Frederick Dewayne Hubbard was an American jazz trumpeter. He was known for playing in the bebop, hard bop, post-bop styles from the early 1960s onwards, his unmistakable and influential tone contributed to new perspectives for modern bebop. Hubbard started playing the mellophone and trumpet in his school band at Arsenal Technical High School in Indianapolis, Indiana. Trumpeter Lee Katzman, former sideman with Stan Kenton, recommended that he begin studying at the Arthur Jordan Conservatory of Music with Max Woodbury, the principal trumpeter of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra. In his teens Hubbard worked locally with brothers Wes and Monk Montgomery and worked with bassist Larry Ridley and saxophonist James Spaulding. In 1958, at the age of 20, he moved to New York, began playing with some of the best jazz players of the era, including Philly Joe Jones, Sonny Rollins, Slide Hampton, Eric Dolphy, J. J. Johnson, Quincy Jones. On 19 June 1960 Hubbard made his first record as a leader, Open Sesame at the beginning of his contract with Blue Note Records, with saxophonist Tina Brooks, pianist McCoy Tyner, bassist Sam Jones, drummer Clifford Jarvis.
Six days he returned the favor to Brooks, recorded with him on True Blue. In December 1960, Hubbard was invited to play on Ornette Coleman's Free Jazz after Coleman had heard him performing with Don Cherry. In May 1961, Hubbard played on Olé Coltrane, John Coltrane's final recording session for Atlantic Records. Together with Eric Dolphy and Art Davis, Hubbard was the only sideman who appeared on both Olé and Africa/Brass, Coltrane's first album with Impulse!. In August 1961, Hubbard recorded Ready for Freddie, his first collaboration with saxophonist Wayne Shorter. Hubbard joined Shorter in 1961 when he replaced Lee Morgan in Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, he played on several Blakey recordings, including Caravan, Ugetsu and Free for All. In all, during the 1960s, he recorded eight studio albums as a bandleader for Blue Note, more than two dozen as a sideman. Hubbard remained with Blakey until 1966, leaving to form the first of several small groups of his own, which featured, among others, his Blue note associate James Spaulding, pianist Kenny Barron and drummer Louis Hayes.
This group recorded for Atlantic. It was during this time that he began to develop his own sound, distancing himself from the early influences of Clifford Brown and Morgan, won the DownBeat jazz magazine "New Star" award on trumpet. Throughout the 1960s Hubbard played as a sideman on some of the most important albums from that era, including Oliver Nelson's The Blues and the Abstract Truth, Eric Dolphy's Out to Lunch!, Herbie Hancock's Maiden Voyage, Wayne Shorter's Speak No Evil. Hubbard was described as "the most brilliant trumpeter of a generation of musicians who stand with one foot in'tonal' jazz and the other in the atonal camp". Though he never embraced the free jazz of the 1960s, he appeared on two of its landmark albums: Coleman's Free Jazz and Coltrane's Ascension, as well as on Sonny Rollins' 1966 "New Thing" track "East Broadway Run Down" with Elvin Jones and Jimmy Garrison. Hubbard achieved his greatest popular success in the 1970s with a series of albums for Creed Taylor and his record label CTI Records, overshadowing Stanley Turrentine, Hubert Laws, George Benson.
Although his early 1970s jazz albums Red Clay, First Light, Straight Life, Sky Dive were well received and considered among his best work, the albums he recorded in the decade were attacked by critics for their commercialism. First Light won a 1972 Grammy Award and included pianists Herbie Hancock and Richard Wyands, guitarists Eric Gale and George Benson, bassist Ron Carter, drummer Jack DeJohnette, percussionist Airto Moreira. In 1994, collaborating with Chicago jazz vocalist/co-writer Catherine Whitney, had lyrics set to the music of First Light. In 1977 Hubbard joined with Herbie Hancock, Tony Williams, Ron Carter and Wayne Shorter, members of the mid-sixties Miles Davis Quintet, for a series of performances. Several live recordings of this group were released as V. S. O. P, V. S. O. P; the Quintet, V. S. O. P. Tempest in the Colosseum and V. S. O. P. Live Under the Sky. Hubbard's trumpet playing was featured on the track "Zanzibar", on the 1978 Billy Joel album 52nd Street; the track ends with a fade during Hubbard's performance.
