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Vitagraph Studios

Vitagraph Studios known as the Vitagraph Company of America, was a United States motion picture studio. It was founded by J. Stuart Blackton and Albert E. Smith in 1897 in Brooklyn, New York, as the American Vitagraph Company. By 1907, it was the most prolific American film production company, producing many famous silent films, it was bought by Warner Bros. in 1925. In 1896, English émigré Blackton was moonlighting as a reporter/artist for the New York Evening World when he was sent to interview Thomas Edison about his new film projector; the inventor talked the entrepreneurial reporter into buying a set of a projector. A year Blackton and business partner Smith founded the American Vitagraph Company in direct competition with Edison. A third partner, distributor William "Pop" Rock, joined in 1899; the company's first studio was located on the rooftop of a building on Nassau Street in Manhattan. Operations were moved to the Midwood neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York; the company's first claim to fame came from newsreels: Vitagraph cameramen were on the scene to film events from the Spanish–American War of 1898.

These shorts were among the first works of motion-picture propaganda, a few had that most characteristic fault of propaganda, studio re-enactments being passed off as footage of actual events. In 1897 Vitagraph produced The Humpty Dumpty Circus, the first film to use the stop-motion technique. Vitagraph was not the only company seeking to make money from Edison's motion picture inventions, Edison's lawyers were busy in the 1890s and 1900s filing patents and suing competitors for patent infringement. Blackton did his best to avoid lawsuits by buying a special license from Edison in 1907 and by agreeing to sell many of his most popular films to Edison for distribution; the American Vitagraph Company made many contributions to the history of movie-making. In 1903 the director Joseph Delmont started his career by producing westerns. In 1909 it was one of the original ten production companies included in Edison's attempt to corner movie-making in America, the Motion Picture Patents Company. Due to its extensive European distribution interests, Vitagraph participated in the Paris Film Congress in February 1909.

This was a failed attempt by European producers to form a cartel similar to the MPPC. Major stars included Florence Turner, Maurice Costello, Harry T. Morey and such future stars as Helen Hayes, Viola Dana, Dolores Costello, Norma Talmadge, Constance Talmadge, Moe Howard. Larry Trimble was a noted director of films for Jean; the first film adaptation of the novel Les Misérables, a short silent historical drama starring Maurice Costello as Jean Valjean and William V. Ranous as Javert, is distributed by the Vitagraph Company of America; the film consists of four reels, each released over the course of three months beginning on 4 September to 27 November 1909. John Bunny made films for Vitagraph in the 1910s, most of them co-starring Flora Finch, was the most popular film comedian in the world in the years before Chaplin, his death in 1915 was observed worldwide. In 1910, a number of movie houses showed the five parts of the Vitagraph serial The Life of Moses consecutively, making it one of many to claim the title of "the first feature film."

A long series of Shakespeare adaptations were the first done of the Bard's works in the U. S. In 1911, Vitagraph produced the first aviation film, The Military Air-Scout, directed by William J. Humphrey, with future General of the Air Force Hap Arnold as the stunt flier; the 1915 feature The Battle Cry of Peace was one of the great propaganda films of World War I. After America declared war, the film was modified for re-release because it was seen as not being sufficiently pro-war, thus it earns a place in the history of censorship. World War I spelled the beginning of the end for Vitagraph. With the loss of foreign distributors and the rise of the monopolistic Studio system, Vitagraph was but being squeezed out of the business. On January 28, 1925, it left the Motion Picture Distributors of America. In 1915, Chicago distributor George Kleine orchestrated a four-way film distribution partnership, V-L-S-E, for the Vitagraph, Lubin and Essanay companies. Albert Smith served as president. In 1916, Benjamin Hampton had proposed a merger of the distribution companies Paramount Pictures and V-L-S-E with Famous Players Film Company and Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company, but was foiled by Adolph Zukor.

