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Vitebsk, or Viciebsk, is a city in Belarus. The capital of the Vitebsk Region, it had 342,381 inhabitants in 2004, making it the country's fourth-largest city, it is served by Vitebsk Air Base. Vitebsk developed from a river harbor where the Vićba River flows into the larger Western Dvina, spanned in the city by the Kirov Bridge. Archaeological research indicates. In the 9th century, Slavic settlements of the tribal union of the Krivichs replaced them. According to the Chronicle of Michael Brigandine, Princess Olga of Kiev founded Vitebsk in 974. Other versions give 947 or 914. Academician Boris Rybakov and historian Leonid Alekseyev have come to the conclusion, based on the chronicles, that Princess Olga of Kiev could have established Vitebsk in 947. Leonid Alekseyev suggested that the chroniclers, when transferring the date from the account of the Byzantine era to a new era, obtained the year 947 mistakenly written in copying manuscripts as 974. An important place on trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, Vitebsk became by the end of the 12th century a center of trade and commerce, the center of an independent principality, following Polotsk, at times and Kiev princes.

The official year of the founding of Vitebsk is 974, based on an anachronistic legend of founding by Olga of Kiev, but the first mention in historical records dates from 1021, when Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev gave it to Bryachislav Izyaslavich, Prince of Polotsk. In the 12th and 13th centuries Vitebsk functioned as the capital of the Principality of Vitebsk, an appanage principality which thrived at the crossroads of the river routes between the Baltic and Black seas. In 1320 the city was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as dowry of the Princess Maria, the first wife of Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas. By 1351 the city had erected a stone Upper and Lower Castle, the prince's palace. In 1410 Vitebsk participated in the Battle of Grunwald. In 1597 the townsfolk of Vitebsk were privileged with Magdeburg rights. However, the rights were taken away in 1623 after the citizens revolted against the imposed Union of Brest and killed Archbishop Josaphat Kuntsevych of Polotsk; the city was completely destroyed in 1708, during the Great Northern War.

In the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the Russian Empire annexed Vitebsk. Under the Russian Empire the historic centre of Vitebsk was rebuilt in the Neoclassical style. Before World War II Vitebsk had a significant Jewish population: according to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 65,900, Jews constituted 34,400; the most famous of its Jewish natives was the painter Marc Chagall. In 1919 Vitebsk was proclaimed to be part of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, but was soon transferred to the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and to the short-lived Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1924 it was returned to the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. During World War II the city came under Nazi German occupation. Much of the old city was destroyed in the ensuing battles between the Germans and Red Army soldiers. Most of the local Jews perished in the Vitebsk Ghetto massacre of October 1941. In the first postwar five-year period the city was rebuilt.

Its industrial complex covered machinery, light industry, machine tools. In 1959 a TV tower was started broadcasting the 1st Central Television program. In the same year, during excavations on Liberation Square, a birch-bark scroll was found dating from the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, it read: From Stpana to Nezhilovi. If hast sold trousers, buy me rye for 6 hryvnia, and if some didst not sold, send to my person. And if thou hast sold, do good to buy rye for me In January 1991 Vitebsk celebrated the first Marc Chagall Festival. In June 1992, a monument to Chagall was erected on his native Pokrovskaja Street and a memorial inscription was placed on the wall of his house. Since 1992 Vitebsk has been hosting the annual Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk, an international art festival; the main participants are artists from Russia and Ukraine, with guests from many other countries, both Slavic and non-Slavic. In 1999 a free economic zone "Vitebsk" was established; the city built the Ice Sports Palace, there was a remarkable improvement and expansion in the city.

The central stadium was reconstructed and the Summer Amphitheatre for the international art festival, the Slavic Bazaar, the railway station and other historical sites and facilities were restored, a number of new churches and other public facilities were built, together with the construction of new residential areas. The city has one of the oldest buildings in the country: the Annunciation Church; this magnificent six-pillared building dates back to the period of Kievan Rus since the city at the time was pagan and didn't belong to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church or the Russian Orthodox Church or the Kievan Rus state. It was constructed in the 1140s as a pagan church, rebuilt in the 14th and 17th centuries as Roman Catholic Church, repaired in 1883 and destroyed by the Communist administration in 1961; the church was in ruins until 1992. Churches from the Polish-Lithuanian period were destroyed, although the Resurrection Church has been rebuilt; the Orthodox cathedral, dedicated to the Int


Randow is a river in the Uckermark region of Brandenburg and the Vorpommern region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, in part constituting these regions' border. An ancient name is Lochnitza, the town of Löcknitz derived its name from it. Since 1700, Randow is used; the source is near Penkun, from which the river flows both to the South. The southern fork ends with its confluence to the Welse river, the northern fork ends with the confluence with the Uecker only a few kilometers before reaching the Oder Lagoon; the swampy Randow valley is known as Randowbruch, the historical crossing of the Randowbruch swamps are at its narrowest point in Löcknitz. The river lent its name to the former district of Uecker-Randow in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern to the historical Landkreis Randow of the Province of Pomerania

