Pierre Paul Royer-Collard
Pierre Paul Royer-Collard was a French statesman and philosopher, leader of the Doctrinaires group during the Bourbon Restoration. He was born at Sompuis, near Vitry-le-François, the son of Anthony Royer and his mother, Angélique Perpétue Collard, was a woman of strong character and great piety. Pierre Paul Royer was sent at twelve to the college of Chaumont of which his uncle and he subsequently followed his uncle to Saint-Omer, where he studied mathematics. At the outbreak of the French Revolution, to which he was passionately sympathetic and he was returned by his section, the Island of Saint-Louis, to the Commune, of which he was secretary from 1790 to 1792. After the revolution of 10 August in that year he was replaced by Jean-Lambert Tallien and his sympathies were now with the Gironde, and after the insurrection of the 12th Prairial his life was in danger. In 1797 he was returned by his départment to the Council of the Five Hundred and he made one great speech in the council in defence of the principles of religious liberty, but the coup détat of Fructidor drove him back into private life.
It was at this period that he developed his legitimist opinions, from that time until the Restoration Royer-Collard devoted himself exclusively to the study of philosophy. He derived his opposition to the philosophy of Condillac chiefly from the study of Descartes and his followers and he was occupied with developing a system to provide a moral and political education consonant with his view of the needs of France. From 1811 to 1814 he lectured at the Sorbonne, from this time dates his long association with François Guizot. Royer-Collard himself was supervisor of the press under the first restoration, from 1815 onwards he sat as deputy for Marne in the chamber. He was the spirit of the Doctrinaires, as they were called, who met at the house of the comte de Ste Aulaire and in the salon of Madame de Staëls daughter. The leaders of the party, beside Royer-Collard, were Guizot, PFH de Serre, Camille Jordan, in 1820 Royer-Collard was excluded from the council of state by a decree signed by his former ally Serre.
In 1827 he was elected for seven constituencies, but remained faithful to his native department, next year he became president of the chamber, and fought against the reactionary policy which precipitated the Revolution of July. It was Royer-Collard who in March 1830 presented the address of the 221, from that time he took no active part in politics, although he retained his seat in the chamber until 1839. In a letter to Père de Ravignan he comments upon the institution of the Jesuits as a wonderful creation and he died at his estate of Châteauvieux in the Berry, south of Blois. He had been a member of the Académie française since 1827, Royer-Collard had married in 1799 Mlle Augustine de Forges de Chateaubrun. The two daughters who survived to womanhood received an education of the utmost austerity, Royer-Collard left no considerable writings, but fragments of his philosophical work are included in Jouffroys translation of the works of Thomas Reid. The standard life of Royer-Collard is by his friend Prosper de Barante, Vie politique de M.
Royer Collard and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles. France is one of the largest wine producers in the world, French wine traces its history to the 6th century BC, with many of Frances regions dating their wine-making history to Roman times. The wines produced range from expensive high-end wines sold internationally to more modest wines usually only seen within France such as the Margnat wines were during the post war period. France is the source of grape varieties that are now planted throughout the world. French wine originated in the 6th century BC, with the colonization of Southern Gaul by Greek settlers, viticulture soon flourished with the founding of the Greek colony of Marseille. Not only did the Gauls know how to cultivate the vine, pruning creates an important distinction in the difference between wild vines and wine producing grapes. Before long, the wines produced in Gaul were exceptionally famous all around the world, the Roman Empire licensed regions in the south to produce wines.
St. Martin of Tours was actively engaged in both spreading Christianity and planting vineyards, during the Middle Ages, monks maintained vineyards and, more importantly, conserved wine-making knowledge and skills during that often turbulent period. Monasteries had the resources and motivation to produce a supply of wine both for celebrating mass and generating income. During this time, the best vineyards were owned by the monasteries, over time the nobility developed extensive vineyards. However, the French Revolution led to the confiscation of many of the owned by the Church. The advance of the French wine industry stopped abruptly as first Mildew and Phylloxera spread throughout the country, indeed all of Europe. Then came an economic downturn in Europe followed by two wars, and the French wine industry didnt fully recover for decades. Meanwhile, competition had arrived and threatened the treasured French brands such as Champagne and this resulted in the establishment in 1935 of the Appellation dorigine contrôlée to protect French interests.
