click links in text for more info


Visoko is a city located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 41,352 inhabitants. Located between Zenica and Sarajevo, Visoko lies on the Bosna river where the river Fojnica merges into it; the municipality is organized into 25 local communities. The Visoko region has evidence of long continuous occupation, with the first traces of life dating back to 5th millennium BC, archaeological excavations of Okolište have found one of the biggest neolithic settlement belonging to Butmir culture in southeast Europe, it was an early political and commercial center of the Bosnian medieval state, the site where the first Bosnian king Tvrtko I was crowned. Old town Visoki, located on Visočica hill was politically important fortress, its inner bailey Podvisoki was an early example of Bosnian medieval urban area. After fall of Kingdom of Bosnia, medieval town Visoko grew as ottoman type of town, key role in development was played by local Bosnian Ajas-pashaOttoman rule ended in 1878 when Bosnian Vilayet was occupied by Austria-Hungary.

On 11 November 1911, last years of Austro-Hungarian rule, it was completely burned down by fire, started by accident. Before Bosnian War, Visoko was biggest Exporter of textile and leather in socialist Yugoslavia From 2006, Visoko is home to tens of thousands tourists because of Semir Osmanagić claims; the Visoko municipality covers 232 square kilometres with several characteristic, morphologically distinctive valleys formed by the foothills of the Central Bosnian mountains including Ozren and Zvijezda. The altitude of the region ranges from 400 to 1,050 metres. Visoko's natural environment is defined by the river-valleys of the Fojnica rivers; the municipality borders the towns of Kiseljak, Busovača, Vareš, Ilijaš and Ilidža, is connected by rail to the Adriatic coast. Visoko is directly connected to highway along the European route E73 which directly connects it with Zenica and Sarajevo, which continues to M17 road, it is connected to other places by the regional road R443. It is located along the Šamac-Sarajevo railway.

Visokogas is public company in charge of the supply of natural gas, which supplies majority of city itself and some surrounding local communities. The Visoko region shows evidence of long continuous occupation, with the first traces of life dating back to Paleolithic; because of the two rivers that go through Visoko, the Bosna and Fojnica, the Visoko basin was always fertile land for agriculture. In the Neolithic period, the area of Central Bosnia played an important role as a mediator between the settlements of Adriatic Coast and the central Balkans; these metropolitan areas were connected by Bosna rivers. Since Visoko was situated on the Bosna River, it has gained a lot of economic traffic between the two larger cities. Neolithic emplacements were founded on the shores of the rivers in places known today as Arnautovići, Donje Moštre, Okolište, Zbilje and Dvor. Arnautovići and Okolište were identified as part of Kakanj culture. In September 2007 the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina continued archaeological excavations of Okolište, where it is estimated that around 3,000 people lived in the fortified settlement during the Neolithic Age making it one of the biggest in Southeastern Europe.

This settlement belonged to the Butmir culture. The age of settlement is estimated by Radiocarbon dating to be around 4700 to 4500 years B. C. E. On, neolithic cultures came in contact with other cultures like Baden. Around 3000 B. C. E. First signs of Chalcolithic culture appear which can be contributed to Vučedol culture of south Bosnian type, with findings in Donje Moštre and at the location of Old town of Visoki; the Visoko area was inhabited by the Illyirian tribe of Daesitiates. They descended from Bronze Age and Iron Age culture called Central Bosnian culture group, related to Glasinac culture. Best known archaeological evidence is grave of group of warriors dated to 4 B. C. E. found in Vratnica. The Roman empire established its rule in 9 AD and built roads and fortresses in places like Kralupi, Seoča and Mokronozi. Area of Visoko was part of Roman province Illyricum. Migration period saw introduction of new people to the Balkans - Slavs. Native Illyirian tribes through time became slavicized, but a lot of toponyms remained Illyirian in origin, like in example name of the river Bosna, namesake of country itself, but a term for settlement, used to reference the place called Bosna that existed in today's area of Visoko.

