Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, in the maturation of developing red blood cells in the bone marrow. Vitamin B12 is one of eight B vitamins, it consists of a class of chemically related compounds. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt positioned in the center of a corrin ring; the only organisms to produce vitamin B12 are certain bacteria, archaea. Some of these bacteria are found on plants. Most omnivorous people in developed countries obtain enough vitamin B12 from consuming animal products, including meat, milk and fish. Grain-based foods are fortified by having the vitamin added to them. Vitamin B12 supplements are available in single multivitamin tablets. Pharmaceutical preparations may be given by intramuscular injection.

Because there are few non-animal sources of the vitamin, vegans are advised to consume a dietary supplement or fortified foods for B12 intake, or risk serious health consequences. Children in some regions of developing countries are at particular risk due to increased requirements during growth coupled with diets low in animal-sourced foods; the most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in developed countries is impaired absorption due to a loss of gastric intrinsic factor, which must be bound to food-source B12 in order for absorption to occur. A second major cause is age-related decline in stomach acid production, because acid exposure frees protein-bound vitamin. For the same reason, people on long-term antacid therapy, using proton-pump inhibitors, H2 blockers or other antacids are at increased risk. Deficiency may be characterised by limb neuropathy or a blood disorder called pernicious anemia, a type of megaloblastic anemia. Folate levels in the individual may affect the course of pathological changes and symptomatology of vitamin B12 deficiency.

"Vitamin B12" known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin essential to the function of all cells. Cobalamins are characterized by a porphyrin-like corrin nucleus that contains a single cobalt atom bound to a benzimidazolyl nucleotide and a variable residue group; the vitamin exists as a family of vitamers defined as a number of chemical compounds having a similar molecular structure, each of which shows vitamin activity in a vitamin-deficient biological system. Adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin are the two enzymatically active cofactor forms of B12 that occur in the body, the first in mitochondria and the second in cell cytosol. AdoB12 has a 5′-deoxyadenosyl group linked to the cobalt atom at the core of the molecule. Cyanocobalamin is a manufactured form with a cyano group bound to cobalt. Bacterial fermentation creates AdoB12 and MeB12 which are converted to cyanocobalamin by addition of potassium cyanide in the presence of sodium nitrite and heat. Once consumed, cyanocobalamin is converted to the biologically active AdoB12 and MeB12.

Cyanocobalamin is the most common form used in dietary supplements and food fortification because cyanide stabilizes the molecule from degradation. However, methylcobalamin is offered as a dietary supplement. Hydroxocobalamin has a hydroxyl group attached to the cobalt atom, it can be injected intramuscularly to treat Vitamin B12 deficiency. Injected intravenously, it is used to treat cyanide poisoning, as the hydroxyl group is displaced by cyanide, creating a non-toxic cyanocobalamin, excreted in urine. "Pseudovitamin B12" refers to compounds that are corrinoids with structure similar to the vitamin but without vitamin activity. Pseudovitamin B12 is the majority corrinoid in spirulina, an algal health food sometimes erroneously claimed as having this vitamin activity. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause severe and irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system. At levels only lower than normal, a range of symptoms such as fatigue, difficulty walking depression, poor memory, breathlessness and pale skin, among others, may be experienced in elderly people who produce less stomach acid as they age, thereby increasing their probability of B12 deficiencies.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause symptoms of mania and psychosis. The main type of vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia is pernicious anemia, it is characterized by a triad of symptoms: Anemia with bone marrow promegaloblastosis. This is due to the inhibition of DNA synthesis Gastrointestinal symptoms: alteration in bowel motility, such as mild diarrhea or constipation, loss of bladder or bowel control; these are thought to be due to defective DNA synthesis inhibiting replication in a site with a high turnover of cells. This may be due to the autoimmune attack on the parietal cells of the stomach in pernicious anemia. There is an association with GAVE syndrome and pernicious anemia. Neurological symptoms: Sensory or motor deficiencies and subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord. Deficiency symptoms in children include developmental delay, irritability, involuntary movements and hypotonia. Vitamin B12 deficiency is most c


Karasia is the concert tour by Korean girl group Kara. This is their first independent concert in Asia region; the first concert are scheduled at South Korea starting mid-February. And at the same time, Kara will embark their first Japan Nationwide concert starting at Yokohama, sharing the same tour name as their Asia tour; the tour was planned to have dates in China, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore and others, but this never came to fruition. The 2012 tour concluded at Saitama, Japan; the tour drew around 180 thousand people with every single seat sold for each concert. The last concert was broadcast live through streaming in 60 different theaters throughout Japan, all the tickets to the theaters were sold out as well. All solo songs that the girls performed in the Japanese tour was released on the album Kara Collection in September 5, 2012. In January 6, 2013 the group made a special concert in Japan's Tokyo Dome, titled Karasia 2013 – Happy New Year in Tokyo Dome, making them the first female South Korean act to hold a concert at this particular venue.

