Visual effects is the process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live action shot in filmmaking. Visual effects involve the integration of live action footage and generated imagery to create environments, inanimate objects, animals or creatures which look realistic, but would be dangerous, impractical, time-consuming or impossible to capture on film. Visual effects using computer-generated imagery have become accessible to the independent filmmaker with the introduction of affordable and easy-to-use animation and compositing software. Visual effects are integral to a movie's story and appeal. Although most visual effects work is completed during post-production, it must be planned and choreographed in pre-production and production. While special effects such as explosions and car chases are made on set, visual effects are executed in post-production with the use of multiple tools and technologies such as graphic design, modeling and similar software. A visual effects supervisor is involved with the production from an early stage to work with production and the film's director design and lead the teams required to achieve the desired effects.
Many studios are specialized in the field of visual effects areas, among which: Digital Domain, DreamWorks Animation, Weta Digital, Industrial Light & Magic and Moving Picture Company. Visual effects divides into two groups of: Special effects: It covers any visual effects that take place in live action, e.g. on set explosions or stunt performances. Digital effects: It covers the various processes by which imagery is created or manipulated with or from photographic assets. Digital Effects involve the integration of still photography and computer-generated imagery to create environments which look realistic but would be dangerous, costly, or impossible to capture in camera. FX is associated with the still photography world in contrast to visual effects, associated with motion film production. Digital FX divides into different subgroups of professions such as:Matte paintings and stills: digital or traditional paintings or photographs which serve as background plates for 3D characters, particle effects, digital sets, backgrounds.
Motion capture: The process of recording the movements of objects and or people. In a session of motion capture, the subject whose motion is being captured is recorded and sampled many times per second by different scanners placed all over the environment. There are different types of systems. One of, the optical method that uses tracking cameras that lock onto specialized markers placed over the actor's motion capture suit; the other type of method is called the non-optical method where instead of capturing the markers location in space, it records and measures the inertia and mechanical motion in the area. This type of motion capture doesn't just apply to the body, but can be used to track the facial movements and expressions of an actor and transfer them to a 3d model on in the pipeline; the same type of concept of using markers to track motion is used, but more than not, the actor's face will have painted dots on their face rather than ball shaped markers. Not only is the actor's movements recorded in this process, but the movement of the camera is recorded, which allows editors to use this data to enhance the environment the motion captured set is imagined in.
Once all of this is captured, the motion captured data is mapped to a virtual skeleton using software such as Autodesk's MotionBuilder or other software of choice. Modelling: Creating 3D models of props or characters using specialised software. Animation: Assign movements for any objects and characters in 2D or 3D. Compositing: Combining visual elements from different sources to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. VFX can be categorized into: Simulation FX Animation Modelling Matte painting Compositing 4th Creative Party The Aaron Sims Company Adobe Systems Incorporated Animal Logic Atmosphere Visual Effects Base FX Bird Studios BUF Compagnie CA Scanline Cinema Research Corporation, 1954–2000 Cinesite Creature Effects, Inc. Digital Domain Double Negative DreamWorks The Embassy Visual Effects Escape Studios Flash Film Works Framestore Giantsteps Hydraulx Image Engine Industrial Light & Magic, founded by George Lucas Intelligent Creatures Intrigue FX Jim Henson's Creature Shop, Legacy Effects, Look Effects, M5 Industries home of Mythbusters Mac Guff Manex Visual Effects Machine Shop Main Road Post Makuta VFX Matte World Digital Method Studios Meteor Studios Mikros Image The Mill Modus FX Moving Picture Company Netter Digital Pixomondo Rainmaker Digital Effects Rhythm and Hues Studios Rise FX Rising
Acer Value Line is a product line of low-cost LCD monitors manufactured by Taiwan-based computer company Acer. Most of the liquid crystal display monitors from the Value Line series are dedicated to home or office users. Most of them have a classic design and standard functions ideal for home of office use. Value Line monitors are one of the most popular Acer products and they are available worldwide. At the end of 2008, Acer's Value line was discontinued. Monitors are marked "AL XX YY ZZ"; this is screen size in inches, model number, additional info. For example AL1715SM or AL1916W. Than AL1916W monitor have 19 inch screen, it is the 16th acer model and it has a wide screen; the older models were marked "AL XXX". For market reasons Acer uses serial numbers in conformation "ET. LXXXX. XXX". Monitors have a classic design, most of them have a black, or silver-black colored cover. Casing of monitors is thin with LED indicator under the screen. 1st button is using for turn on/off monitor and last for Automatic configuration, other buttons are used for OSD menu control.
Waldock, Leo. "Acer pushes three huge TFT displays". The Register. Retrieved September 3, 2012. Acer website
John Raymond Hazel was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of New York. He is notable for administering the oath of office to President Theodore Roosevelt following the assassination of President William McKinley. Born on December 18, 1860, in Buffalo, New York, Hazel read law in 1882, he entered private practice in Buffalo from 1882 to 1894. He was Commissioner of Corporation Taxes for the State of New York starting in 1894, he was a delegate to the 1900 Republican National Convention. Hazel was nominated by President William McKinley on May 18, 1900, to the United States District Court for the Western District of New York, to a new seat authorized by 31 Stat. 175. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 5, 1900, received his commission the same day, his service terminated on March 1931, due to his retirement. Hazel's nomination was opposed by the Buffalo Bar Association, which considered him unfit for judgeship. A group of five lawyers went to New York City on the association's behalf for the purpose of meeting with the Association of the Bar of the City of New York to express their opposition.
Contemporaneous accounts indicate that it was a dispute between Platt and anti-Platt rings prevalent in New York. On September 6, 1901, President McKinley was attending the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo when he was shot by Leon Czolgosz. Roosevelt was vacationing in Vermont, traveled to Buffalo to visit McKinley in the hospital, it appeared that McKinley would recover, so he went on a planned family camping and hiking trip to Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks. In the mountains, a runner notified. Roosevelt pondered with his wife, how best to respond, not wanting to show up in Buffalo and wait on McKinley's death. Roosevelt was rushed by a series of stagecoaches to North Creek train station. At the station, Roosevelt was handed a telegram that said President McKinley died at 2:30 AM, September 14, 1901; the new President continued by train from North Creek to Buffalo. He arrived in Buffalo that day, accepting an invitation to stay at the home of Ansley Wilcox, it was there, on the afternoon of September 1901, that Hazel administered the oath to Roosevelt.
In 1909, Judge Hazel issued an order cancelling the naturalization of Jacob A. Kersner, at the request of the United States Attorney's office, thus stripping the citizenship of his ex-wife, the Anarchist orator Emma Goldman, who had gained United States citizenship in 1887 by her marriage to Kersner. Ten years in 1919, the Wilson administration used Hazel's voiding of her citizenship as the basis for ruling that Goldman could be deported to Russia as an "alien anarchist," along with 248 other "undesirables," on the USAT Buford. Judge Hazel heard the 1910 to 1913 lawsuit by the Wright brothers who alleged patent infringement against manufacturer Herring-Curtiss Company and inventor Glenn Curtiss. Hazel ruled in February 1913 for the Wrights, on appeal a higher court agreed with this decision in 1914; the decision was controversial for so favorably interpreting the uniqueness and priority of the technical achievements of the Wrights, it has been argued that this broad interpretation of their intellectual property slowed aviation developments in the U.
S. Hazel died on October 13, 1951. John Raymond Hazel at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Morris, Edmund; the Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. Modern Library, 2001. ISBN 0-375-75678-7