V-L-S-E was dissolved on August 17, 1916, when Vitagraph purchased a controlling interest in Lubin and Essanay. On April 20, 1925, Smith gave up and sold the company to Warner Bros. for a comfortable profit. The Flatbush studio was used as an independent unit within Warner Bros. specializing in early sound shorts. Among those performers who made early film appearances in Vitaphone shorts filmed at the Flatbush studios include Al Jolson, Humphrey Bogart, Jimmy Stewart, Bob Hope, Adel

Jonas P. Phoenix

Jonas Phillips Phoenix was a U. S. Representative from New York. Phoenix received a limited schooling, he was the son of Anna Lewis Phoenix. His father was a prominent citizen of Long Island who moved to Morristown in the Province of New Jersey when the British occupied Long Island. After the Revolutionary War, the family moved to his father served as city treasurer, his paternal grandparents were Alexander and Cornelia Phoenix, descendants of English immigrants to New Amsterdam. His maternal grandfather was Jonas Phillips of Morristown and his mother was the great-granddaughter of Rev. George Phillips, the progenitor of the New England Phillips family in America. From 1810 to 1814, he was partners with Thomas Alsop in the merchant firm of Phoenix & Alsop at 27 Front Street in New York City. From 1814 to 1827, the firm was known as J. P. Phoenix & Co. and was located at 22 South Street in New York City. The business continued to be ran by his brother, John Doughty Phoenix under the name of Phoenix & Co. located at 65 Water Street.

Phoenix served as an Alderman of the first ward in 1840, 1842, 1847. In 1842, he was appointed a commissioner of the Croton Aqueduct Works. Phoenix was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-eighth Congress from March 4, 1843 until March 3, 1845, he declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1844. He was an unsuccessful candidate for election in 1846 to the Thirtieth Congress and served as chairman of the Whig General Committee in 1846 and 1847, he was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1848, serving in the 71st New York State Legislature. Phoenix was again elected to the House of Representatives, serving from March 4, 1849 until March 3, 1851 as part of the Thirty-first Congress. While renominated in 1850, he declined to be a candidate. Phoenix was married to Mary Whitney. Mary was the daughter of Harriet Whitney and Stephen Whitney, one of the wealthiest merchants in New York City. Together, they were the parents of: Whitney Phoenix. Mary Caroline Phoenix, who married George Henry Warren, a lawyer, in 1851.

Phillips Phoenix, a Harvard Law School graduate and lawyer in New York City. Harriet Whitney Phoenix, who married Isaac Bronson, a lawyer, the son of Dr. Oliver Bronson, in 1859. Anne Lewis Phoenix, who died unmarried. Stephen Whitney Phoenix, a Columbia College and Columbia Law School graduate who lived in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. Lloyd Phoenix, a U. S. Naval Academy graduate. Phoenix died at his home, 18 State Street in New York City, on May 4, 1859, he was interred in the Presbyterian Cemetery, New Jersey. Through his daughter Mary, he was the grandfather of nine, including Harriette Warren, who married Robert Goelet, the parents of Robert Walton Goelet. United States Congress. "Jonas P. Phoenix". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Jonas P. Phoenix at Find a Grave

Ilford Animal Cemetery

Ilford Animal Cemetery is an animal cemetery in Ilford in London, United Kingdom that contained over three thousand burials. It is operated by the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals; the cemetery was closed to new burials in the 1960s and became neglected and overgrown. In the early twenty-first century it was restored with the assistance of a £50,000 grant from the National Lottery. Headstones were repaired or replaced, the entrance gate was repaired, the graves were numbered and a visitor's map was created; the cemetery re-opened in 2007 with a ceremony that included a performance of the Last Post by a bugler from the King's Royal Rifle Corps and a pigeon fly-past. It was attended by two holders of the PDSA Gold Medal and Endal. Present was Commander Stuart Hett, an officer aboard HMS Amethyst and had been tasked with responding to the many letters received by the ship's heroic cat, buried at Ilford; the burials are a mixture of family pets and military animals, including thirteen recipients of the Dickin Medal for bravery.