It is considered that this area in Visoko basin was nucleus of new medieval Bosnian state which emerged in 10 AD. Only on with construction of Old town of Visoki the term would be used. Visoko is named after the town of Visoki, which occupied Visočica hill. Podvisoki, Biskupići and Moštre – together known as Visoko valley - were the early center of the medieval Bosnian kingdom. Many historical charters were made and written in Visoko valley, including the charter of first Bosnian king Tvrtko I Kotromanić in 1355, in castro nostro Vizoka vocatum, the first direct mention of the town of Visoki. Visoki was a place where many important documents and legislation of medieval Bosnia were signed and written; the town of Visoki had a defensive role in protecting trade center Podvisoki, located just below the town and was one of earliest examples of the medieval urban environments in Bosnia. Podvisoki was long time main trade center in medieval Bosnia; the Rusag met at Mile, where Tvrtko I was crowned in

Thurman Arnold

Thurman Wesley Arnold was best known for his trust-busting campaign as Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Antitrust Division in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Department of Justice from 1938 to 1943, he served as an Associate Justice of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. Before coming to Washington in 1938, Arnold was the mayor of Laramie, a professor at Yale Law School, where he took part in the legal realism movement, published two books: The Symbols of Government and The Folklore of Capitalism. A few years he published The Bottlenecks of Business. Thurman was born in the frontier ranch town of Laramie, which grew to be a small city and location of the University of Wyoming, he was the son of Constantine Peter Arnold. He began his university studies at Wabash College, but transferred to Princeton University, earning his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1911, he earned his Bachelor of Laws from Harvard Law School in 1914. Arnold served in World War I, rising to the rank of lieutenant in the United States Army and worked in Chicago, Illinois before returning to Laramie, where he was a member of the Wyoming House of Representatives in 1921 and mayor from 1923 to 1924.

He developed a reputation as a maverick lawyer. He was a Lecturer at the University of Wyoming from 1921 to 1926, he was Dean of the at West Virginia University College of Law from 1927 to 1930. He was a visiting professor at Yale University from 1930 to 1931, professor of law at the same institution from 1931 to 1938, he was a special assistant to the general counsel of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in 1933. He was an Assistant Attorney General of the United States Department of Justice from 1938 to 1943; as chief competition lawyer for the United States Government, Arnold launched numerous studies to support the antitrust efforts in the late 1930s. He targeted the American Medical Association in their anti-competitive efforts against health plans; the Roosevelt administration de-emphasized antitrust enforcement, for the stated purpose of allowing corporations to concentrate on contributing to victory in World War II. Arnold was nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 11, 1943, to an Associate Justice seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia vacated by Associate Justice Wiley Blount Rutledge.

He was "kicked upstairs" by President Roosevelt to the Court of Appeals in order to get him out of the Antitrust Division. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 9, 1943, received his commission on March 11, 1943, his service terminated on July 1945, due to his resignation. Although the District of Columbia Court of Appeals had some responsibility for review of decisions by federal administrative agencies, during Arnold's tenure the court's primary role was reviewing decisions of local trial courts involving routine civil and criminal matters arising in Washington, D. C. Arnold was never happy during his time on the court; as an explanation of his decision, he told observers he "would rather be speaking to damn fools than listening to damn fools." Arnold returned to private practice in Washington, D. C. where, along with Paul A. Porter and Abe Fortas, he co-founded the law firm known today as Arnold & Porter. Thurman married his lifelong partner Frances Longan Arnold on September 4, 1917.

They had Thurman Jr. and George, both of whom enjoyed successful careers in the law. Nebraskan "Hugh Cox, famous as Thurman Arnold's chief deputy" and as an early partner at Root Clark & Bird was attorney for Donald Hiss, brother of Alger Hiss. Both Cox and Hiss were partners at Covington & Burling, where he was called the "perfect advocate") during the Hiss-Chambers Case."Arnold died on November 7, 1969. Thurman Arnold Jr. established a law firm in Palm Springs, California in 1953. Thurman Arnold Jr.'s son, Thurman Arnold III, joined his father's law firm in 1982 and is practicing law with an emphasis on Family Law in Palm Springs, California. George Arnold married and raised a family with Ellen Cameron Pearson, daughter of columnist Drew Pearson and granddaughter of Cissy Patterson, owner of the Washington Times-Herald. Arnold, Thurman. Fair Fights and Foul. Arnold, Thurman. Voltaire and the Cowboy: The Letters of Thurman Arnold. ISBN 0-87081-073-1 Gressley, Gene M.. "Thurman Arnold and the New Deal".

