Vitamin C known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. It is used to treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters, it is important for immune system function. It functions as an antioxidant. Current evidence does not support its use for the prevention of the common cold. There is, some evidence that regular use may shorten the length of colds, it is unclear whether supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia. It may be taken by injection. Vitamin C is well tolerated. Large doses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, trouble sleeping, flushing of the skin. Normal doses are safe during pregnancy; the United States Institute of Medicine recommends against taking large doses. Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, in 1933, was the first vitamin to be chemically produced, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.
Vitamin C is available as an inexpensive over-the-counter medication. For its discovery, Albert Szent-Györgyi and Walter Norman Haworth were awarded the 1937 Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine and Chemistry, respectively. Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, raw bell peppers, strawberries. Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for certain animals including humans; the term vitamin C encompasses several vitamers. Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements; these release ascorbate upon digestion. Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both present in the body, since the forms interconvert according to pH. Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents. Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals that mediate a variety of essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis.
In humans, vitamin C deficiency leads to impaired collagen synthesis, contributing to the more severe symptoms of scurvy. Another biochemical role of vitamin C is to act as an antioxidant by donating electrons to various enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. Doing so converts vitamin C to an oxidized state - either as semidehydroascorbic acid or dehydroascorbic acid; these compounds can be restored to a reduced state by glutathione and NADPH-dependent enzymatic mechanisms. In plants, vitamin C is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase; this enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize excess hydrogen peroxide by converting it to water. Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C. Without this vitamin, collagen made by the body is too unstable to perform its function and several other enzymes in the body do not operate correctly. Scurvy is characterized by spots on and bleeding under the skin, spongy gums,'corkscrew' hair growth, poor wound healing; the skin lesions are most abundant on the thighs and legs, a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, is immobilized.
In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds, loss of teeth, bone abnormalities and death. The human body can store only a certain amount of vitamin C, so the body stores are depleted if fresh supplies are not consumed. Notable human dietary studies of experimentally induced scurvy were conducted on conscientious objectors during World War II in Britain and on Iowa state prisoners in the late 1960s to the 1980s. Men in the prison study developed the first signs of scurvy about four weeks after starting the vitamin C-free diet, whereas in the earlier British study, six to eight months were required due to the pre-loading of this group with a 70 mg/day supplement for six weeks before the scorbutic diet was fed. Men in both studies had blood levels of ascorbic acid too low to be measured by the time they developed signs of scurvy; these studies both reported that all obvious symptoms of scurvy could be reversed by supplementation of only 10 mg a day. Vitamin C has a definitive role in treating scurvy, a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency.
Beyond that, a role for vitamin C as prevention or treatment for various diseases is disputed, with reviews reporting conflicting results. A 2012 Cochrane review reported no effect of vitamin C supplementation on overall mortality, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The disease scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency and can be prevented and treated with vitamin C-containing foods or dietary supplements, it takes at least a month of little to no vitamin C. Early symptoms are malaise and lethargy, progressing to shortness of breath, bone pain, bleeding gums, susceptibility to bruising, poor wound healing, fever and eventual death; until quite late in the disease the damage is reversible, as healthy collagen replaces the defective collagen with vitamin C repletion. Treatment can be orally or by intramuscular or intravenous injection. Scurvy was known to Hippocrates in the classical era; the disease was shown to be prevented by citrus fruit in an early controlled trial by a Royal Navy surgeon, James Lind, in 1747, from 1796 lemon juice was issued to all Royal Navy crewmen.
The effect of vitamin C on the common cold has been extensively resea
Tyranny is an album by Front 242, released in 1991 as their first album on Epic Records after leaving Chicago's Wax Trax! Records; this album is notable for being the bands highest charting album reaching #95 on the Billboard 200. The song "Rhythm of Time" proved a dance club hit topping at #11 on the Billboard Hot Dance/Disco charts matching the previous ranking of the album's title track; the accompanying music video for "Rhythm of Time" appears playing on a television in a scene in the film Single White Female. "Moldavia" was subsequently featured in TV promos for the 1992 film K2. All Songs Written By Front Published By Les Editions Confidentielles. Red Rhino Europe: RRE CD 11 – CD, 1991 Red Rhino Europe: RRE LP 11 – 12" Vinyl, 1991 Epic Records: EK 46998 – CD, 1991 Epic Records: ET 46998 – Cassette, 1991 Daniel Bressanutti – keyboards, programming Patrick Codenys – keyboards, programming Jean-Luc De Meyer – vocals Richard Jonckheere – vocals, percussion
With the Sri Lankan Civil War spanning nearly 30 years, it has been portrayed in a wide range of ways in popular culture. Tamil Tigress, Niromi de Soyza, Island of Blood, Anita Pratap, The Tamil Genocide by Sri Lanka, Francis Boyle The Cage, Gordon Weiss Still Counting the Dead, Frances Harrison Gota’s War: The Crushing of Tamil Tiger Terrorism in Sri Lanka, C. A. Chandraprema, Dare to Dream - Heroic Tales for the Tamil Diaspora, JK Sivalingam A Fleeting moment in my country, N. Malathy, Tech War, Dick Stivers Funny Boy, Shyam Selvadurai The Road from Elephant Pass, Nihal De Silva, Island of a Thousand Mirrors, Nayomi Munaweera, Dare to Dream - Heroic Tales for the Tamil Diaspora, JK Sivalingam Unakkaga Piranthen - Balu Anand Purahanda Kaluwara - Prasanna Vithanage Saroja - Somaratne Dissanayake In the Name of Buddha - Rajesh Touchriver Kannathil Muthamittal - Mani Ratnam Ira Madiyama - Prasanna Vithanage Aanivaer - John Mahendran Kuttrapathirikai - R. K. Selvamani Prabhakaran - Thushara Peris The Road from Elephant Pass - Chandran Rutnam Flying Fish - Sanjeewa Pushpakumara Matha - Boodee Keerthisena A Common Man - Chandran Rutnam Madras Cafe - John Abraham Ceylon - Santosh Sivan Crayons and Paper - - Bruce David Janu Sri Lanka's Killing Fields - - Callum Macrae Lies Agreed Upon - - Ministry of Defence, Sri Lanka Sri Lanka's Killing Fields: War Crimes Unpunished - - Callum Macrae Ruthless - - Ministry of Defence, Sri Lanka No Fire Zone - - Callum Macrae Sri Lanka's Unfinished War - - BBC Sebalanani, - Ranidu Lankage Lions and Tigers, - Brown boogie nation Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Predator, - Ubisoft World War I in popular culture World War II in popular culture Culture during the Cold War