An "unfaded" version was released on the 2004 Billy Joel box set My Lives. In the 1980s Hubbard was again leading his own jazz group – this time with Billy Childs and Larry Klein, among others, as members – attracting favorable reviews, playing at concerts and festivals in the US and Europe in the company of Joe Henderson, playing a repertory of hard bop and modal jazz pieces. Hubbard played at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1980 and in 1989, he played with Woody Shaw, recording with him in 1985, two years recorded Stardust with Benny Golson. In 1988 he teamed up once more with Blakey at an engagement in the Netherlands, from which came Feel the Wind. In 1988, Hubbard played with Elton John, contributing trumpet and flugelhorn and trumpet solos on the track "Mona Lisas and Mad Hatters" for John's Reg Strikes Back album. In 1990 he appeared in Japan headlining an American-Japanese concert package which featured Elvin Jones, Sonny Fortune, pianists George Duke and Benny Green, bass players Ron Carter, Rufus Reid, with jazz and vocalist Salena Jones.
He performed at the Warsaw Jazz Festival, at which Live at the Warsaw Jazz Festival was recorded. Following a long setback of health problems and a seriou
Kai Eckhardt is a German born musician and composer who plays bass, best known for his work with John McLaughlin, Vital Information, Torsten de Winkel, Billy Cobham and Garaj Mahal—a band he co-founded. Educated at the prestigious Berklee College of Music Eckhardt has collaborated on projects with guitarist Larry Coryell as well as keyboardist Tom Coster. Eckhardt is known for his fast chordal slap-style abilities, for his unique combination of funk and world music. Eckhardt began to play bass guitar at age 15, his first major undertaking came in 1985 when European guitar prodigy Torsten de Winkel asked him to join his recording ensemble with Michael Brecker and Alphonse Mouzon, making quite a splash in the European scene, his touring band with Ernie Watts and Steve Smith, leading to an invitation to Eckhardt and Torsten to join Smith's US-based group Vital Information. The two German musicians appeared together in a TV production with Randy Brecker and Simon PhillipsMeanwhile, he had accepted a scholarship to the Berklee College of Music and began to establish himself in the US, working with the likes of Aydin Esen, Stanley Clarke, Tiger Okoshi and Bob Moses.
In 1988 Kai joined the John Mclaughlin Trio with percussionist Trilok John McLaughlin. The trio toured extensively in the years to come and recorded a number of albums, including Que Alegria in 1992. Afterwards, Eckhardt moved to the San Francisco bay area and turned his attention to composing, while performing with the Billy Cobham International Quartet and with Garaj Mahal. In 2000, he released his first CD as a leader, entitled "Honour Simplicity, Respect the Flow" and featuring Aydın Esen, Courtney Pine, Zakir Hussain and others. In 2008, he appeared on the CD of the UNESCO endorsed Bimbache Jazz y Raices global encounter project and reconnected with Torsten de Winkel, leading to renewed collaborations of the two in Garaj Mahal and in de Winkel's group Idiot Savants, he is working with his own new group the Kai Eckhardt Band. Eckhardt runs a mentor-ship program for young musicians. Eckhardt was a co-producer of the influential jam band Garaj Mahal; the band played over 1000 shows in the US and Canada between 2000 and 2010.