The Business History Review. 38: 214–231. Doi:10.2307/3112073. JSTOR 3112073. Miscamble, Wilson D.. "Thurman Arnold Goes to Washington: A Look at Antitrust Policy in the Later New Deal". The Business History Review. 56: 1–15. Doi:10.2307/3114972. JSTOR 3114972. Waller, Spencer Weber. Thurman Arnold: A Biography. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-9392-4. Thurman Wesley Arnold at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Arnold, Thurman W; the Bottlenecks of Business. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1940. ISBN 1-58798-085-1 Arnold, Thurman W; the Folklore of Capitalism. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 1-58798-025-8 Arnold, Thurman W; the Symbols of Government. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1935. ISBN 9780156876063 "Works by Thurman Arnold" – via Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository. Works by or about


Brexia is a dense evergreen shrub or small tree of around 5 m high, with alternately set, leathery leaves with a short leaf stem and lanceolate to inverted egg-shaped leaf blades. The pentamerous flowers occur in cymes; the petals are greenish white, the samens are alternating with incised staminodes. The superior ovary develops in a long ribbed fruit. Brexia grows on the coast of East Africa, on Madagascar, the Comoros and Seychelles. Opinions differ about the number of species in Brexia. Sometimes the genus is regarded monotypic, B. madagascariensis being a species with a large variability, but other authors distinguish as many as twelve species. Common names for B. madagascariensis include jobiapototra, tsivavena, voalava, voantalanina and votalanina, mfukufuku and bwa kato. Brexia is a shrub or small tree 3–7, but up to 10 m high with many branches, that are smooth with ridges early on but becoming cylindrical; the leaves are evergreen, with a leaf stem 1–2 cm long, but sometimes short. The leathery leaf blades are between 3½ and 50 cm long and 2 and 11 cm wide, with large differences in shape, narrowly inverted egg-shaped to linear with teeth or spines along the edges in young growth, while on mature shoots they may be narrowly to broadly inverted egg-shaped and the edge toothy to entire, with a rounded to indented tip, wedged along the leaf stem or rounded at the base.

The stipules are narrow. Each inflorescence may consist of between three and twelve flowers, but may contain as few as one and as many as seventeen flowers on a flattened 1½−5 mm wide common stem of up to 9 cm long, growing from a leaf axil, but in some forms on thick branches or the trunk. Sometimes near the tip are one or two persistent leaf-like bracteoles of about 1 cm, but the small scale-like bracteoles fall off quickly. Individual flowers are on stems of up to 2 mm long; each flower has five sepals of about 2½ × 3½–4 mm, the lower half of which are fused, the free tips short triangular with a rounded tip and an entire edge. The five fleshy petals are greenish or creamy white, 1¼–1¾ × ⅞–1¼ cm, broadly inverted egg-shaped, with a blunt tip; the five stamens have filaments of about 1¼ mm thick, are topped by anthers of 5 × 2½ mm. Alternating with the stamens are unequally incised staminodes with three to five incisions; the superior ovary is 8 -- 10 mm high including the style. The grown fruit is a drupe of 4–10 × 2–3 cm, ovoid to cylindric, with five prominent ribs, with the mesocarp woody but pulpy and edible when ripe.

It contains brown or black, finely wrinkled, irregularly compressed, keeled seeds of 4½–7½ × 3–3½ mm. Brexia has been assumed to be related to Escallonia; these two genera however differ in many details of the sporogenesis and fertilisation, such as the ripe pollen, two-celled in Escallonia and three-celled in Brexia. Brexia is a deviant genus, assigned early on to the Brexiaceae or Brexioideae, together with two other enigmatic, monotypic genera and Roussea; the common characters between these taxa are shared with many other Pentapetalae. These common characters include that they are all small trees or shrubs with simple leathery evergreen leaves, with an entire or serrated margin, pentamerous flowers set individually or in cymes in the axil of the leaves. Botanist have differed on the placement of these three genera, they have by some authors been assigned to the Escalloniaceae, Saxifragaceae and the Hydrangeaceae. Genetic data indicate that the three genera are not each other's closest relatives, in fact are not related at all.

