian.
Another notable Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502, is the source of the name America. Englands claims in North America were based on the voyages of the Italian explorer John Cabot, in 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to map the Atlantic coast of todays United States, and to enter New York Bay. In 1539, Marco da Nizza, explored the territory became the states of Arizona. In the 17th century, Henri de Tonti, together with the French explorer LaSalle, De Tonti founded the first European settlement in Illinois in 1679, and in Arkansas in 1683. With LaSalle, he co-founded New Orleans, and was governor of the Louisiana Territory for the next 20 years and his brother Alphonse de Tonty, with French explorer Antoine Cadillac, was the co-founder of Detroit in 1701, and was its acting colonial governor for 12 years. Spain and France were Catholic countries and sent many missionaries to convert the native population, included among these missionaries were numerous Italians
Spanish Americans is a term with multiple meanings. The term can extend to mean those who share a language and culture rooted in Spain, Spanish Americans are the longest-established European-American group with a continuous presence in Florida since 1565 and are the eighth-largest Hispanic group in the United States of America. Throughout the colonial times, there were a number of settlements of Spanish populations in the present–day United States of America with governments answerable to Madrid. The first settlement was at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565, followed by others in New Mexico, Arizona and Louisiana. In 1598, San Juan de los Caballeros was established, near present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Juan de Oñate, Spanish immigrants established settlements in San Diego, San Antonio and Tucson, Arizona. By the mid-1600s the Spanish in America numbered more than 400,000 and these Spanish settlers expanded European influence in the New World. The Canary Islanders settled in areas surrounding New Orleans in Louisiana from 1778 to 1783 and in San Antonio de Bejar, San Antonio, Texas.
The earliest known Spanish settlements in the northern Mexico were the result of the forces that led the English to come to North America. Exploration had been fueled in part by imperial hopes for the discovery of wealthy civilizations, in addition, like those aboard the Mayflower, most Spaniards came to the New World seeking land to farm, or occasionally, as historians have recently established, freedom from religious persecution. A smaller percentage of new Spanish settlers were descendants of Spanish Jewish converts, basques stood out in the exploration of the Americas, both as soldiers and members of the crews that sailed for the Spanish. Prominent in the service and colonial administration, they were accustomed to overseas travel. The Spanish presence in the United States declined sharply between 1930 and 1940 from a total of 110,000 to 85,000, many immigrants moved either back to Spain or to another country. Beginning with the Fascist revolt against the Second Spanish Republic in 1936, at the time of the Fascist takeover, a small but prominent group of liberal intellectuals fled to the United States.
After the civil war the country endured 20 years of autarky, as a result, in the mid-1960s,44,000 Spaniards immigrated to the United States. In the 1970s, when Franco abandoned Spains autarkic economic system, prosperity began to emerge in Spain, in the 1980s, as Europe enjoyed an economic boom, Spanish immigrants to the United States dropped to only 15,000. The 1990 U. S. census recorded 76,000 foreign-born Spaniards in the country, many of the Hispanic and Latino Americans bring their Spanish-speaking culture into the country. However, some Spanish Americans are descendants of settlers in the southwestern states, especially New Mexico. Spanish-Americans in the United States are found in large concentrations in five states from 1940 through the early twenty-first century
David Chiu (politician)
David Chiu is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 17th Assembly District, which encompasses the eastern half of San Francisco, Chiu is a member of the California Asian & Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus. The eldest child of Hakka Taiwanese American immigrant parents, Chiu was born in Cleveland and grew up in Boston, where he attended Boston College High School. In the mid-1990s, Chiu served as Democratic Counsel to the U. S. Senate Judiciary Committee’s Constitution Subcommittee and he founded Grassroots Enterprise, an online communications technology company, and served as its chief operating officer. He served on the San Francisco Small Business Commission until he was elected supervisor in 2008, Chiu first ran for elected office in 2008, when he ran for a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing District 3. He was backed by incumbent supervisor Aaron Peskin as well as Kamala Harris, Mark Leno, Leland Yee, on his first day in office on January 8,2009, Chiu was elected to a two-year term as president of the Board of Supervisors.
