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Vitus Bering

Vitus Jonassen Bering known as Ivan Ivanovich Bering, was a Danish cartographer and explorer in Russian service, an officer in the Russian Navy. He is known as a leader of two Russian expeditions, namely the First Kamchatka Expedition and the Great Northern Expedition, exploring the north-eastern coast of the Asian continent and from there the western coast on the North American continent; the Bering Strait, the Bering Sea, Bering Island, the Bering Glacier and the Bering Land Bridge were all named in his honor. Taking to the seas at the age of 18, Bering travelled extensively over the next eight years, as well as taking naval training in Amsterdam. In 1704, he enrolled with the expanding Russian navy of Tsar Peter I. After serving with the navy in significant but non-combat roles during the Great Northern War, Bering resigned in 1724 to avoid the continuing embarrassment of his low rank to Anna, his wife of eleven years. Bering was permitted to keep the rank as he rejoined the Russian navy the same year.

He was selected by the Tsar to captain the First Kamchatka Expedition, an expedition set to sail north from Russian outposts on the Kamchatka peninsula, with the charge to map the new areas visited and to establish whether Asia and America shared a land border. Bering departed from St. Petersburg in February 1725 as the head of a 34-man expedition, aided by the expertise of Lieutenants Martin Spangberg and Aleksei Chirikov; the party took on men as it headed towards Okhotsk, encountering many difficulties before arriving at the settlement. From there, the men sailed to the Kamchatka peninsula, sailing north. In August 1728, Bering decided that they had sufficient evidence that there was clear sea between Asia and America, which he did not sight during the trip. For the first expedition, Bering was rewarded with money, a promotion to the noble rank of Captain Commander, he started preparations for a second trip. Having returned to Okhotsk with a much larger, better prepared, much more ambitious expedition, Bering set off for an expedition towards North America in 1741.

While doing so, the expedition spotted Mount Saint Elias, sailed past Kodiak Island. A storm separated the ships, but Bering sighted the southern coast of Alaska, a landing was made at Kayak Island or in the vicinity. Adverse conditions forced Bering to return, but he documented some of the Aleutian Islands on his way back. One of the sailors died and was buried on one of these islands, Bering named the island group Shumagin Islands after him. Bering himself became too ill to command his ship, at last driven to seek refuge on an uninhabited island in the Commander Islands group in the southwest Bering Sea. On 19 December 1741 Vitus Bering died on the island, given the name Bering Island after him, near the Kamchatka Peninsula from scurvy, along with 28 men of his company. Vitus Bering was born in the port town of Horsens in Denmark to Anne Pedderdatter and her husband Jonas Svendsen and was baptized in the Lutheran church there on 5 August 1681, he was named after a maternal great-uncle, Vitus Pedersen Bering, a chronicler in the royal court, was not long deceased at the time of Vitus Jonassen Bering's birth.

The family enjoyed reasonable financial security, with two of Vitus' elder half-brothers both attending the University of Copenhagen. Vitus however instead signed on at age 15 as a ship's boy. Between 1696 and 1704, Bering travelled the seas, reaching India and the Dutch East Indies while finding time to complete naval officer training in Amsterdam, he would claim to have served on Danish whalers in the North Atlantic, visiting European colonies in the Caribbean and on the eastern seaboard of North America. It was in Amsterdam, that in 1704 and under the guidance of Norwegian-born Russian admiral Cornelius Cruys, Bering enlisted with the Russian navy, taking the rank of sub-lieutenant, he would be promoted in Peter the Great's evolving navy, reaching the rank of second captain by 1720. In that time, it appears he was not involved in any sea battles, but commanded several vessels in dangerous missions, including the transport of a ship from the Azov Sea on Russia's southern coast to the Baltic on her northern coast.

His work in the latter stages of the Great Northern War, for example, was dominated by lightering duties. On 8 October 1713, Bering married Anna Christina Pülse. Over the next 18 years, they had nine children. During his time with the Russian navy – as part of the Great Northern War – he was unable to spend much time with Anna, eleven years Bering's junior and the daughter of a Swedish merchant. At the war's conclusion in 1721, Bering was not promoted like many of his contemporaries; the omission proved embarrassing when, in 1724, Anna's younger sister Eufemia upstaged her by marrying Thomas Saunders a rear-admiral despite a much shorter period of service. In order to save face, the 42-year-old Bering decided to retire from the navy, securing two months' pay and a notional promotion to first captain. Shortly after, the family – Bering, his wife Anna, two young sons – moved out of St. Petersburg to live with Anna's family

Alma Matters

"Alma Matters" is a song by Morrissey, released as a single in July 1997. It was the first single to be taken from the Maladjusted album and was released one week before the album; the single reached number 16 on the UK Singles Chart, becoming Morrissey's first top 20 hit since "The More You Ignore Me, the Closer I Get" in 1994. The song was notable for seeing Morrissey reference the film A Taste of Honey for the first time since his early days in The Smiths in the line "it's my life to ruin my own way"; the song title is a pun on Alma mater. "Alma Matters" "Heir Apparent" "Alma Matters" "Heir Apparent" "I Can Have Both" Jack Rabid of AllMusic called this single "ho-hum", saying it was "a poor choice to represent Maladjusted". He criticized guitarists Boz Boorer and Alain Whyte, asking when Morrissey was going to part company with them, declared the B-sides "Heir Apparent" and "I Can Have Both" to be the better songs but still lacking in comparison to previous B-sides "Whatever Happens, I Love You" and "Nobody Loves Us".

