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Vitellius

Vitellius was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69 AD. Vitellius was proclaimed emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Vitellius was the first to add the honorific cognomen Germanicus to his name instead of Caesar upon his accession. Like his direct predecessor, Vitellius attempted to rally public support to his cause by honoring and imitating Nero who remained popular in the empire, his claim to the throne was soon challenged by legions stationed in the eastern provinces, who proclaimed their commander Vespasian emperor instead. War ensued, leading to a crushing defeat for Vitellius at the Second Battle of Bedriacum in northern Italy. Once he realised his support was wavering, Vitellius prepared to abdicate in favor of Vespasian, he was not allowed to do so by his supporters, resulting in a brutal battle for Rome between Vitellius' forces and the armies of Vespasian.

He was executed in Rome by Vespasian's soldiers on 22 December 69. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius Veteris and his wife Sextilia, had one brother, Lucius Vitellius the Younger. Suetonius recorded two different accounts of the origins of the gens Vitellia, one making them descendants of past rulers of Latium, the other describing their origins as lowly. Suetonius makes the sensible remark that both accounts might have been made by either flatterers or enemies of Vitellius—except that both were in circulation before Vitellius became emperor. Since his father was a member of the equestrian class and achieved the senatorial rank only in his lifetime, Vitellius became the first emperor not to be born in the senatorial family. Suetonius recorded that when Vitellius was born his horoscope so horrified his parents that his father tried to prevent Aulus from becoming a consul. In his youth he was one of the noble companions of Tiberius' retirement on Capri and there befriended Caligula, whose favour he won, according to Suetonius, by sharing in his passion for chariot racing and games of dice.

He married firstly before the year 40 a woman named Petronia, daughter of Publius Petronius or Gaius Petronius Pontius Nigrinus, by whom he had a son, Aulus Vitellius Petronianus, the universal heir of his mother and grandfather, whom Vitellius had killed in 69 in order to inherit his fortune. He married secondly, around the year 50, a woman named Galeria Fundana the granddaughter of Gaius Galerius, Prefect of Egypt in 23, they had two children, a son called Aulus Vitellius Germanicus or Novis, the Younger, a daughter, who married the Legatus Decimus Valerius Asiaticus. He was Consul in 48, proconsular governor of Africa in either 60 or 61, in which capacity he is said to have acquitted himself with credit. At the end of 68, Galba, to the general astonishment, selected him to command the army of Germania Inferior, here Vitellius made himself popular with his subalterns and with the soldiers by outrageous prodigality and excessive good nature, which soon proved fatal to order and discipline.

He owed his elevation to the throne to Caecina and Fabius Valens, commanders of two legions on the Rhine. Through these two men a military revolution was speedily accomplished. More he was proclaimed Emperor of the armies of Germania Inferior and Superior; the armies of Gaul and Raetia sided with them shortly afterwards. By the time that they marched on Rome, however, it was Otho, not Galba, whom they had to confront. In fact, he was never acknowledged as Emperor by the entire Roman world, though at Rome the Senate accepted him and decreed to him the usual Imperial honours, he advanced into Italy at the head of a licentious and rough soldiery, Rome became the scene of riot and massacre, gladiatorial shows and extravagant feasting. To reward his victorious legionaries, Vitellius expanded the existing Praetorian Guard and installed his own men from his Rhine army. Suetonius, whose father had fought for Otho at Bedriacum, gives an unfavourable account of Vitellius' brief administration: he describes him as unambitious and notes that Vitellius showed indications of a desire to govern wisely, but that Valens and Caecina encouraged him in a course of vicious excesses which threw his better qualities into the background.

Vitellius is described as lazy and self-indulgent, fond of eating and drinking, an obese glutton, eating banquets four times a day and feasting on rare foods he would send the Roman navy to procure. For these banquets, he had himself invited over to a different noble's house for each one, he is reported to have starved his own mother to death—to fulfill a prophecy that he would rule longer if his mother died first. Suetonius additionly remarks that Vietellius besetting sins were cruelty. Other writers, namely Tacitus and Cassius Dio, disagree with some of Suetonius' assertions though their own accounts of Vitellius are scarcely positive ones. Despite his short reign he made two important contributions to Roman government. Tacitus describes them both in his Histories: Vitellius ended the practice of centurions selling furloughs and exemptions of duty to their men, a change Tacitus describes as being adopted by'all good emperors', he expanded the offices of the Imperial administration beyond the imperial pool of freedmen, allowing those of the Equites to take up positions in the Imperial civil service.

Vitellius banned astrologers from Rome and Italy o

Holkar Stadium

Holkar Cricket Stadium is located in Indore, India. It was earlier known as Maharani Usharaje Trust Cricket Ground, but in 2010, Madhya Pradesh Cricket Association renamed it after the Holkar dynasty of the Marathas that ruled Indore. Indore city has another International Cricket stadium "Nehru Stadium", used for International matches until 31 March 2001, it has a seating capacity of around 30,000 spectators. It is equipped with flood lights for night matches. Virender Sehwag recorded the third highest ODI score of 219 at this ground. Gwalior's Captain Roop Singh Stadium, another international stadium in Madhya Pradesh, is a bit smaller than Indore's Holkar Cricket Stadium. However, capacity of Captain Roop Singh Stadium is more than Indore's Holkar Cricket Stadium; the ground stages. The stadium was selected to be one of the six new Test venues in India. On 8 October 2016, Holkar stadium hosted its first Test match when India hosted New Zealand for the third and final test of the series and became the twenty-second test venue of India.