Steve Aylott

Steve Aylott is an English former professional footballer who played as a defensive midfielder in the Football League for Oxford United and Brentford. He was a Leyton Orient and West Ham apprentice centre-half and went to the Manor Ground on trial towards the end of 1970–71 after a visit to the Manor with the Hammers' Combination side, he failed to make the Hammers' League sideafter becoming a full-timer in August 1969, but soon made an impact for Oxford United. Aylott joined an Oxford side well-stocked with centre-backs and was converted to anchor man in midfield for the Reserves, who were embarking on their best season, he inched ahead of John Fleming to earn a League debut on 9 October 1971, against Middlesbrough, in place of Ron Atkinson and after a substitute slot, succeeded the injured, soon-to-depart, Atkinson for much of the rest of his Manor career. Sometimes he appeared as full-back, he scored his first goal on 18 December 1971, in a home match against Preston North End. The competition for midfield places intensified in 1973–1974, but Aylott enjoyed his best season in 1974–75.

His last game for Oxford was 19 April 1976, away to Southampton. The need to trim the staff after relegation at the end of 1975–1976 saw him released and he joined Brentford. Andy and Roger Howland. Oxford United – A complete Record 1893–1989. ISBN 0-907969-52-6. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter Steve Aylott at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database

Alexandra Robbins

Alexandra Robbins is a journalist and author. Her books focus on young adults and modern college life. Five of her books have been New York Times Bestsellers, she graduated from Walt Whitman High School in Bethesda, Maryland in 1994, summa cum laude from Yale University in 1998. She was editor-in-chief of the Black & White, she has written for a variety of publications, including Vanity Fair, The New Yorker, Los Angeles Times, The Atlantic Monthly, The Washington Post, USA Today and Robbins has appeared in the media, such as 60 Minutes, The Oprah Winfrey Show, Coast To Coast AM, The Today Show, Paula Zahn Now, The View, The Colbert Report, CBS Early Show, The Smart Woman Survival Guide, The O'Reilly Factor, Anderson Cooper 360°, networks including CNN, NPR, the BBC, MSNBC, CNBC, C-SPAN, the History Channel. Robbins has won several awards for her writing, her book The Geeks Shall Inherit The Earth won the Best Nonfiction Book of the Year Award in the 2011 Goodreads Choice Awards. Robbins received a Books for a Better Life Award in 2012.

In 2014, Robbins was the winner of the John Bartlow Martin Award for Public Interest Magazine Journalism. Her article, "Children Are Dying," investigated a shortage of critical nutrients that premature babies and other patients need to survive. One week after Washingtonian Magazine published Robbins’ article, the FDA agreed to import the nutrients from other countries. On May 28, 2015, Robbins wrote a New York Times op-ed about inadequate nurse staffing at hospitals in the United States. Along with author Jane Mayer, she broke the story about President Bush's unimpressive college grades and SATs in The New Yorker; the article got such media attention that reporters called to interview her and asked what her SAT scores were. She has not made her scores known publicly. Robbins was a member of Scroll and Key, one of Yale's secret societies, has written a book, "Secrets of the Tomb", a social history of societies at Yale, featuring Skull and Bones; the book's 2002 release was timely given the membership of George W. Bush and George H. W. Bush in Bones, more so when John Kerry, another member, was the Democratic Party's 2004 presidential nominee.

Robbins was a guest on the satirical program The Colbert Report on August 9 of 2006, during which Colbert challenged claims Robbins makes in The Overachievers, citing some observations of Robbins' own experience, while she countered with observations about systemic problems resulting from a competitive system, the cheating, endemic to competition and problems with standardized testing, arguing that the aforementioned conditions teach misplaced values. A video of this interview is available from Comedy Central. Robbins, Alexandra. Fraternity: An Inside Look at a Year of College Boys Becoming Men. New York: Dutton. ISBN 1-1019-8672-7. Robbins, Alexandra; the Nurses: A Year of Secrets and Miracles with the Heroes of the Hospital. New York: Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7611-7171-3. Robbins, Alexandra; the Geeks Shall Inherit the Earth: Popularity, Quirk Theory, Why Outsiders Thrive After High School. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0202-5. Robbins, Alexandra; the Overachievers: The Secret Lives of Driven Kids.