The first Dickin Medal recipient to be buried at Ilford was Rip, a Second World War search and rescue dog. Information boards recounting the stories of several of the animals were constructed during the recent restoration; the cemetery has an area dedicated to bird burials. It has a Pet Tribute Garden designed by celebrity gardener Bob Flowerdew; the inspiration for the design was the Dickin Medal, which has stripes of brown and green representing sea and air forces. The garden includes a pet tribute tag dedicated to Endal, the assistance dog, present at the re-opening ceremony but which died in 2009; the cemetery is behind the PDSA on Woodford Bridge Road, Ilford, Essex. Dickin Medal recipients buried at Ilford include: Antis Endal Beauty Crumstone Irma Mary of Exeter Peter Rex Ricky Rip Able Seacat Simon Tich Tyke

Ford Elite

The Ford Elite is a personal luxury car produced by Ford and marketed in North American from February 1974 to 1976, with the name Gran Torino Elite used in the first year. Based on the Torino, the mid-size two-door coupe was intended to be a less expensive Thunderbird alternative to compete with the popular intermediate personal luxury class of vehicles such as the Chevrolet Monte Carlo, Pontiac Grand Prix, Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme, Buick Regal, Dodge Charger and Chrysler Cordoba, it was the concurrent Mercury Cougar XR-7 with a mild front end restyling to resemble the Thunderbird, different taillamps with a center reflector, unique twin opera windows and large color-keyed vinyl moldings placed higher on the bodysides. The interiors were minor trim. Introduced February 18th, 1974 as the Gran Torino Elite, it was the top of the line model of the Torino series. Although advertised separately, it was registered as a Gran Torino. For 1975 and 1976, the Gran Torino prefix was dropped and Elite became a stand-alone model nameplate.

Early pre-production publicity photos for the 1974 model show the use of Gran Torino XL nameplates. The Elite name was dropped after 1976 because the Ford mid-size range was restructured for the 1977 model year; the Thunderbird was reduced in size and price for 1977 by moving the nameplate to the Torino-based LTD II platform which replaced the Torino. In effect, the Elite continued restyled and marketed under the more-recognized Thunderbird name, the previous full-sized Thunderbird was discontinued. 351W or 351M V8 engine, both of 351 CID 3-speed automatic transmission Power brakes. Power steering Cloth bench seats Vinyl roof with twin opera windows, Landau vinyl top for 1976 model year. Protective padded body side moldings 400 V8 engine of 402 CID 460 V8 engine of 460 CID Power glass moonroof Power steel sunroof Air conditioning with standard manual control or optional Automatic Temperature Control Metallic Glow paint Cruise control Gauge package with tachometer, oil pressure gauge, coolant temperature gauge, ammeter gauge Fuel Sentry Vacuum Gauge - monitors intake manifold vacuum to give an indication of how hard the engine is working, thus economy.

Fuel Monitor Warning Light - as above, but an on/off light instead of a gauge. Bucket seats and center console; the Elite name was used in Mexico. The Ford Fairmont was introduced in Mexico in late 1977 as a 1978 model, replacing the Ford Maverick, produced there locally; the Futura coupe with its distinctive Thunderbird-styled roofline was never offered in Mexico. Instead there was an uplevel 2-door sedan called the Fairmont Elite, it was distinguished from other Fairmonts by its higher level of vinyl roof. It used the four headlight grille from the Fairmont Futura along with Mercury Zephyr taillamps and rear quarter window louvers. For 1981, the Fairmont Elite switched to the Mercury Zephyr grille. For 1982, the Fairmont Elite was renamed Ford Elite II, now offered in two- and four-door sedans, it continued to use the body of the Fairmont with the front end of the North American 1982 Ford Granada and matching rear bumper. The rear continued to use Mercury Zephyr taillamps. From 1983 to 1985, a version of the North American Fox platform Ford LTD was manufactured in Venezuela and marketed as the Ford Granada Elite in uplevel trim.