Large investments, the economic upturn following World War II and a new generation of Vignerons yielded results in the 1970s, in 1935, numerous laws were passed to control the quality of French wine. They established the Appellation dorigine contrôlée system, which is governed by an oversight board. Consequently, France has one of the oldest systems for protected designation of origin for wine in the world, many other European systems are modelled after it. The word appellation has been put to use by countries, sometimes in a much looser meaning
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are roughly equivalent to civil townships incorporated municipalities in the United States or Gemeinden in Germany, the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and have received significant powers of governance to manage the populations, the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. A French commune may be a city of 2.2 million inhabitants like Paris, communes typically are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, a commune is a town, city, or municipality. Use of commune in English is a habit, and one that might be corrected. There is nothing in commune in French that is different from town in English.
The French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, as of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France,36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas. This is a higher total than that of any other European country. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes and this is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions, COM of Saint-Martin and it was previously a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007, COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. It was previously a commune inside the Guadeloupe region, the commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan Frances communes at the 1999 census was even smaller, the median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the area of communes is 22 km2, in Belgium it is 40 km2, in Spain it is 35 km2, and in Germany. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, and Thuringia in Germany were the places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France. The communes of Frances overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards and they usually group into the same commune several villages or towns, often with sizeable distances among them
The Marne is a river in France, an eastern tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris. The river gave its name to the départements of Haute-Marne, Seine-et-Marne, the Marne starts in the Langres plateau, runs generally north bends west between Saint-Dizier and Châlons-en-Champagne, joining the Seine at Charenton just upstream from Paris. Its main tributaries are the Rognon, the Blaise, the Saulx, the Ourcq, the Petit Morin, in the Champagne région, part of the water is led through the artificial lake Lac du Der-Chantecoq, in order to regulate the water discharge. This way, large inundations or low river levels downstream are prevented, the Celts of Gaul worshipped a goddess known as Dea Matrona who was associated with the Marne. The Marne is famous as the site of the two battles during the First World War. The first battle was a point of World War I. The second battle was fought four years later, in 1918, during the heyday of canal transportation, the Marne was a major artery connecting Paris and the Seine with major rivers nearby such as the Meuse, the Moselle and the Rhine, and the Saône and Rhône.
To facilitate transportation along the Marne itself, a number of canals were constructed alongside. The most extensive was the Canal latéral à la Marne, which runs 67 km between Vitry-le-François and Dizy, river Marne guide Places and moorings on the river
The Champagne Riots of 1910 and 1911 resulted from a series of problems faced by grape growers in the Champagne area of France. These included four years of crop losses, the infestation of the phylloxera louse, low income. In the Champagne region, the production of Champagne is largely in the hands of producers who purchase grapes from independent growers. While some growers today produce wines under their own labels, in the early 20th century the amount of capital needed to produce Champagne was beyond the reach of most growers. This dynamic created a system favored the Champagne houses as the only source of revenue for the vineyard owners. If the Champagne houses did not buy their grapes, a grower had little recourse or opportunity for another stream of income, the discontent that eventually led to the riots began during the 19th century. The early vintages of the 20th century were difficult, due to frost, the phylloxera epidemic that ravaged vineyards across France began to affect Champagne.
The harvests between 1902 and 1909 were further troubled by mold and mildew, the 1910 vintages was afflicted by hailstorms and flooding. Nearly 96% of the crop was lost, Champagnes growing popularity, as well as the lack of grape supply in Champagne, encouraged the Champagne houses to look outside the Champagne region for a cheaper supply of grapes. Some producers began using grapes from Germany and Spain, newspapers published rumors of some houses buying rhubarb from England to make wine from. With few laws in place to protect the vine grower or the consumer, the Champenois vine growers were incensed at these practices, believing that using foreign grapes to make sparkling wine was not producing true Champagne. They petitioned the government for assistance and a law was based requiring that at least 51% of the used to make Champagne needed to come from the Champagne region itself. With vineyard owners vastly outnumbering the producers, the Champagne houses used this dynamic of excess supply vs limited demand to their advantage and they hired operatives, known as commissionaires, to negotiate prices with vine growers.