Ixerba has now been included in the Strasburgeriaceae. Roussea is most related to Carpodetus and Abrophyllum, that are nowadays combined in the Rousseaceae family, the sistergroup of the Campanulaceae, together representing the basic branche of the Asterales. Brexia is related to the large Celastracean genera Pleurostylia and Elaeodendron. Francisco Noronha described the genus Brexia before his death in 1788, although this name was only properly published by Thouars in 1806. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck described the same species as Venana madagascariensis in 1797. In 1823, John Bellenden Ker Gawler assigned this taxon to Brexia, creating the combination Brexia madagascariensis. Brexia was given priority over Venana. In 1902 William Hemsley described Thomassetia seychellarum based on a specimen from the Seychelles, but this name was synonymised with Brexia madagascariensis. Brexia is together with Polycardia sister to a clade containing of Elaeodendron and Pleurostylia, less related to the other Celastraceae.

Opinions differ about the number of species in Brexia. Sometimes B. madagascariensis is regarded as a species with a large variability, but other authors distinguish as many as twelve species. Populations outside Madagascar are sometimes regarded as separate taxa; those on the coast of continental Africa with inflorescences that have few flowers and large fruits are referred to as var. mossambicensis, while those growing at higher elevations on the Seychelles characterised by small pinkish petals and small fruits are separated as B. madagascariensis ssp. microcarpa or alternatively B. microcarpa. B. madagascariensis is spread along the East coast of Madagascar. All other putative taxa occur on Madagascar only with limited distributions; these include: B. alaticarpa, with three to five flowers per cyme, with petiolate, narrow to

Cyperus flaccidus

Cyperus flaccidus is a sedge of the family Cyperaceae, native to Australia. The annual grass like sedge grows to a height of 0.1 to 0.2 metres. It blooms between April producing green flowers; the leaves are 1 to 2 mm wide, are reduced to sheaths and much shorter than the culms. The simple head-like inflorescences have between three and seven branches and are around 8 cm in length; the digitate clusters to have a diameter of around 15 mm with leaf-like bracts the lowest of, erect and looks like a continuation of the culm and has alength exceeding that of the inflorescence. There are two to eight flattened spikelets cluster containing 20 flowers. After flowering a broad ovoid shaped brown nut will form, 0.5 mm in length with a diameter of about 0.3 mm. The species was first formally described by the botanist Robert Brown in 1810 as part of the work Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae et insulae Van-Diemen, exhibens characteres plantarum quas annis 1802-1805; the two known synonyms are. It is endemic to the eastern states of Australia where it has a scattered distribution throughout eastern Queensland and New South Wales, western Victoria and eastern South Australia.

It has small isolated populations in the Northern Territory and the Kimberley region of Western Australia. It is situated in creek beds and other damp areas. List of Cyperus species

Saldi Isra

Saldi Isra is an Indonesian jurist and law professor. In April 2017, he became a Justice of the Indonesian Constitutional Court, one of the nation's two top courts. Prior to becoming Constitutional Court Justice, he was a professor of constitutional law at the Andalas University in his native West Sumatra. Throughout his academic career, he received awards in connection to his efforts against corruption in Indonesia. Saldi was born on 20 August 1968 in Solok Regency, West Sumatra, his father Ismail was a farmer and his mother was Ratina, he was the sixth child of seven siblings. He failed Indonesia's national university entrance examinations in 1988 and 1989 before he passed the exam in 1990 and gained admission to the Faculty of Law at Andalas University, West Sumatra. While studying there he wrote about the need for a constitutional court in Indonesia, including it in his undergraduate thesis, he completed his undergraduate degree in March 1995 with summa cum laude honors. Shortly after completing his graduation he began teaching at Andalas.

While a staff there he pursued further studies, received a master's degree from the University of Malaya in Malaysia and a doctor's degree from Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In 2010 he became a full professor of constitutional law. In 2004, he was awarded the Bung Hatta Anti-Corruption Award for his role in uncovering a corruption scandal in West Sumatra's provincial legislature. In 2012 he was given the Megawati Soekarnoputri Award for his anti-corruption efforts. During one of the cabinet reshuffles of the Joko Widodo presidency, he was summoned to Jakarta in consideration for a cabinet appointment, but he rejected it, saying he preferred an academic career over a political one. On 27 January 2017 the Constitutional Court of Indonesia dismissed one of its justices Patrialis Akbar after he was arrested and named a suspect in a graft case by the Corruption Eradication Commission. On 21 February, President Joko Widodo appointed a committee to select a replacement; the committee drew up a list of 45 candidates and interviewed 12 shortlisted candidates.

On 3 April, the committee recommended three candidates to the president, Saldi was the first choice. A few days Widodo declared Saldi's selection, on 11 April he was sworn in at the Merdeka Palace. Saldi is married to Leslie Annisa Taufik and they have three children

Da'Rick Rogers

Da'Rick Jamal Rogers is a Canadian football wide receiver for the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League. He played college football at Tennessee and Tennessee Tech, signed with the Buffalo Bills as an undrafted free agent in 2013. Rogers was born in Georgia, he attended Darlington School in Rome, before transferring to Calhoun High School after his sophomore year. During his junior year, he had 66 receptions for 1,300 yards and 11 touchdowns, helping lead Calhoun to the Class AA finals; as a senior, he had 84 receptions and 22 touchdowns, set a single-season state record with 1,647 receiving yards, again helping Calhoun reach the state finals. Following his senior season, Rogers was named to's Small Schools All-American Team, as well as Georgia's "All-Decade Team" for the 2000s. Rogers was ranked as the second best wide receiver recruit, the ninth best overall recruit, by in 2010, was labelled a 5-star recruit by both Rivals and Scout. He committed to the Georgia Bulldogs, but in February 2010 switched his commitment to the Tennessee Volunteers, where he joined Calhoun teammate Nash Nance.

In the days following his decommitment, Rogers engaged in a war of words on Twitter with Georgia safety Bacarri Rambo. As a true freshman in 2010, Rogers played in all 13 games for the Tennessee Volunteers, he finished the season with 11 receptions for two touchdowns. He had 117 rushing yards on 16 attempts, returned 12 kickoffs for 298 yards; as a sophomore in 2011, he started all 12 games, led the SEC in both receptions and receiving yards. He was second in the conference in touchdowns with 9. At the end of the season, he was named a first team All-SEC selection. On August 23, 2012, it was announced that Da'Rick Rogers had been suspended from the Tennessee Volunteers indefinitely for a violation of team rules, though no specific reason was publicly announced. Rogers subsequently admitted to failing three drug tests while at Tennessee. After his suspension at Tennessee, Rogers transferred to Tennessee Tech. On September 22, 2012, Rogers caught 18 passes for 303 yards in Tennessee Tech's loss to Southeast Missouri State, setting single-game school records for receptions and receiving yards.

In his lone season at Tennessee Tech, he caught 61 passes for 10 touchdowns. He passed 10 drug tests. Following the 2012 season, Rogers was awarded the "Elite Wide Receiver Award" by the College Football Performance Awards for his efforts in the 2011 and 2012 seasons. On December 14, 2012, Tennessee Tech announced that Rogers would forgo his senior year and enter the NFL Draft. At the 2013 NFL Combine, Rogers turned out one of the best overall performances, finishing in the top five in several categories, including the 3 cone drill, the 20-yard shuttle, the 60-yard shuttle, the vertical jump, the broad jump. Rogers went undrafted in the 2013 NFL Draft, he signed a free agent contract with the Buffalo Bills hours after the draft. On May 10, 2013, Rogers participated in his first day of Rookie Minicamp with the Bills. Rogers was released on August 26, 2013. Rogers signed with the Indianapolis Colts practice squad on September 2, 2013, he was promoted to the active roster on September 19, 2013, but was waived just a few days on September 24, re-signed to the practice squad on September 25.

He was again called up to the Colts' active roster on November 11, 2013. Rogers made his NFL debut on December 1, versus the Tennessee Titans, playing 13 snaps but was not targeted for a pass. On December 8, in a road game against the Cincinnati Bengals, he recorded 6 catches for 107 yards and 2 touchdowns. Rogers was released from the Colts on September 29, 2014 after it was announced he had been arrested for driving under the influence. Rogers signed a reserve/future contract with the Kansas City Chiefs on January 7, 2015, he was released on June 16, 2015. Rogers signed with the Toronto Argonauts on April 11, 2016. Career statistics and player information from · ESPN · Pro-Football-Reference Tennessee Volunteers bio