Garaj Mahal released 9 albums during those years and won the independent music awards in the Jam Band category in 2007. In August 2011 Garaj Mahal put an end to touring and there are no plans for future shows. Tuba Insight Kai Eckhardt Band - Zeitgeist Kai Eckhardt - Atomic Bass: Reactive Intervals Instructional DVD George Brooks' Summit Spirit and Spice Rad Getting Down is Free Bimbache Jazz y Raíces - La Condición Humana, with Gregoire Maret, Torsten de Winkel, Maria Mérida and others Tribute to Mahavishnu: Visions of an Inner Mounting Apocalypse Bill Douglas Sky Zigaboo Modeliste "I'm on the Right Track" Kai Eckhardt - Honour Simplicity, Respect the Flow with Aydın Esen, Courtney Pine, Zakir Hussain and others Maria Joao: Fabula Curandero - Aras, with Ty Burhoe, Miguel Espinoza, Bela Fleck Aziza Mustafa Zadeh: Dance of Fire John McLaughlin - Que Alegria, with John McLaughlin, Trilok Gurtu and Dominique DiPiazza John McLaughlin Trio - Live at the Royal Festival Hall,with John McLaughlin, Trilok Gurtu Torsten de Winkel - Mastertouch, with Michael Brecker, Alphonse Mouzon and others Steve Smith's Vital Information - Fia Fiaga, with Frank Gambale, Torsten de Winkel and others BassTalk Live Vol. 1 Live Vol. 2 Live Vol. 3 Mondo Garaj Blueberry Cave Woot More Mr. Nice Guy Discovery Kai Eckhardt official website Berklee College of Music alumni Feature article from UK Bass Guitar Magazine Japanese feature about Kai Eckhardt text is Japanese Interview with Kai Eckhardt San Francisco feature about Kia Eckhardt Garaj Mahal website Dance of Fire wiki page
John Francis Anthony "Jaco" Pastorius III was an American jazz bassist, a member of Weather Report from 1976 to 1981. He worked with Pat Metheny, Joni Mitchell, recorded albums as a solo artist and band leader, his bass playing employed funk, lyrical solos, bass chords, innovative harmonics. As of 2017, he is the only electric bassist of seven bassists inducted into the DownBeat Jazz Hall of Fame, has been lauded as one of the best electric bassists of all time. John Francis Pastorius was born December 1951, in Norristown, Pennsylvania, he was the oldest of three boys born to Stephanie, his Finnish mother, Jack Pastorius, a charismatic singer and jazz drummer who spent much of his time on the road. His family moved to Oakland Park in Fort Lauderdale. Pastorius' nickname, "Jaco", became adopted, was influenced by his love for sports as well as the umpire Jocko Conlan. In 1974, he began spelling it "Jaco" after it was misspelled by pianist Alex Darqui, his brother called him "Mowgli" after the wild boy in The Jungle Book because he was energetic and spent much of his time shirtless on the beach, climbing trees, running through the woods, swimming in the ocean.
He attended St. Clement's Catholic School in Wilton Manors and was an altar boy at St. Clement's Church, his confirmation name was Anthony, thus expanding his name to John Francis Anthony Pastorius. He was intensely competitive and excelled at baseball and football, he played drums. The damage was severe enough to warrant corrective surgery and inhibited his ability to play the drums. By 1968–1969, at the age of 17, Pastorius had begun to appreciate jazz and had saved enough money to buy an upright bass, its deep, mellow tone appealed to him. He had difficulty maintaining the instrument; when he woke one day to find it had cracked, he traded it for a 1962 Fender Jazz Bass. In his teens he played bass guitar for Wayne Cochran and the C. C. Riders. In the early 1970s, Pastorius taught bass at the University of Miami, where he befriended jazz guitarist Pat Metheny, on the faculty. With Paul Bley and Metheny recorded an album titled Jaco. Pastorius played on Metheny's debut album, Bright Size Life, he recorded his debut solo album, Jaco Pastorius with Michael Brecker, Randy Brecker, Herbie Hancock, Hubert Laws, Pat Metheny, Sam & Dave, David Sanborn, Wayne Shorter.
Before recording his debut album, Pastorius attended a concert in Miami by the jazz fusion band Weather Report. After the concert, he approached keyboardist Joe Zawinul; as was his habit, he introduced himself by saying, "I'm John Francis Pastorius III. I'm the greatest bass player in the world." Zawinul asked for a demo tape. After listening to the tape, Zawinul realized, they corresponded, Pastorius sent Zawinul a rough mix of his solo album. After bassist Alphonso Johnson left Weather Report, Zawinul asked Pastorius to join the band. Pastorius made his band debut on the album Black Market, in which he shared the bass chair with Johnson. Pastorius was established as sole band bass player for the recording of Heavy Weather, which contained the Grammy-nominated hit "Birdland". During his time with Weather Report, Pastorius began abusing alcohol and illegal drugs, which exacerbated existing mental problems and led to erratic behavior, he left Weather Report in 1982 due to clashes with tour commitments for his other projects, plus a growing dissatisfaction with Zawinul's synthesized and orchestrated approach to the band's music.