Rabid concludes his review, writing "Morrissey is a major talent with a special voice atrophying in underwhelming material and backing. To quote Joy Division,'When will it end?'" Keith Phipps of The A. V. Club, listed the song as a highlight of Maladjusted. In a 2009 article Uncut described the song as'Morrissey’s worst single'. Spin's list of'50 Best Morrissey Songs' from 2017 includes'Alma Matters' as his #12 best solo song. Morrissey: voice Martin "Boz" Boorer: guitar Alain Whyte: guitar Jonny Bridgwood: bass Spencer James Cobrin: drums Morrissey discography "Alma Matters" at Passions Just Like Mine Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

San Casciano dei Bagni

San Casciano dei Bagni is a comune in the Province of Siena in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 110 kilometres southeast of Florence and about 70 kilometres southeast of Siena. San Casciano dei Bagni borders the following municipalities: Abbadia San Salvatore, Allerona, Città della Pieve, Piancastagnaio, Radicofani, Sarteano, it is a member of "prettiest Italian villages". The history of San Casciano is connected to the presence of hot waters, with 42 springs, a mean temperature of 42 °C and a daily delivery of 5.5 million litres. According to a legend, the Balnea Clusinae were founded by an Etruscan king of Chiusi; the baths were popular during the Roman era, Augustus being amongst its users. In the 3rd to 4th centuries a Christian Pieve of St. Mary ad balneo existed in San Casciano. During the Middle Ages it was under Lombard rule, under the Visconti di Campiglia and the Abbey of San Salvatore. Troops of San Casciano took part at the Battle of Montaperti in 1260; the last Visconti ruler was Monaldo, podestà of Florence in 1389.

San Casciano was acquired by the Republic of Siena in 1412. In Renaissance times its baths attracted visitors from all over Europe, but they decayed from the 19th century, recovering only from the early 21st century. Lago di San Casciano Media related to San Casciano dei Bagni at Wikimedia Commons San Casciano dei Bagni official website

Christopher Chyba

Christopher F. Chyba is an American astrobiologist, Professor of Astrophysical Sciences and International Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, he graduated from Swarthmore College in 1982, studied mathematical physics at the University of Cambridge as a Marshall Scholar. He received his Ph. D. in Astronomy, with an emphasis in Planetary Science, from Cornell University in 1991. He was a White House Fellow on the National Security Council staff, serving in the Office of Science and Technology Policy from 1993 to 1995, he was a member of the SETI Institute Board of Trustees from 2005 - 2007. 2001 MacArthur Fellows Program The asteroid 7923 Chyba was named in his honor "Commencement Address", June 1, 2003 "Contingency and the Cosmic Prospective", The new astronomy: opening the electromagnetic window and expanding our view of planet earth, Editor D. Wayne Orchiston, Springer, 2005, ISBN 978-1-4020-3723-8 Comets and the origin and evolution of life, Editors Paul J. Thomas, Christopher F. Chyba, Springer, 2006, ISBN 978-3-540-33086-8 U.

S. nuclear weapons policy: confronting today's threats, Editors George Bunn, Christopher F. Chyba, William James Perry, Center for International Security and Cooperation, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Calif. 2006, ISBN 978-0-8157-1365-4 Appearances on C-SPAN "Christopher Chyba", Huffington Post

Jørn Larsen

Jørn Larsen was a Danish painter and sculptor. He was a member of Grønningen from 1970 and received the Eckersberg Medal in 1978 and the Thorvaldsen Medal in 1989, he represented Denmark at the Venice Biennale in 1993. Jørn Larsen was born in Næstved in 1926, he first apprenticed as a house painter in his home town but in 1848 moved to Copenhagen where he attended drawing classes. He was admitted to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1851 but left after completing just one semester to go to Italy. Over the next couple of years he travelled abundantly in Europe, spending his time in France, Spain and Turkey. In 1955 he made his first non-figurative pictures and had his debut with them at the Kunstnernes Efterårsudstilling in Copenhagen. A stay in eastern Greenland during 1959 and 1960 inspired him to paint a series of pictures known as the Kutdleq Suite after his return home. From 1962 he developed a black-and-white geometrical style and created both objects and sculptures in various materials, including marble and steel.