These commissionaires were paid according to how low of a price they could negotiate and many employed adverse tactics to achieve this, including using violence and intimidation. Some commissionaires openly sought bribes, often in the form of extra grapes, the prices they were able to negotiate rarely covered the cost of farming and harvesting which left many Champenois vine growers in poverty. Champenois vineyard owners were being paid less for fewer grapes, in January 1911, frustrations reached boiling point as riots erupted along the towns of Damery and Hautvilliers. Champenois vine growers intercepted trucks with grapes from the Loire Valley and they descended upon the warehouses of producers known to produce these faux Champagne, tossing more wine and barrels into the Marne. The owner of Achille Perrier found his house surrounded by a mob chanting A bas les fraudeurs
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Louis VII of France
Louis VII was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death. He was the son and successor of King Louis VI of France, hence his nickname, immediately after the annulment of her marriage, Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, to whom she conveyed Aquitaine. When Henry became King of England in 1154, as Henry II, Henrys efforts to preserve and expand on this patrimony for the Crown of England would mark the beginning of the long rivalry between France and England. Louis VIIs reign saw the founding of the University of Paris and he died in 1180 and was succeeded by his son Philip II. Louis was born in 1120 in Paris, the son of Louis VI of France. The early education of Prince Louis anticipated an ecclesiastical career, in October 1131, his father had him anointed and crowned by Pope Innocent II in Reims Cathedral. He spent much of his youth in Saint-Denis, where he built a friendship with the Abbot Suger, an advisor to his father who served Louis well during his early years as king.
Following the death of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, Louis VI moved quickly to have Prince Louis married to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, heiress of the late duke, on 25 July 1137. In this way, Louis VI sought to add the large, on 1 August 1137, shortly after the marriage, Louis VI died, and Prince Louis became king of France, reigning as Louis VII. The pairing of the monkish Louis and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure, she once declared that she had thought to marry a king. Louis and Eleanor had two daughters and Alix, in the first part of his reign, Louis VII was vigorous and zealous in his prerogatives. His accession was marked by no other than uprisings by the burgesses of Orléans and Poitiers. He soon came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II, the pope thus imposed an interdict upon the king. As a result, Champagne decided to side with the pope in the dispute over Bourges, the war lasted two years and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis VII was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry-le-François, more than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames.
Overcome with guilt and humiliated by ecclesiastical reproach, Louis admitted defeat, removed his armies from Champagne and he accepted Pierre de la Chatre as archbishop of Bourges and shunned Raoul and Petronilla. Desiring to atone for his sins, he declared his intention of mounting a crusade on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges, bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay on Easter 1146. In the meantime, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy in 1144, in exchange for being recognised as Duke of Normandy by Louis, Geoffrey surrendered half of the Vexin — a region vital to Norman security — to Louis
Francis I of France
Francis I was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a male heir. Francis reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, Jacques Cartier and others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first French colonial empire. For his role in the development and promotion of a standardized French language, he became known as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres. He was known as François au Grand Nez, the Grand Colas, following the policy of his predecessors, Francis continued the Italian Wars. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, he sought the support of Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. When this was unsuccessful, he formed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with the Muslim sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time.
Francis was born on 12 September 1494 at the Château de Cognac in the town of Cognac, which at that time lay in the province of Saintonge, today the town lies in the department of Charente. Francis was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. His family was not expected to inherit the throne, as his third cousin King Charles VIII was still young at the time of his birth, as was his fathers cousin the Duke of Orléans, King Louis XII. However, Charles VIII died childless in 1498 and was succeeded by Louis XII, the Salic Law prevailed in France, thus females were ineligible to inherit the throne. Therefore, the four-year-old Francis became the heir presumptive to the throne of France in 1498 and was vested with the title of Duke of Valois. In 1505, Louis XII, having fallen ill, ordered that his daughter Claude and Francis be married immediately, Claude was heiress to the Duchy of Brittany through her mother, Anne of Brittany. Following Annes death, the took place on 18 May 1514.
Louis died shortly afterwards and Francis inherited the throne and he was crowned King of France in the Cathedral of Reims on 25 January 1515, with Claude as his queen consort. As Francis was receiving his education, ideas emerging from the Italian Renaissance were influential in France, some of his tutors, such as François Desmoulins de Rochefort and Christophe de Longueil, were attracted by these new ways of thinking and attempted to influence Francis. His academic education had been in arithmetic, grammar, reading, Francis came to learn chivalry and music and he loved archery, horseback riding, jousting, real tennis and wrestling. He ended up reading philosophy and theology and he was fascinated with art, literature and his mother, who had a high admiration for Italian Renaissance art, passed this interest on to her son