Warner Bros. signed Pastorius to a favorable contract in the late 1970s based on his groundbreaking skill and his star quality, which they hoped would lead to large sales. He used this contract to set up his Word of Mouth big band which consisted of Chuck Findley on trumpet, Howard Johnson on tuba, Wayne Shorter, Michael Brecker, Tom Scott on reeds, Toots Thielemans on harmonica, Peter Erskine and Jack DeJohnette on drums, Don Alias on percussion; this was the group that recorded Word of Mouth. In 1982, Pastorius toured with Word of Mouth as a 21-piece big band. While in Japan, to the alarm of his band members, he shaved his head, painted his face black, threw his bass guitar into Hiroshima Bay, he was diagnosed with bipolar disorder in late 1982 after the tour. Pastorius had shown signs of bipolar disorder before his diagnosis, but these signs were dismissed as eccentricities, character flaws, by Pastorius himself as a normal part of his freewheeling personality. Despite attention in the press, Word of Mouth sold poorly.
Warner Bros. was unimpressed by the demo tapes from Holiday for Pans. Pastorius released Invitation, a live recording from the Word of Mouth tour of Japan; as alcohol and drug problems dominated his life, he had trouble finding work, finding people who would tolerate his shenanigans, he wound up homeless. In 1985, while filming an instructional video, Pastorius told the interviewer, Jerry Jemmott, that although he had been praised for his ability, he wished that someone would give him a job. Pastorius developed a self-destructive habit of provoking bar fights and allowing himself to be beaten up. After sneaking onstage at a Carlos Santana concert on September 11, 1987 and being ejected from the premises, he made his way to the Midnight Bottle Club in Wilton Manors, Florida. After kicking in a glass door, having been refused entrance to the club, he was
Tom Coster is an American keyboardist and longtime backing musician for Carlos Santana. Detroit-born and San Francisco-raised, Coster played piano and accordion as a youth, continuing his studies through college and a productive five-year stint as a musician in the U. S. Air Force Band. Coster has played with and/or composed for many groups and musicians including The Loading Zone, Gábor Szabó, Carlos Santana, Billy Cobham, Third Eye Blind, Coryell/Coster/Smith, Claudio Baglioni, Stu Hamm, Boz Scaggs and Bobby Holiday, Joe Satriani, Frank Gambale, Vital Information. Coster produced several solo jazz fusion recordings as a leader for Fantasy, JVC; some of Coster's best-known compositions are "Europa", "Flor D'Luna" and "Dance, Dance" performed by Santana and "The Perfect Date" performed by Vital Information. Coster's son was born in 1966 called Tom Coster a keyboardist and composer. All About Jazz Vital Information Web Site
Daryl Mark Stuermer is an American musician and producer best known for playing the guitar and bass for Genesis during live shows, lead guitar for Phil Collins during most solo tours and albums. He has released ten solo albums, tours with his Daryl Stuermer Band. Stuermer was born on November 1952 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he cites his elder brother of two years a musician, who introduced him to music by Elvis Presley and Ray Charles. As a youngster he became a fan of the instrumental rock band The Ventures, which "really got me going", he began to play the guitar at age eleven, moved into jazz guitar four years later. In 1970, Stuermer graduated from St. Francis High School in Wisconsin. In the early 1970s, Stuermer formed his Milwaukee-based jazz rock band Sweetbottom, playing local gigs five nights a week, it was during one of these gigs in 1975 that keyboardist George Duke of The Mothers of Invention with Frank Zappa, was in attendance after being on stage with the group and liked Stuermer's playing.