In 1970 he became a member of the artists group Grønningen. Jørn Larsen's works include a steel sculpture for Odense University and floor decorations for the Royal Danish Theatre, he designed the water feature at Bertel Thorvaldsens Plads in Copenhagen. Other decorative works are found at Roskilde Hospital, Udlejre Church, Silkeborg Bad and Jelling Church. 1977 La Mention Speciale du Jury, 9me Festival International de la Peinture, Cagnes-sur-Mer, France 1978 Eckersberg Medal 1989 Thorvaldsen Medal

Anniversary of the Unification of Italy

The anniversary of the Unification of Italy is a national day that falls annually on March 17 and celebrates the birth of the Italian state, which took place following the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy on March 17, 1861. However, the complete unification of Italy took place only in the following years: in 1866 the Veneto and the province of Mantua were annexed, in 1870 Lazio and in 1918 Trentino-Alto Adige and Julian March. In this regard, the National Unity and Armed Forces Day was established, celebrated annually on November 4, recalling the Italian victory in the First World War, a war event considered to complete the process of unification of Italy; the anniversary of the birth of the Italian state was solemnly celebrated in 1911, in 1961 and in 2011. The anniversary of the unification of Italy recalls the promulgation of law no. 4671 of the Kingdom of Sardinia with which, on 17 March 1861, following the session of 14 March of the same year of the Chamber of Deputies in which the Senate of the Kingdom of Italy bill of 26 February 1861 was approved, Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy proclaimed the birth of the Kingdom of Italy, assuming the title of king of Italy for himself and his successors: The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies have approved.

We order that the present one, provided with the Seal of the State, be included in the collection of the acts of the Government, sending to anyone, responsible for observing it and having it observed as the law of the State. From Turin on 17 March 1861 In 1911, between March and April, the 50th anniversary of the birth of the Kingdom of Italy was celebrated with a series of exhibitions in Rome and Turin. In the latter city the International Exhibition of Industry and Labor was held. In the capital, whose mayor at the time was Ernesto Nathan, the ethnographic exhibition of the regions was organized and the International Review of Contemporary Art, the Altare della Patria, the bridge Victory Emmanuel II was inaugurated on the Janiculum, the lighthouse of the Italians of Argentina. In Florence the "Exhibition of the Italian portrait from the end of the 16th century to 1861" and the International Floriculture Exhibition was held from March to July; the material exhibited at the Rome Ethnographic Exhibition of 1911 was subsequently collected and is exhibited in the National Museum of Popular Arts and Traditions in Rome.

The volume "The Three Capitals: Turin-Florence-Rome" written by Edmondo De Amicis in 1898 was published in support of the celebrations for the 50th anniversary. The director Luigi Maggi directed the film Nozze d'oro, based on a history of the Risorgimento, making an ideal parallel between the 50th anniversary of the unification of Italy and the 50th wedding anniversary of a bersagliere who fought in the Second Italian War of Independence. On 1 May 1911 a series of stamps was issued to commemorate the event known as the 50th anniversary of the Unification of Italy; the Accademia dei Lincei, under the guidance of Pietro Blaserna, published the work "Cinquant'anni di storia italiana" in three volumes describing the political and civil life history of Italy from 1861 to 1911. These celebrations were the only ones in which the surviving veterans of the events linked to the Second Italian War of Independence and the Expedition of the Thousand took part; the celebrations of the centenary began in 1959 with the visit to Italy of General Charles de Gaulle, from 23 to 27 June, to celebrate the memory of the Franco Piedmontese alliance that allowed the victorious Second Italian War of Independence, which constituted the spring from which two years national unification took place.

During this visit, military magazines and demonstrations were organized on the battlefields of Magenta and San Martino, a visit to the Altare della Patria in Rome. In 1961, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Unification of Italy, three exhibitions were organized in Turin: the Historical Exhibition of the Unification of Italy, the Exhibition of Italian Regions and the International Labor Exhibition known as Expo 61. Roberto Rossellini, author of numerous historical period films, directed two films centered on the Risorgimento: the celebratory Garibaldi, in which he reconstructs the expedition of the Thousand, the more intimate Vanina Vanini, set in the times of the Carbonari uprisings. On the occasion of the 150th anniversary on 17 March 2011, celebrations were held throughout Italy and a national holiday was proclaimed with schools and suspended work activities. Moreover, in order to avoid burdens on public finance and private companies, the juridical and economic effects of the suppressed holiday of November 4th were shifted to that date, or each employee had to deduct a day of leave required by the annual vacation sum.

The places were chosen by the guarantors in the meeting of 28 September 2009, as the first aspect to revitalize and enhance, given their close link with the history of Italy. The key cities of this initiative are Turin, Naples, Venice, Florence, Bologna and other cities; the celebrations for the 150th anniversary began on 5 May 2010 in Quarto dei Mille, with the participation of the President of the Italian Republic Giorgio Napolitano, the President of the Chamber of Deputies Gianfranco Fini, the President of the Senate Renato Schifani, the ministers Ignazio La Russa and Sandro Bondi, other authorities. The town was chosen after a pr