SourcesLewis, McCarville & Sorensen, Auto Editors of Consumer Guide. Ford 1903 To 1984. Publications International, LTD. ISBN 0-88176-151-6. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Flamming, James M. Auto Editors of Consumer Guide. Cars Of The Sensational'70s. Publications International, LTD. ISBN 0-7853-2980-3. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list The Ford Torino Page. Ford Elite. Retrieved on April 24, 2005. Ford Motor Company. 1975 Ford Elite advertising


DXOMARK is a website that calls itself "an independent benchmark that scientifically assesses smartphones and cameras". Founded in 2008, it is owned by DXOMARK Image Labs and is headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France. DXOMARK Image Labs was spun off from DxO Labs in September 2017, was re-branded to DXOMARK in 2019; the DXOMARK Sensor Score measures several important image quality metrics of the RAW image captured by a camera's sensor. The overall score is a confidential combination of three sub-scores: Color Depth, measured in bits, called a Portrait score Dynamic Range, measured in stops of dynamic range, called a Landscape score Low-light performance, measured in an ISO equivalent, called a Sports scoreAnother metric, the Perceptual MegaPixel is used to rate the resolution a camera produces when paired to a particular lens. DXOMARK claims that P-MPix is a more accurate and relevant value for photographers to consider than alternate measures of sharpness when evaluating camera and lens image quality.

As of December 2015, the Canon EF 300mm f/2.8L IS II USM lens mounted on a Canon EOS 5DS R has the highest measured P-MPix, followed by the Carl Zeiss APO Sonnar T* 2/135 ZE. DXOMARK data has been used to plot the progress of sensor image quality and low-light sensitivity versus price over the years, as well as the impact of sensor size and resolution. More DXOMARK has evaluated drone cameras for image quality. DXOMARK provides lens ratings, as tested using its proprietary toolset in combination with various camera models; as smartphones began to overtake point-and-shoot cameras, DXOMARK began testing smartphones and other mobile devices in 2011 and introduced DXOMARK Mobile in 2012. A major update was made in September 2017, adding tests designed to stress the capabilities of current-model smartphones such as lower-light shooting, telephoto zoom, depth effect, bokeh. In September, 2019, the Mobile score was renamed DXOMARK CAMERA. DXOMARK Camera Overall Score is the headline number reported for each tested device, consists of a proprietary combination of DXOMARK Camera Photo and DXOMARK Camera Video category scores.

DXOMARK's Camera Photo score is a proprietary combination of nine category sub-scores: Exposure and contrast Color Autofocus Texture Noise Artifacts Night Zoom Bokeh Wide DXOMARK's Camera Video score includes six of the same Sub-scores as DXOMARK's Mobile Photo score, along with Stabilization. DXOMARK's tests are conducted by the company's technical staff under a variety of lighting conditions, ranging from low-light 1 Lux to bright daylight outdoors. Sub-scores are combined using a confidential mapping into an overall score. Tests are confined to default modes, except for Zoom and Bokeh, which has caused reviewers to be cautious when using them; as of 22 January 2019, DXOMARK has started testing the front-facing cameras on smartphones. Selfie tests are done for both Video. For Photo there are sub-scores for Exposure, Focus, Noise, Artifacts and Bokeh. For Video, sub-scores include Exposure, Focus, Noise and Stabilization. In October, 2019 DXOMARK introduced a new Audio benchmark for smartphones.

Phones are tested for playback using their speakers, for recording using their built-in microphones. Tested categories include: Timbre Dynamics Spatial Volume Artifacts For Recoding only: Background Users can select several devices of the same class and have the site display a comparison of their test scores and graphical versions of the actual test data. Analyzer is a suite of software tools published by DXOMARK, that includes test targets and test equipment, its is used by camera companies as well as press publications and websites to test sensors and standalone cameras, as well as mobile devices with cameras. Testing can be performed on both JPEG images, as well as video. Analyzer is the analysis engine behind Results can be displayed either numerically or graphically. Introduced by DxO Labs, Analyzer is now a product of DXOMARK, spun out from DxO. Analyzer includes modules for testing optics, stabilization, timing, 3D features. DXOMARK ratings are used by the press to describe the image quality characteristics of their cameras and mobile devices.