He was reelected president on January 8,2011, Chiu was reelected to his second and final term as supervisor in 2012, winning over 75% of the vote. He was reelected by his supervisors to serve an unprecedented third term as president of the board on January 8,2013. In addition to serving on the Board of Supervisors, Chiu served as a member of the San Francisco Democratic County Central Committee, on February 28,2011, Chiu announced his mayoral candidacy at a morning rally at San Francisco City Hall. Over the course of the campaign, Chiu raised over $1.24 million from private and public sources and spent roughly the same amount. On Election Day, Chiu placed fourth behind incumbent Ed Lee with 17,921 first-place votes, despite the fourth-place finish, Chiu and third-place candidate Dennis Herrera appeared individually on more ballots overall than John Avalos, who came in second. He ran against fellow Democrat and supervisor David Campos, on January 22,2014, the San Francisco Chronicle column City Insider reported that Chiu reported having raised $450,000 for the Assembly race.
Polls showed him ahead of Campos, Chiu beat Campos in the San Francisco primary on Tuesday, June 3,2014, by approximately five percentage points. Chiu won 48% of the vote, while Campos pulled in 43%, on November 4, Chiu defeated Campos with 51. 9% of the vote, and Campos conceded on November 6. David Chiu was appointed by Speaker Toni Atkins to serve as assistant speaker pro tempore in the 2015–16 session, the assistant speaker pro tempore is the third highest ranking position in the state assembly
T Third Street
The T Third Street is a Muni Metro line in San Francisco, California. It is the first new rail line in San Francisco in more than half a century. It is the first true light rail line in the mostly streetcar Muni Metro system, as it mostly in a street median. Testing on the line took place in summer 2006, with limited service starting on January 13,2007, and full service beginning on April 7,2007. In the future, the line may be extended to Caltrains Bayshore Station and, in the other direction, each train displays its ultimate destination. This system will continue in place until the Central Subway is operational, from there the T turns south on Fourth Street, crossing the bridge over Mission Creek before joining Third Street for the majority of the routes length. It passes through Mission Bay where the UCSF Mission Bay branch is located, continues on south through the Bayview, once both economically impoverished parts of the City, they have slowly experienced rehabilitation and rebuilding mainly helped by the new T line.
From there the T follows Bayshore Boulevard for two stations until it reaches its terminus at Sunnydale Station. A section of track one more block until stopped short at the Daly City limits. All stations along this line feature high platforms, eliminating the need for the raising and lowering of entrance, stations south of Fourth and King feature short platforms that accommodate only two-car trains. The T Third uses the Muni Metro terminology in which a train goes from West Portal to Embarcadero. This means that an outbound T Third train runs from Sunnydale and this is the reverse of other lines, as those lines have their outer termini on the southwest and west sides of the city, and those trains enter the subway from the west going inbound toward downtown. T-Third has been built in phases, the first phase extended rail service south to Sunnydale Station. The second phase, currently under construction, is known as the Central Subway project. The southern segment from Sunnydale to 4th and King Street will remain as-is, operating on street-level median tracks.
After 4th and King, the line will proceed to a new 4th and Brannan Station, a proposed third phase would build an extension beyond Chinatown, including new stations at Washington Square in North Beach and Fishermans Wharf. In preparation, the tunnels were bored past Chinatown Station, a conceptual fourth phase has been advanced by SFMTA and transit advocates to further extend the line west of Fishermans Wharf to the Presidio. Initially upon opening, the T Third was operated from Castro Station to Bayshore, in the aftermath of the Muni Meltdown of 2007, the T Third was suspended from operating as a distinct line, in favor of being through-routed with the K Ingleside
The subway is the second phase of the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agencys Third Street Light Rail Project. The first phase opened to the public as the T Third Line in 2007, the Central Subway is expected to open to the public in 2018. With the addition of the Central Subway, the T Third Line is projected to become the most heavily ridden line in the Muni Metro system by 2030, the subway will serve major employment and population centers in San Francisco that are underserved by rapid transit. SoMa is home to the headquarters of many of San Francisco’s major software and technology companies, Union Square, located in the citys downtown, is a primary commercial and economic district. Chinatown is the most densely populated neighborhood in the city, the Central Subway will connect these areas to communities in eastern San Francisco, including Mission Bay, Bayview-Hunters Point and Visitacion Valley. The budget to complete the Central Subway is $1.578 billion, the project is funded primarily through the Federal Transit Administration’s New Starts program.