New York: Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0201-7. Robbins, Alexandra. Pledged: The Secret Life of Sororities. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0046-4. Robbins, Alexandra. Conquering Your Quarterlife Crisis: Advice from Twentysomethings who Have Been There and Survived. New York: Perigee Book. ISBN 0-399-53038-X. Robbins, Alexandra. Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, the Hidden Paths of Power. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-72091-7. Robbins, Alexandra. Quarterlife Crisis: The Unique Challenges of Life in Your Twenties. New York: J. P. Tarcher/Putnam. ISBN 1-58542-106-5. Home Page

Solovetsky Monastery

The Solovetsky Monastery is a fortified monastery located on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea in northern Russia. It was one of the largest Christian citadels in northern Russia before it was converted into a Soviet prison and labor camp in 1926–39, served as a prototype for the camps of the Gulag system; the monastery has experienced military sieges. Its most important structures date from the 16th century, when Filip Kolychev was its hegumen; the Solovetsky Monastery was founded in 1436 by the monk Zosima, monks Herman and Savvatiy from the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery lived on the island from 1429 to 1436, are considered to be co-founders of the monastery. Zosima became the first hegumen of the monastery. After Marfa Boretskaya, wife of the posadnik of Novgorod, donated her lands at Kem and Summa to the monastery in 1450, the monastery enlarged its holdings, situated strategically on the shores of the White Sea. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the monastery extended its commercial activities, becoming an economic and political center of the White Sea region.

This included saltworks, fishing, mica works, pearl works, among others. Archmandrites of the monastery were appointed by the patriarch. By the 17th century, the Solovetsky Monastery had about 350 monks, 600–700 servants and peasants. In the 1650s and 1660s, the monastery was one of the strongholds of the Old Believers of the Raskol in the Russian Orthodox Church; the Solovetsky Monastery Uprising of 1668–1676 was aimed at Patriarch Nikon's ecclesiastic reform and took on an anti-feudal nature. In 1765, the monastery became stauropegic. Together with the Sumskoy and Kemsky stockades, the Solovetsky Monastery served as an important frontier fortress with dozens of cannons and a strong garrison. In the 16th to 17th centuries, the monastery succeeded a number of times in repelling the attacks of the Livonian Order and the Swedes. During the Crimean War, the Solovetsky Monastery was attacked by three British ships. After nine hours of shelling on the 6 and 7 July 1855 the vessels left with nothing.

Between the 16th and the early 20th centuries, the monastery was a place of exile for the opponents of autocracy and official Orthodoxy and a center of Christianization in the north of Russia. The monastery had a large library of manuscripts and books; the monastery garden had some exotic flora, such as the Tibetan wild roses presented to the monks by Agvan Dorzhiev, a Lama. After the Bolshevik Revolution and Russian Civil War, the Soviet authorities closed down the monastery and incorporated many of the buildings into Solovki prison camp, one of the earliest forced-labor camps of the gulag during the 1920s and 1930s. "In the earliest years of the Soviet prison system, the Solovetsky Special Prison Camp was home to a large group of... imprisoned writers." The camp main activity was logging, when most of the surrounding area had been deforested, the camp was closed. Before the Second World War, a naval cadet school was opened on the island. A small brotherhood of monks has re-established activities in the monastery after the collapse of communism, it houses about ten monks.

The monastery has recently been extensively repaired, but remains under reconstruction. The Solovetsky Monastery is an historical and architectural museum, it was one of the first Russian sites to have been inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Solovetsky Monastery is located on the shores of the Prosperity Bay on Solovetsky Island; the monastery is surrounded by massive walls with a height of 8 to 11 m and a thickness of 4 to 6 m. The wall incorporates 7 gates and 8 towers, made of huge boulders up to 5 m in length. There are religious buildings on the monastery's grounds with the principal structures interconnected with roofed and arched passages, they are in turn surrounded by multiple household buildings and living quarters, including a refectory with the Uspensky Cathedral, Preobrazhensky Cathedral, Church of Annunciation, stone chambers, bell tower, Church of Nicholas. Solovki museum Official site of Solovetsky monastery Solovetsky Monastery in the 19th century Photo album at NYPL Digital Gallery Foundation of Solovki Monastery Miracle of Light: the Solovetsky Transfiguration Monastery Brumfield, William.

Solovki: Architectural Heritage in Photographs ASIN B002P5OP1I OCLC 255613915

Southeast Water Trough

The Southeast Water Trough is an historic structure located in Des Moines, United States. It is one of the last of 15 National Humane Alliance fountains that were placed around the city by the Iowa Humane Alliance, they were named Ensign fountains after the founder of the National Humane Alliance, Herman Lee Ensign. This was one of two placed in Des Moines in 1906; the 6-foot tall granite structure features a rectangular shaft, surrounded by a 6-foot bowl. Four small cups are located at the base to provide water for smaller animals; the fountain rests on a base of tiles. It is a reminder of the buggy era before the prevalence of indoor plumbing. While it served a practical function of watering horses, it served a social function as a place where people in the local community could gather; the structure was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976