Duke suggested his name to jazz violinist Jean-Luc Ponty, looking for a guitarist to join his own band. After a successful audition, Stuermer became a full time member and is featured on three of their albums released between 1975 and 1977: Aurora, Imaginary Voyage, Enigmatic Ocean. In addition to Ponty, he played on Duke's solo albums I Love the Blues, She Heard My Cry and Liberated Fantasies. In late 1977, Stuermer, on insistence of friend Alphonso Johnson, was recommended as a replacement for Steve Hackett to support Genesis for live performances. Johnson's audition was unsuccessful, he put Stuermer's name forward. Stuermer's only exposure to the band was when Ponty played him A Trick of the Tail, a television clip showing Gabriel singing in costume. A chance meeting with drummer Chester Thompson, who had replaced Bill Bruford as their touring drummer in 1976, convinced Stuermer to go for the audition, his audition with Rutherford took place in early 1978 in New York City, landed the spot on the same day.
He retained the role of lead guitarist and bass player with the band from 1978 to 1992: he rejoined them for the 2007 Turn It On Again Tour. During Genesis's break in activity for much of 1979, Stuermer secured work by touring North America with singer Gino Vannelli in support of his album Brother to Brother. In 1981, Stuermer followed Genesis frontman Phil Collins as lead guitarist for Collins' solo career, with a speaking part in the clip for "One More Night" and being mentioned by name in the music video for "Don't Lose My Number". In doing so, he transitioned from what Collins called a "permanent-temporary-part-time member" of Genesis to a "permanent-touring-recording member" of Collins' new group. Stuermer is credited as a writer on several songs that Collins recorded, including "I Don't Wanna Know" on No Jacket Required which evolved from one of Stuermer's demos. In 1987, Stuermer released his debut solo album Steppin' Out, he considered making it a more vocal-oriented album having performed with Collins throughout the decade, but he opted to produce a rock instrumental album.
Stuermer went on to record'Live and Learn, Another Side of Genesis, Waiting in the Wings, The Nylon String Sampler, Rewired: the Electric Collection and Go!. Released in 2002 was a Sweetbottom live reunion album, recorded at Shank Hall in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In mid-2002, Stuermer performed a free concert in his hometown. Stuermer's album Go! was released in early 2007. It contains many older tracks from Stuermer's Sweetbottom days, includes appearances from Alphonso Johnson, John Calarco, Eric Hervey. Stuermer released the album on Inside Out Records as they offered him greater freedom to explore a musical direction that he wished to pursue, his current project is called Daryl Stuermer - Symphony Concert, which involves band members Kostia, Alan Arber and Eric Hervey and singer Forrest "Woody" Mankowski, recreating classic Genesis material mixed with instrumentals from his solo career. Stuermer has been a Fender Stratocaster user for most of his career with Phil Collins, his primary guitars have been a Torino Red Eric Clapton Stratocaster and a 3-Tone Sunburst American Standard Stratocaster, though he played banjo on the Collins song "The Roof Is Leaking".
In addition to the Fender Stratocaster in his tenure with Collins and Genesis, he played Gibson RD Artist bass guitars and Ibanez electric guitars in 1978. He switched to a SUNTECH Model SA-MFSC "Stratocaster Style" guitar from 1978 to 1984 and used a Shergold Bass Guitar, a Fender Precision Bass guitar in 1981/1982, a Status bass guitar and Ibanez guitar, a Steinberger bass guitar and guitar, a Yamaha bass guitar in 1992 and a Lakland custom bass guitar in 2007. Stuermer used a Gibson ES-346 in 2004/2005, as of 2007 he has been using a Godin LGXT electric guitar, he uses a Godin Montreal Premier, a Godin DS-1 and a Sadowsky nylon string electric guitar. Solo albums With Jean-Luc Ponty With George Duke With Joan Armatrading With Frida Lyngstad With Tony Banks With Mike Rutherford With Philip Bailey With Phil Collins With Genesis Collaborations 1986: Marilyn Martin from Marilyn Martin - Daryl composed the music for the song Wildest Dreams and plays on it as well. 2015: 1985 from Martin Levac - Daryl plays on the song I am sorry Official Website
Journey is an American rock band that formed in San Francisco in 1973, composed of former members of Santana and Frumious Bandersnatch. The band has gone through several phases. During that period, the band released a series of hit songs, including "Don't Stop Believin'", which in 2009 became the top-selling track in iTunes history among songs not released in the 21st century, its parent studio album, the band's seventh and most successful, reached No. 1 on the Billboard 200 and yielded another of their most popular singles, "Open Arms". Its 1983 follow-up album, was as successful in the United States, reaching No. 2 and spawning several successful singles. Journey enjoyed a successful reunion in the mid-1990s and regrouped with a series of lead singers. Sales have resulted in two gold albums, eight multi-platinum albums, two diamond albums, they have had eighteen Top 40 singles in the U. S. six of which reached the Top 10 of the US chart and two of which reached No. 1 on other Billboard charts, a No. 6 hit on the UK Singles Chart in "Don't Stop Believin'".