In October 2012, the FTA approved a Full Funding Grant Agreement, the Central Subway is funded by the State of California, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the San Francisco County Transportation Authority and the City and County of San Francisco. Ground was broken for the Central Subway on February 9,2010, as of February 2014, both tunnel boring machines had passed under Market Street and were tunneling under Stockton Street toward Chinatown. Tunnel boring for the Central Subway was completed at Columbus and Powell Street in the North Beach neighborhood of San Francisco on June 16,2014 and this subway extension of the T Third Line is expected to open to the public in December 2018. In February 2008, the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency board of directors voted to select the alignment for the subway. In the approved alignment, trains travel north along 4th Street and Stockton Street, stopping at one above-ground station, currently northbound T Third Line trains turn right from 4th Street onto King Street and travel along the Embarcadero to the Market Street Tunnel.
When the Central Subway is complete, trains will instead cross King Street, the first stop will be at an above-ground station at 4th and Brannan streets, the 4th and Brannan Station. Heading north, trains enter the subway through a portal on 4th Street between Bryant and Harrison streets, under Interstate 80. The route will continue under 4th Street through South of Market, stopping at an underground station. At Market Street, the subway will dip below the Market Street Subway, another underground station serving Market Street and Union Square will be located underneath Stockton Street. This combined Union Square/Market Street Station will have entrances at the Market and Stockton intersection and within Union Square Plaza at Stockton, a pedestrian passage will connect the Union Square/Market Street Station to the Muni Metro and BART Powell Street Station. The subway will continue under Stockton Street to Chinatown Station, the subway tunnels, one for northbound trains and one for southbound trains, will continue north past Chinatown Station, beneath Stockton Street and Columbus Avenue.
In the future, the T Third Line may terminate in North Beach or extend to Fishermans Wharf and the Aquatic Park to connect with F Market & Wharves
Brisbane is a small city located in California in the northern part of San Mateo County on the lower slopes of San Bruno Mountain. It is located on the border of San Francisco, on the northeastern edge of South San Francisco, next to the San Francisco Bay. The population was 4,282 as of the 2010 census, Brisbane is called The City of Stars because of a holiday tradition established over 65 years ago. Many of the stars are kept up all year. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 20.1 square miles, of which 3.1 square miles is land and 17.0 square miles is water. A remnant of San Francisco Bay, the Lagoon was formed by the construction of the U. S. Highway 101 causeway, Brisbane sits at the southeast corner of the Guadalupe Valley. Guadalupe Valley Creek is a creek which flows east through Brisbane along the north flank of San Bruno Mountain. The first recorded inhabitants were the Costanoan Indians and they built dome-shaped dwellings of boughs and tules. By 1776, Spanish explorers had arrived and the Franciscan missionaries soon followed leaving numerous large land grants in their wake, with Mexican rule, the lands controlled by the Mission were released to private enterprise.
Visitacion City, as it was known, was platted in 1908 adjacent to a new rail line that had been completed in 1907 to the east of the town site. The Southern Pacific Railroad built the new line to create a faster, the railroad planned to build extensive terminal facilities just north of the town site. The Visitacion Valley rail yard and locomotive works were expected to employ over 1,000 workers, the town site remained largely undeveloped for many years. The railroad resumed construction of the yard and shops during World War I, the city is served by San Mateo County Libraries. In the 1920s Arthur Annis proposed the change from Visitacion City to Brisbane. Accounts of how the city acquired its name vary, according to his daughter, the city was named for Brisbane, perhaps due to the areas resemblance to that port city at the time. Another story holds that it was named for newspaper columnist Arthur Brisbane, in the 1930s, the city was home to several slaughterhouses. Animals kept at the nearby Cow Palace were butchered in Brisbane, the 2010 United States Census reported that Brisbane had a population of 4,282.
The population density was 213.3 people per square mile
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of 73. 2–80. 9% West African, 18–24% European, according to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, in 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic, the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain.
An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch. One of Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black slaves, John Casor
California's 12th congressional district
Californias 12th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California. House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat, has represented the district since January 2013, the 12th district is entirely within the city of San Francisco. Prior to redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission of 2011, when the 12th Congressional District was created after the 1930 Census, it was located in Los Angeles County. As Californias population grew, the district generally shrank in area and progressed northward, richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States, represented this district from 1947-1951. Nancy Pelosi, the 60th Speaker of the House, is the current representative of this district, as of April 2015, there are five living former members of the House of Representatives from this district. The most recent representative to die was Tom Lantos, who died in office on February 11,2008, list of United States congressional districts GovTrack. us, Californias 12th congressional district RAND California Election Returns, District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD12
San Mateo County, California
San Mateo County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451, the county seat is Redwood City. San Mateo County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, and is part of the San Francisco Bay Area and it covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the end of the county. The countys built-up areas are mostly suburban with some areas being very urban, San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the states 18 original counties since Californias statehood in 1850, was split apart. Until 1856, San Franciscos city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, in response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated rapidly between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county. A straight line was drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain.
The consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by an introduced by Horace Hawes. San Mateo County was officially organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T. G, San Mateo County annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Although the forming bill named Redwood City the county seat, a May 1856 election marked by unblushing frauds, perpetuated on an unorganized and wholly unprotected community by thugs and ballot stuffers from San Francisco named Belmont the county seat. The election results were declared illegal and the county government was moved to Redwood City, Redwood Citys status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont. Another election in May 1874 named San Mateo the county seat, but the supreme court overturned that election on 24 February 1875. San Mateo County bears the Spanish name for Saint Matthew, until about 1850, the name appeared as San Matheo.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 741 square miles. It is the third-smallest county in California by land area, a number of bayside watercourses drain the eastern part of the county including San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek. Streams draining the county include Frenchmans Creek, Pilarcitos Creek, Naples Creek, Arroyo de en Medio. These streams originate along the spur of the Santa Cruz Mountains that run through the county. San Mateo County straddles the San Francisco Peninsula, with the Santa Cruz Mountains running its entire length, the county encompasses a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savannah
John McLaren Park
John McLaren Park is a park in southeastern San Francisco. At 312.54 acres, McLaren Park is the second largest park in San Francisco by area, the park is surrounded mostly by the Excelsior, Crocker-Amazon, Visitacion Valley and University Mound neighborhoods. The then-governor of Mexico, Juan Bautista Alvarado granted what is now known as John McLaren Park to the authorities in 1840. In the wake of the 1906 earthquake and fire, rather than implement Burnhams plan, the Board of Supervisors adopted Resolution No. The widow of Luther Burbank donated ten four-year-old walnut trees to the children of the City and these trees, the first to be planted at McLaren Park, were intended to serve as the nucleus of a planned orchard of fruit and nut-bearing trees. In 1932, the Park Commission recommended a reduced size of 428 acres. The Works Progress Administration was responsible for the construction of a drive in the 1930s. The current 318-acre park boundaries were established in 1946, the park expanded to its present size in 1958 through land purchases.
Many of the playgrounds, golf course, and hiking trails were added between 1950 and 1980. A draft master plan was prepared in 1983, updated in 1988, the park is currently the second-largest park in the City. Perhaps due to its infamy and resulting discouragement of visitors, the park boasts the largest grasslands left in San Francisco, several murders have continued to occur in recent years, despite park improvements. Coffman Pool, McLaren Parks first recreation facility, was constructed in the southeast corner of the park in 1958. Construction of the facilities included in the 1959 Master Plan began in the 1960s, and included new trails and parking areas, community gardens, before 1978, McLaren Park only had eight picnic tables. Later construction contracts included the addition of picnic tables and large group picnic areas. Even in San Francisco, a city considered hilly, McLaren Park stands out with some of the hilliest terrain in the City, only 19% of its area consists of slopes of 0-10% grade, considered easily buildable.
Slopes of 10-25% grade occupy half its area, and slopes over 25% grade occupy the remaining area, the original 1926 proposed park of 550 acres had approximately 40% of its area with gentle slopes. The 9-hole golf course was completed in 1961 and it occupies 60 acres and is operated by a leaseholder. Herz Playground, near Coffman Pool in the corner of the park, was completed in 1965
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses 25 distinct regions in twenty countries primarily in North America, including the Caribbean and the U. S. territories. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP, each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator, Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium. The NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a telephone number prefix. Each telephone is assigned a telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a central office code and a four-digit station number. The combination of a code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union.
The North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, from its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from essentially local or regional telephone systems. These systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks and it was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth. As a result, the Bell System as a developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a system for long-distance telephone communication. The new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into 86 Numbering Plan Areas. Each NPA was assigned a Numbering Plan Area code, often abbreviated as area code and these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices.
The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10,1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was introduced across the country and by the early 1960s most areas of the Bell System had been converted and it was commonplace in cities. In the following decades, the system expanded to all of the United States and its territories, Bermuda. By 1967,129 area codes had been assigned, mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after two area codes had been assigned and Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52