The Pangani River is a major river of northeastern Tanzania. It has two main sources: the Ruvu, which rises as Lumi at Kilimanjaro, passes through Lake Jipe, empties into the Nyumba ya Mungu Reservoir, the Kikuletwa, coming from the west and fed by Mount Meru, which enters into the Nyumba ya Mungu Reservoir. Just after leaving the reservoir the stream becomes the Pangani, which empties into the Indian Ocean at the town of Pangani. For much of its length the river flows along the regional borders of Kilimanjaro Region and Manyara Region, before flowing into Tanga Region, which contains the 68 MW Pangani Power Station and the Pangani Falls Dam. There are several inhabited islands within the river; the river is full of crocodiles. A main source of Pangani originates on Kilimanjaro. Lake Jipe may be considered a backwater of the Lumi. Below Lake Jipe and above the falls, the river is referred to as "Ruvu"; the main course towards the sea was alternatively called "Ruvu" and "Pangani". Nowadays, settled as "Pangani" from the Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir to the Ocean.
While the Sudheli language calls it "Pangani", it is called "Luffu" by the Wasegua. All authorities agree that the river "Rhaptus" of Ptolemy's topographical maps is the Pangani of modern maps; the Pangani is 500 kilometres in length. SourceOne source of the river rises about 120 miles from the sea. Known as the Lumi in this area, its course runs through Lake Jipe; the other is known as the Kikuletwa. Like all African rivers, its depth varies with the season; the river is lowest around October. MidsectionIt is navigable for small craft between the lake and the Höhnel Cataracts, a series of rapids. Below the Höhnel Cataracts, it has numerous tributaries, many islands with villages on them; the stream is strongest above Koleni, within 5 miles of the Pangani Falls, where the river is narrow. This section is not navigable for any considerable distance on account of the falls, which are about 30 miles from the mouth. 4 miles from the mouth, dense mangrove swamp covers the flatland between the hills on either side.
In this area, near Teufelsfelsen, are higher land, a fertile area, the arid Masai Steppe. On this bank is Mount Kovu Kovu, 360 feet in height, while on the south bank is a ridge 400 feet high. Pombwe, one of the principal settlements on the river, is situated about 1 mile west of Kovu Kovu. Above Pombwe, the West African oil palm grows, while below Pombwe, the trees are chiefly areca and coconut palms; the village of Lemkuna and the hamlet of Ngage are on the river's west bank, while Mvungwe and Meserani are on its eastern bank. MouthThe mouth is located 52 kilometres south of Tanga; the river is tidal for a distance of 22 miles from the entrance. The southern side of the entrance is marked by a perpendicular bluff named Bweni, about 200 feet high; the northern side of the entrance is a flat sandy beach. There are two on the northern and two on the southern bank; the town of Pangani, on the river's left bank, had a reputation for fevers. At its estuary, by Pangani town, the river is about 600 feet in breadth, 12–15 feet deep.
TributariesSeveral tributaries coming from the Pare Mountains, the Usambara Mountains and the Wasegiia wilderness join the Pangani in its course. These include the Kibaya, Kwachigulu and Mnyusi. Average monthly flow of Pangani measured at the hydrological station in Korogwe Estate, about 110 km above the mouth in m³ / s; the Pangani flows stimulate time-dependent, like most rivers in the region. The Pangani River Basin is one of Tanzania's nine drainage basins. Extending from the northern highlands to Tanzania's north-eastern coastline, the PRB is 56,300 square kilometres in size, of which 4,880 square kilometres is within Kenya. Five sub-basins comprise the basin: the Pangani River, the Umba River, the Msangazi River, the Zigi River, the Mkulumuzi River plus other coastal rivers. All of these empty into the Indian Ocean; the Pangani Basin Water Board was established in July 1991 under the Water Utilization Act No. 42 of 1974. Its headquarters is in the Moshi municipality in the Kilimanjaro Region.
Its other two offices are in Tanga. The PBWB consists of ten professionals from public institutions and private sector LGAs, UWSAs, other committees; the river system is under pressure because of conflicting water uses and major overallocations of its water. Many farmers rely on the river for irrigation. Damming projects along the river have reduced the river's flow from several hundred cubic metres per second to less than 40 cubic metres per second; this has affected coastal communities, which have seen large reductions in fish populations and saltwater intrusion In 2002, the Pangani River Basin Management Project was established to manage the basin's water resources. It receives technical assistance from the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the SNV Netherlands Development Or
Literary modernism has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Europe and North Sudamerica. Modernism is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional styles of verse. Modernists experimented with literary form and expression, adhering to Ezra Pound's maxim to "Make it new"; the modernist literary movement was driven by a conscious desire to overturn traditional modes of representation and express the new sensibilities of their time. It is debatable when the modernist literary movement began, though some have chosen 1910 as marking the beginning and quote novelist Virginia Woolf, who declared that human nature underwent a fundamental change "on or about December 1910." But modernism was stirring by 1899, with works such as Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, while Alfred Jarry's absurdist play, Ubu Roi appeared earlier, in 1896. When modernism ends is debatable. Though The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature sees Modernism ending by c.1939, with regard to British and American literature, "When Modernism petered out and postmodernism began has been contested as hotly as when the transition from Victorianism to Modernism occurred".
Clement Greenberg sees Modernism ending in the 1930s, with the exception of the visual and performing arts, In fact many literary modernists lived into the 1950s and 1960s, though speaking they were no longer producing major works. The term late modernism is sometimes applied to modernist works published after 1930. Among modernists still publishing after 1945 were Wallace Stevens, Gottfried Benn, T. S. Eliot, Anna Akhmatova, William Faulkner, Dorothy Richardson, John Cowper Powys, Ezra Pound. Basil Bunting, born in 1901, published his most important modernist poem Briggflatts in 1965. In addition Hermann Broch's The Death of Virgil was published in 1945 and Thomas Mann's Doctor Faustus in 1947. Samuel Beckett, who died in 1989, has been described as a "later modernist". Beckett is a writer with roots in the expressionist tradition of modernism, who produced works from the 1930s until the 1980s, including Molloy, En attendant Godot, Happy Days, Rockaby; the poets Charles Olson and J. H. Prynne are, amongst other writing in the second half of the 20th century, who have been described as late modernists.
The following is a list of significant modernist writers: List of modernist women writers List of modernist poets Modernist literature English literature American literature European literature French literature German literature