In 2005, "Don't Stop Believin'" reached No. 3 on iTunes downloads. A progressive rock band, Journey was described by AllMusic as having cemented a reputation as "one of America's most beloved commercial rock/pop bands" by 1978, when they redefined their sound by embracing pop arrangements on their fourth album, Infinity. According to the Recording Industry Association of America, Journey has sold 48 million albums in the U. S. making them the 25th best-selling band. Their worldwide sales have reached over 75 million records, making them one of the world's best-selling bands of all time. A 2005 USA Today opinion poll named Journey the fifth-best U. S. rock band in history. Their songs have become arena rock staples and are still played on rock radio stations across the world. Journey ranks No. 96 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Journey was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame with the class of 2017. Inductees included lead singer Steve Perry, guitarist Neal Schon, keyboardists Jonathan Cain and Gregg Rolie, bassist Ross Valory, drummers Aynsley Dunbar and Steve Smith.
The original members of Journey came together in San Francisco in 1973 under the auspices of former Santana manager Herbie Herbert. Called the Golden Gate Rhythm Section and intended to serve as a backup group for established Bay Area artists, the band included Santana alumni Neal Schon on lead guitar and Gregg Rolie on keyboards and lead vocals. Bassist Ross Valory and rhythm guitarist George Tickner, both of Frumious Bandersnatch, rounded out the group. Prairie Prince of The Tubes served as drummer; the band abandoned the "backup group" concept and developed a distinctive jazz fusion style. After an unsuccessful radio contest to name the group, roadie John Villanueva suggested the name "Journey"; the band's first public appearance came at the Winterland Ballroom on New Year’s Eve, 1973. Prairie Prince rejoined The Tubes shortly thereafter, the band hired British drummer Aynsley Dunbar, who had worked with Frank Zappa. On February 5, 1974, the new line-up made their debut at the Great American Music Hall and secured a recording contract with Columbia Records.
Journey released their eponymous debut album in 1975, rhythm guitarist Tickner left the band before they cut their second album, Look into the Future. Neither album achieved significant sales, so Schon and Dunbar took singing lessons in an attempt to add vocal harmonies to Rolie's lead; the following year's Next contained shorter tracks with more vocals, featured Neal Schon as lead singer on two of the songs. Journey's album sales did not improve and Columbia Records requested that they change their musical style and add a frontman, with whom keyboardist Gregg Rolie could share lead vocal duties; the band hired Robert Fleischman and transitioned to a more popular style, akin to that of Foreigner and Boston. Journey went on tour with Fleischman in 1977 and together the new incarnation of the band wrote the hit "Wheel in the Sky". In late 1977, Journey hired Steve Perry as their new lead singer. Herbie Herbert, the band's manager hired Roy Thomas Baker as a producer to add a layered sound approach as Baker had done with his previous band, Queen.
With their new lead singer and new producer, Journey released their fourth album, Infinity. This album was their first RIAA-certified platinum album, with their hit song "Wheel in the Sky", Journey set on a new path with a more mainstream sound to make their highest chart success to date. In late 1978, manager Herbie Herbert fired drummer Aynsley Dunbar, who joined Bay Area rivals Jefferson Starship shortly thereafter, he was replaced by Berklee-trained jazz drummer Steve Smith. Perry, Rolie and Valory recorded Evolution, which gave the band their first Billboard Hot 100 Top 20 single, "Lovin', Touchin', Squeezin'". Journey's newfound success brought the band an entirely new fan base. During the 1980 Departure world tour, the band recorded Captured. Keyboardist Gregg Rolie left the band, the second time in his career he left a successful act. Keyboardist Stevie "Keys" Roseman was brought in to record the lone studio track for Captured
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus