SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Vistula

The Vistula, the longest and largest river in Poland, is the 9th-longest river in Europe, at 1,047 kilometres in length. The drainage-basin area of the Vistula is 193,960 km2; the remainder lies in Belarus and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, 1,220 meters above sea level in the Silesian Beskids, where it begins with the White Little Vistula and the Black Little Vistula, it flows through Poland's biggest cities, including Kraków, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches; the name was first recorded by Pliny in AD 77 in his Natural History. Mela names the river Vistula, Pliny uses Vistla; the root of the name Vistula is Indo-European *u̯eis-'to ooze, flow slowly' and is found in many European river-names. The diminutive endings -ila, -ula, were used in many Indo-European languages, including Latin. In writing about the Vistula River and its peoples, Ptolemy uses the Greek spelling Ouistoula.

Other ancient sources spell it Istula. Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the Bisula. Jordanes uses Viscla. 12th-century Polish chronicler Wincenty Kadłubek Latinised the river-name as Vandalus, a form influenced by Lithuanian vanduõ'water', while Jan Długosz in his Annales seu cronicae incliti regni Poloniae called the Vistula'white waters' referring to the White Little Vistula: "a nationibus orientalibus Polonis vicinis, ob aquae candorem Alba aqua... nominatur." Over the course of history the river possessed several names in different languages such as Low German: Wießel, Dutch: Wijsel, Yiddish: ווייסל‎ Yiddish pronunciation: and Russian: Висла. The Vistula river is formed in the southern Silesian Voivodeship of Poland from two sources, the Czarna Wisełka at an altitude of 1,107 m and the Biała Wisełka at an altitude of 1,080 m on the western slope of Barania Góra in the Silesian Beskids; the Vistula can be divided into three parts: upper, from its sources to Sandomierz. The Vistula river basin covers 194,424 square kilometres.

In addition, the majority of its river basin is 100 to 200 m above sea level. The highest point of the river basin is at 2,655 metres. One of the features of the river basin of the Vistula is its asymmetry—in great measure resulting from the tilting direction of the Central European Lowland toward the northwest, the direction of the flow of glacial waters, considerable predisposition of its older base; the asymmetry of the river basin is 73–27%. The most recent glaciation of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BC, is called the Vistulian glaciation or Weichselian glaciation in regard to north-central Europe; the river forms. The delta starts around Biała Góra near Sztum, about 50 km from the mouth, where the river Nogat splits off; the Nogat starts separately as a river named Alte Nogat south of Marienwerder, but further north it picks up water from a crosslink with the Vistula, becomes a distributary of the Vistula, flowing away northeast into the Vistula Lagoon with a small delta.

The Nogat formed part of the border between interwar Poland. The other channel of the Vistula below this point is sometimes called the Leniwka. Various causes have caused many severe floods of the Vistula down the centuries. Land in the area was sometimes depopulated by severe flooding, had to be resettled. See for a reconstruction map of the delta area as it was around year 1300: note much more water in the area, the west end of the Vistula Lagoon was bigger, nearly continuous with the Drausen See; as with some aggrading rivers, the lower Vistula has been subject to channel changing. Near the sea, the Vistula was diverted sideways by coastal sand as a result of longshore drift and split into an east-flowing branch and a west-flowing branch; until the 14th century, the Elbing Vistula was the bigger. 1242: The Stara Wisła cut an outlet to the sea through the barrier near Mikoszewo where the Vistula Cut is now. 1371: The Danzig Vistula became bigger than the Elbing Vistula. 1540 and 1543: Huge floods depopulated the delta area, afterwards the land was resettled by Mennonite Germans, economic development followed.

1553: By a

San Francisco Township, Carver County, Minnesota

San Francisco Township is a township in Carver County, United States. The population was 888 as of the 2000 census. San Francisco Township was organized in 1858, named after San Francisco, California. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 24.0 square miles, of which 23.1 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. Hallquist Lake Horse Shoe Lake Johnson Lake Kelly Lake Long Lake Lundquist Lake Rapid Lake Scott Lake Dahlgren Township Louisville Township, Scott County Sand Creek Township, Scott County St. Lawrence Township, Scott County Faxon Township, Sibley County Hancock Township Benton Township The township contains Swedish Methodist Cemetery; as of the census of 2000, there were 888 people, 293 households, 242 families residing in the township. The population density was 38.4 people per square mile. There were 300 housing units at an average density of 13.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98.99% White, 0.11% Asian, 0.23% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.01% of the population. There were 293 households out of which 43.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.1% were married couples living together, 4.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.1% were non-families. 11.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.33. In the township the population was spread out with 31.6% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.0 males. The median income for a household in the township was $68,889, the median income for a family was $70,313. Males had a median income of $43,750 versus $30,069 for females; the per capita income for the township was $24,734.

None of the families and 0.5% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. United States National Atlas United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names

ESA Television

ESA Television is the television network of the European Space Agency. It is a satellite-only broadcast network which periodically transmits programming via Eutelsat's Eutelsat 9A satellite to Europe, North Africa, the Middle East as part of the Europe by Satellite public information service. In addition, live events are transmitted via different Eutelsat satellites covering the European continent. In the years leading to 2008, ESA did not broadcast over the internet, but did make programming available for download via an FTP website, which requires users to log in to access material. A username and password is made available by registering for the ESA Television Notification Service. In 2008, ESA began webstreaming some activities using the Livestream.com platform. The channel aims to provide coverage of launches and space exploration, provides regular webcasts from ESA establishments in Europe, launches from Europe's spaceport in Kourou and from anywhere that ESA missions fly. NASA TV TV Roskosmos ESA Television official site ESA live video ESA channel at Livestream.com