High DXOMARK Camera ratings have been featured as hallmarks of quality in vendor announcements and marketing materials, although reviewers are careful to note that the ratings only reflect image quality. DXOMARK provides consulting services to hardware manufacturers, related to image quality. Official website Analyzer Web site DXOMARK IMAGE LABS


Prekoruplje is a geographical and ethnographical region in Kosovo, including the eastern portion of the larger Metohija region which includes the western part of Kosovo. It is located between Podgor, Podrimlje and Lapušnik, it stretches over the basin area of two rivers, lower Klina and Miruša, includes ca. 40 settlements. Orahovac is the centre of Prekoruplje. Today, the area is predominantly inhabited by Albanians. Prekoruplje is one of the parts of Metohija, it is located between Podgor, Podrimlje and Lapušnik. It is a hilly region that includes the landscape on the left riverbank of Beli Drim, from Podgor to the watershed of Miruša and Klina, it stretches over the basin area of two rivers, lower Klina and Miruša, includes ca. 40 settlements. Orahovac is the centre of Prekoruplje, it includes the municipalities of Orahovac, Mališevo and northern Suva Reka. Part of Prekoruplje was included in the 1455 defter of the Branković lands. Serbs massively migrated from the region after the Serbian Revolution and during the Serbian–Ottoman War.

During the Balkan Wars, the Serbian Army crossed Drenica and Prekoruplje without problems from the Albanian population thanks to local leader Sadik Rama. Prekoruplje was settled by Serb colonists by the Yugoslav government. Prekoruplje is predominantly inhabited by Muslim Albanians. Velika Hoča is a Serb enclave located in Orahovac municipality. There is a small Romani community. According to ethnographical studies published in 1912, Prekoruplje had 44 villages with 231 Serb, 457 Albanian Muslim, 108 Catholic and 14 Muhajir families. Svetozar Raičević studied Metohijski Podgor and Prekoruplje, publishing preliminary results in 1935, he described that: Podgor takes up the northern part of Metohija and extends from Peć to the village of Rudnik on the road between Peć and Kosovska Mitrovica. Prekoruplje is south of this region, on the left side of the Drim, reaches to the Miruša river; the old Serb population was entirely displaced, one part was Albanianized. The Serb population in these regions, at that time, were settled from the Dinaric areas.

He noted. Serbs were more numerous than the Albanians. There were clean Serb villages and those where Serbs and Albanians lived together, only little villages with clean Albanian population. Catholic Albanians were only present in Đurakovac. Apart from Serbs and Albanians there were Gypsies, of the Mađupi and Gabelji, Muslims. A special group of people were the Čitaci, in the villages of Čitak and Broćna, who "don't know their ancestry, their mother tongue is Albanian, they know a little Serbian". Dedijer, Jevto. Stara Srbija: geografska i etnografska slika. Srpska književna zadruga. Marković, Jovan Đ.. Geografske oblasti Socijalističke Federativne Republike Jugoslavije. Zavod za izdavanje udžbenika Socijalističke Republike Srbije. Radovanović, Milovan. Kosovo i Metohija: antropogeografske, istorijskogeografske, demografske i geopolitičke osnove. Službeni Glasnik. Radovanović, Milovan. Etnički i demografski procesi na Kosovu i Metohiji. Liber Press. Bukumirić, Mileta. Ономастика дела Прекорупља омеђеног рекама Мирушом, Белим Дримом и Клином.

САНУ. Bukumirić, Mileta. Ономастика Прекорупља, 2. Део. САНУ. Smirnov, S.. Arheološke beleške iz Metohije i Prekoruplja. Starinar VIII—IX, Beograd, 1933–1934. Bakić, Radovan. Izbor najpovolnijeg modela krupne saobračajne infrastrukture za razvoj Drenice i Prekoruplja. Glasnik SGD, 1, pp. 135–142. Raičević, Svetozar. Antropogeografska i etnološka proučavanja metohijskog Podgora i Prekoruplja. Gl. SKND, knj. XIV. Jašović, Golub M.. "Mikrotoponimija sela Berkova u Prekoruplju". Zbornik radova Filozofskog fakulteta u Prištini. 46: 13–25. Doi:10.5937/zrffp46-10798