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Visual arts

The visual arts are art forms such as painting, printmaking, ceramics, video, design and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts involve aspects of visual arts as well as arts of other types. Included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art. Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied or decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term'artist' had for some centuries been restricted to a person working in the fine arts and not the decorative arts, craft, or applied art media; the distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts.

The increasing tendency to privilege painting, to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art. In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs; the Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Training in the visual arts has been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of making an image, illustration or graphic using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques available online and offline.

It involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals and markers. Digital tools, including pens, Apple pencil that simulate the effects of these are used; the main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases geometric developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture.

Painting taken is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier and a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Painting is used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. Like drawing, painting has its documented origins on rock faces; the finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis; the Greeks much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, based on a Greek painting.

Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space. Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times, they used the glazing technique with oils to achieve luminosity. The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt, remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life.

The Baroque started from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the

Dewey County, Oklahoma

Dewey County is a county in the western part of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,810, its county seat is Taloga. The county was created in 1891 as "County D". In an 1898 election, county voters chose the name Dewey. Lands assigned to the Choctaw and Seminole tribes extended into the area now occupied by Dewey County. Under the Reconstruction Treaties of 1866 the Choctaw and Chickasaw ceded their western domain to the United States. Known as the Leased District, part of the area became the Arapaho reservation. Dewey County was created in Oklahoma Territory in 1891 and was opened to non-Indian settlement on April 19, 1892, it was named as County D by an act of Congress, did not receive its present name until a general election in 1898. A wooden structure in Taloga was used as the county courthouse from 1909 until 1926, when the present courthouse was built. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,008 square miles, of which 999 square miles is land and 8.8 square miles is water.

Most of the county is in the Gypsum Hills physiographic region, except that the western one-fourth of the county is in the High Plains region. It is drained by the North Canadian Rivers. Canton Lake, built on the Canadian River in 1966, is the only significant lake or reservoir in the county. U. S. Highway 60 U. S. Highway 183 U. S. Highway 270 U. S. Highway 281 State Highway 34 State Highway 47 State Highway 51 Woodward County Major County Blaine County Custer County Roger Mills County Ellis County As of the census of 2000, there were 4,743 people, 1,962 households, 1,336 families residing in the county; the population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 2,425 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.16% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 4.64% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, 2.28% from two or more races. 2.68 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 1,962 households out of which 26.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.80% were married couples living together, 5.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.90% were non-families.

30.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 22.90% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 21.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 94.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,172, the median income for a family was $36,114. Males had a median income of $26,675 versus $18,548 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,806. About 11.40% of families and 15.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.60% of those under age 18 and 15.80% of those age 65 or over. The county economy has centered on agriculture. Principal crops have included corn, wheat, Kaffir corn, oats. Truck farmers in the eastern part of the county grew tomatoes, apples and other small fruits.

Livestock raising had become important by the 1930s. These products were still economically important by the turn of the 21st Century. Mineral extraction included oil and gas production, gypsum and sand. In 2000, Dewey County had only two manufacturing businesses. National Register of Historic Places listings in Dewey County, Oklahoma Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Dewey County Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory

Multi-member constituencies in the Parliament of the United Kingdom

Multi-member constituencies existed in the Parliament of the United Kingdom and its predecessor bodies in the component parts of the United Kingdom from the earliest era of elected representation until they were abolished by the Representation of the People Act 1948. Since the 1950 general election, all members of the House of Commons have been elected from single-member constituencies. Three electoral systems have been used to return multiple members to Parliament; the system requires two or more vacant seats for elections and is used for local elections in England and Wales. The original method and the one most used is the following variety of bloc vote: Electors vote for as many candidates as vacant seats in their geographic division of the election, or they may vote for fewer candidates; the elector cannot vote more than once for any candidate. A single vote for one of the candidates was known as a plumper, was valued by the candidate receiving it and would be sought or demanded when campaigning and offering hospitality from the most reliable supporters.

Example: At the close of polls an impartial officer declares the poll-leading candidates to be elected to the vacant seats. If there are two seats, the candidate with the most votes is elected, as is the candidate with the second-most votes, it is clear from the above example that the last-listed party can in principle have both its candidates elected in this area. However, if that party is only strong enough at best for second-place in this area it should have run one "rally around" candidate; the system suffered from an drawback for a small minority of "ambitious electors" in contested elections. The ambitious elector votes twice or more, but reluctantly, for these extra choices out of ignorance of the system or hatred for some other candidate, she estimates she has therefore done more to stop the'threat' of the hated candidate but she will have contributed to the defeat of her most preferred candidate by boosting the second preference, who may be the poll-topper or second-placer, local support has shifted or was to be expected to one of the hated or lower-order candidates, elected with the most or the second-most votes.

Having two-or-greater seats per constituency creates a majority-of-votes — minority-of-seats outcome in reverse circumstances to the first-past-the-post single seat system. Assuming 2 seats per constituency for simplicity: If a majority of geographic divisions vote solidly for one party or cause, justifying multiple candidates and multiple wins there is no disparity in overall most votes versus overall most seats. If a majority of geographic divisions split their votes between two parties, where one of those receives great support so should have run two candidates it will have "shot itself in the foot" by not running two candidates, it has given away such extra seats. All it takes is some seats with a full slate of opposing candidates to tip the election against it, despite winning great support in the mixed outcome seats. In first-past-the-post it is the marginal seats, where the candidate wins by a narrow margin, that determine the outcome if in the safe seats a party takes the vast bulk of votes.

Gentleman's agreements were formed between one Whig and one Tory or Radical, agreeing to serve their respective factions, instead of a costly campaign against each other an uncontested election would see both elected by the same electorate. An advantage of this system, at least from the point of view of politicians, is that it enabled different sections of a party or allied groups to work together in the same constituency. In the early and mid-19th century it was quite common for liberals in an area with two seats to support the liberal Radical candidate and the liberal Whig nominee. In the early 20th century the Liberal Party and Labour Party found it expedient to pre-agree to field one candidate each in each such seat; the operation is mathematically similar to the first-past-the-post method where separate local polls as opposed to one national poll takes place, it may lead to non-proportional outcomes to the disadvantage of losing factions by not amassing their votes to award consolation seats and the winners disregarding them altogether.

In both systems this can be rectified by awarding additional members, counting all the votes across the elected body using the D'Hondt method. In 1868, the limited vote was introduced, similar to the bloc vote but restricted an individual elector in a three or four seat constituency to using up to one fewer vote than the number of seats to be filled; the purpose of this innovation was to encourage minority representation and weaken political parties. In some areas the three member counties where rural elites were used to negotiating so as to minimise the number of contested elections, the reform worked as its proposers hoped. In some urban areas, the result was counterproductive. Joseph Chamberlain and the Birmingham Liberal Caucus realised that by ensuring their supporters voted in a disciplined manner, as directed by the Caucus, they had enough support to win all three seats for the city. Instead of weakening party organisation, the limited vote strengthened it. Instead of providing guaranteed minority representation, the chance of it d