The credit for giving land for the stadium goes to the Holkar's of the Maratha Confederacy. The ruling Maratha family of Indore State encouraged and pioneered cricket in this part of the country. Holkar cricket team appeared in ten Ranji Trophy season's, reaching the final eight times and winning the title four times, it is on the some part of this ground that an older stadium was present where the Holkar's cricket team won its three Ranji Trophy titles, in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In this sense, some part of this stadium has seen greats like C. K. Nayudu and Mushtaq Ali playing for Ranji Trophy; the stadium has hosted four One Day Internationals, two of them between India and England. The first was staged on 15 April 2006, India chased 289 to complete a 5-0 series win in what was a dead rubber, its second international match came two and a half years when England next toured, India again winning. The other two were against South Africa; the Stadium hosted its first IPL match on 13 May 2011.

The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Kochi is the home venue for the Indian Premier League team Kochi Tuskers Kerala and hosted 5 home-matches of the franchise. The remaining 2 home matches were played at the Holkar Cricket Stadium. In 2017, Kings XI Punjab selected the Holkar stadium as one of their home grounds for three IPL matches. Virender Sehwag made the highest runs in a limited over innings of cricket 219 here on 8 December 2011 against West Indies, broken by Rohit Sharma. In November 2015, the stadium was selected to be one of the six new Test venues along with Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium, JSCA International Stadium Complex, Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium, Himachal Pradesh Cricket Association Stadium and Dr. Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy ACA-VDCA Cricket Stadium in India. Holkar Stadium hosted its maiden Test match in October 2016 when New Zealand cricket team toured India. India defeated New Zealand by 321 runs on the fourth day to complete a 3-0 series whitewash; the Stadium was selected to host the final of the 2016-17 edition of the Ranji Trophy from 10 January 2017.

Stadium hosted 2 international matches in 2017, One Day International between Indian Cricket Team & Australian Cricket Team was played on 24 September 2017 whereas T20 International between Indian Cricket Team & Sri Lanka Cricket Team was played in December 2017. In this T20I match Rohit Sharma scored his 2nd T20I century, he scored 118 runs from 43 balls In 2011, a committee was formed to decide the naming of Pavilion, Dressing Rooms and Stands/Galleries around the stadium. This committee had Surya Prakash Chaturvedi as the chairman; as per the recommendations of the committee following landmarks have been named: Press Box named after HH Maharaja Madhav Rao Scindia of Gwalior State Pavilion's named after Col. C. K. Nayudu and Capt. Mushtaq Ali. Dressing Room's named after Mansur Ali Khan Rahul Dravid. Stadium Gates named after former International cricketers from this part of the country, who are Narendra Hirwani, Amay Khurasia and Rajesh Chauhan. One of the two galleries contains Stands named after greats of Indian cricket like Vijay Hazare, Ajit Wadekar, Sunil Gavaskar, Kapil Dev, Sachin Tendulkar and Anil Kumble.

The other gallery contains stands named after greats of Holkar era like J. N. Bhaya, M. M. Jagdale, Khandu Rangnekar, Hiralal Gaekwad, Chandu Sarwate and C. S. Nayudu; this combination of current and former cricketers named opposite to each other is unique in itself and not been seen elsewhere. The commentators' Box in the stadium has been named after renowned Hindi commentator, it is used for cricket matches. The stadium has a capacity of 30,000 seats, it has floodlight facilities to host a D/N match and has one of the best draining facilities in India. India are undefeated at this stadium, having won all four One Day Internationals and the only Test they have played at the venue; this is considered as one of the smallest grounds in terms of field size to have hosted international cricket in the world. The straight boundaries are a mere 68 meters. Along with these features, a flat pitch with true bounce where the ball comes on to the bat well, a lightning fast outfield and altitude over 600m above sea level making the ball travel much further when hit into the air make this ground a batsman's paradise.

2016–17 Ranji Trophy final match was organized here. * denotes that the

Ode to Newfoundland

"Ode to Newfoundland" is the official provincial anthem of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It was composed by Governor Sir Cavendish Boyle in 1902 as a four-verse poem titled Newfoundland. On December 22, 1902 it was sung by Frances Daisy Foster at the Casino Theatre of St. John's during the closing of the play Mamzelle; the original score was set to the music of E. R. Krippner, a German bandmaster living in St. John's but Boyle desired a more dignified score, it was set to the music of British composer Sir Hubert Parry, a personal friend of Boyle, who composed two settings. On May 20, 1904 it was chosen as Newfoundland's official national anthem; this distinction was dropped when Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949. Three decades in 1980, the province re-adopted the song as an official provincial anthem, the first province to do so; the "Ode to Newfoundland" is still sung at public events to this day as a tradition. Traditionally only the first and last verse is sung. Anthems and nationalistic songs of Canada List of Newfoundland songs Midi sound file