A second tour titled Karasia, started in Japan on October 8, 2013, the last with members Nicole and Jiyoung, as they departed from the group after the second tour's completion. The group embarked on their third Japanese tour on October 24, 2014, their first with new member Youngji. A fourth Karasia Japanese tour took place in September 2015 and was the group's final tour before their disbandment in January 2016. Kara 1st Japan Tour Karasia is the second live DVD of the South Korean girl group Kara, it was released in November 14, 2012 in 2 formats: DVD and Blu-ray and 2 different editions: Limited edition and Regular edition. The DVD was scheduled to be released on October 17 along with the group's seventh Japanese single "Electric Boy" but it was postponed to November 14, 2012 due to an error found in one of the discs; the DVD was released along with the group's third Japanese album Girls Forever. 2012 Karasia Seoul Concert is the third live DVD of the South Korean girl group Kara. It was released in December 2012 only in DVD format.

The DVD contains the first Korean concert of the group held in the Olympic Gymnastics Arena in Seoul, South Korea, during February 18 and 19, 2012. Karasia 2013 Happy New Year in Tokyo Dome is the eighth DVD, third Blu-ray and fourth live released by KARA, it was released in 2 editions: Limited and Regular. The limited editions includes a bonus disc with making of, rehearsals and an off-shot movie of the concert; the DVD includes their concert on Tokyo Dome, realized in January 6, 2013

Sidney Wicks

Sidney Wicks is an American former professional basketball player. A native of California, he played college basketball for the UCLA Bruins and played professionally in the National Basketball Association from 1971 to 1981. In the NBA he played for the Portland Trail Blazers, Boston Celtics, San Diego Clippers, earning NBA Rookie of the Year in 1972 as well as four all-star selections, he played for the Trail Blazers from, had a total of 4 selections as an All-Star From 1972 to 1975. Wicks was born in Los Angeles, on September 19, 1949, he attended Alexander Hamilton High School in Los Angeles, but because of non-qualifying grades in high school, he had to attend Santa Monica College for a year until he could go to his preferred university, the University of California, Los Angeles. Wicks earned Academic All-America honors at UCLA in 1971, he earned a degree in sociology from the school. A 6'8" power forward/center, Wicks was a phenom at UCLA, playing on three straight NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships from 1969 to 1971, the Bruins' star player on the latter two, being named the Most Outstanding Player of the Final Four in 1970, Helms National Co-Player of the Year USBWA and Sporting News Player of the Year and two-time consensus All-American in 1970 and 1971.

On February 1, 1996, his jersey #35 was retired in a halftime ceremony at UCLA's home court, Pauley Pavilion. Wicks was a 1985 inductee into the UCLA Athletic Hall of Fame and in 2010, was selected to the College Basketball Hall of Fame; the Portland Trail Blazers selected Wicks with the second pick of the 1971 NBA draft after paying the Cleveland Cavaliers $250,000 not to select him, the Dallas Chaparrals chose him in the 1971 ABA draft. After averaging 24.5 points and 11.5 rebounds, Wicks was named NBA Rookie of the Year. He played in the NBA All-Star Game that season. Wicks played for the Trail Blazers from 1971 to 1976, earning a total of four selections as an All-Star and averaging over 20 points per game each of his first four seasons, he holds the Blazers' franchise record for rebounds in a game with 27, averaged 22.3 points per game and 10.3 rebounds a game in his five years with the team. In October 1976 he was sold to the Boston Celtics, while Portland went on to win its only NBA championship the next season.

Wicks played for the Celtics from 1976 to 1978. Wicks went to the San Diego Clippers and played there until 1981. Overall, Wicks averaged 16.8 points per game and 8.7 rebounds per game over ten seasons and 760 games. He had four seasons averaging over 20 points per game, four seasons averaging over 10 rebounds per game, accomplishing both of those feats in the same season three times, his scoring average dropped every year after his rookie season. Following his NBA career he played one season in Italy. 1970 – national co-player of the year honors from the Helms Athletic Foundation 1971 – player of the year awards from the USBWA and The Sporting News November 21, 2010 – induction into the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame Following his playing career, he lived for a year in Italy before returning to the United States. He served as an assistant coach at UCLA during Walt Hazzard's four years as head coach. Following coaching he entered the real estate field, living in Atlanta and Los Angeles.

At 9 a.m. on May 5, 1989, in Mira Mesa, San Diego, Wicks was injured in a car accident. He had been driving a 1974 Cadillac and making a left turn through an intersection when a loaded cement truck, approaching the intersection at a perpendicular angle, failed to stop at a red light and struck the driver's side door. Wicks had his ruptured spleen removed at Scripps Memorial Hospital in California, he had facial lacerations and minor head injuries. Jeffrey Neal Brown, a 34-year-old Poway resident, was a passenger in Wicks' car, suffered a mild concussion and facial injuries, he was treated at Scripps Memorial Hospital. The cement truck was being driven by 30-year-old Harry Arthur Auman, not injured in the crash. Wicks has one daughter, Sibahn Epps; as of 2006, he lived in Los Angeles. Media related to Sidney Wicks at Wikimedia Commons Career statistics and player information from