The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Last Call with Carson Daly
Last Call with Carson Daly is an American late night television program hosted by Carson Daly on NBC. A traditional talk show, the half-hour program consists of several produced segments, featuring interviews with musicians, actors and other artists, along with pre-taped on-location musical performances, it debuted in 2002. Unlike other programs in NBC's late night line-up, Last Call records only 24 weeks of original shows a year with the rest of the year being taken up by reruns, it airs at 1:37 a.m. ET/PT each weeknight. On February 12, 2019, NBC announced the series would end after it reaches its 2,000th filmed episode, with Daly citing his workload with Today, The Voice, a new project with Golf Channel in wanting to depart the series. Last Call premiered in 2002 as the successor to Later. Last Call aired Monday through Thursday until the cancellation of Late Friday in late May 2002, its premiere was delayed one day at the last minute due to a contract dispute. Last Call was taped in Studio 8H of the GE Building in New York City, the home studio of Saturday Night Live.
However, this required the producers to work around the schedule of Saturday Night Live. During this phase, Last Call had no house band and no jokes or monologue, going straight to the first guest at the beginning of the show; the stage was set up in an empty black box theater style, save for two low-slung chairs and a small table. Each week, a different unsigned band was brought in to do the music, in addition to any musical act at the end; the set acquired more furnishings and decor, much of, influenced by the occasional week-long trips to Las Vegas. In 2003 and 2004, Last Call was nominated for a Teen Choice Award for "Choice TV Show – Late Night". Last Call was planned to broadcast in high-definition when Studio 8H was retrofitted for Saturday Night Live. After the move, Last Call began to resemble its counterparts, with a more traditional set, permanent house band led by Joe Firstman, short monologue and occasional comedy bits. In November 2005 Joe Firstman became the official house band leader for Last Call.
Notable members of his band include Kamasi Washington, Kenny Aronoff, Mike Miley, Brian Wright, Zane Musa, Zane Carney, Mark Bryan, Marc Ford, Ryan Porter. Firstman wrote the majority of the material. Production of new Last Call episodes was suspended for a month due to the Writers Guild of America strike, but on December 4, 2007, Last Call became the first late night talk show to resume production during the strike. On air, Daly explained that the only reason the show resumed production was that he was given the option to either return or have the show's 75 non-striking staff members fired; the shows did not include monologues. The Writers Guild of America was critical of Daly, accusing him of crossing picket lines and labeling him a scab. Daly is not a member of the WGA. On November 27, 2007, he was accused by the WGA of soliciting jokes for his show through a telephone hotline. On December 11, 2007, an organized group of WGA writers attended a taping of Last Call. First, one heckled during an interview with Jerry Rice.
After security removed the first writer, another spoke up disruptively, expressing sympathy with striking writers. A producer asked anyone planning to disrupt the show to face prosecution; as the end of Late Night with Conan O'Brien was approaching, Daly made it public that he was interested in moving to the Late Night time slot. Jimmy Fallon was chosen to replace O'Brien, a choice that executive producer Lorne Michaels had in mind dating back to the day that Fallon left Saturday Night Live in 2004. In February 2009, network executive Rick Ludwin told TV Week that the company was "going through the budgetary process with all of our shows. There are new budgetary realities... It's tough. We want to keep going as long as we can make the budget work." Soon after that interview, NBC announced plans for Last Call to go on a one-week "tour" of California, with taped segments of up-and-coming musical acts at various clubs, such as The Roxy, The Viper Room, Hotel Cafe. As the show's 1000th episode approached in April, NBC's summary of the show made it clear that the change in format would continue: "Currently in its eighth season, NBC's Last Call with Carson Daly utilizes a new style by introducing a documentary style format.
Host Carson Daly takes the show on location each night. Recent highlights include Daly’s motorcycle trip across the historic Route 66, a visit to comedian Tom Green's house in the Hollywood Hills, a scene at the Whiskey Bar with the Grammy Award-winning band Kings of Leon."With the change, the usual late-night talk show trappings of a house band, studio audience, comedy were abandoned. In May, NBC announced that Last Call had been renewed for a ninth season, which debuted on September 21, 2009. On January 8, 2010, it was reported by multiple media outlets that The Jay Leno Show was moving to 11:35 p.m. the Conan O'Brien-hosted Tonight Show to 12:05 a.m. and Late Night with Jimmy Fallon to 1:05, which would have resulted in Last Call losing its time slot. NBC confirmed the move, along with the possible end of Last Call. NBC had emphasized that its focus is retaining the lineup of Leno and Fallon. NBC chairman Jeff Gaspin told ABC News he expected Daly to stay
West Chester, Pennsylvania
West Chester is a borough and the county seat of Chester County, Pennsylvania, in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. The population was 18,461 at the 2010 census. Much of the West Chester University of Pennsylvania North Campus and the Chester County government are located within the borough; the center of town is located at the intersection of High Streets. The area was known as Turk's Head—after the inn of the same name located in what is now the center of the borough. West Chester has been the seat of government in Chester County since 1786 when the seat was moved from nearby Chester in what is now Delaware County; the borough was incorporated in 1799. In the heart of town is its courthouse, a classical revival building designed in the 1840s by Thomas U. Walter, one of the architects for the Capitol in Washington, D. C. In the 18th century West Chester was a center of clockmaking. In the late 19th century the Hoopes, Bro. and Darlington company became a major wheelworks, first for wagons and automobiles.
In the early 20th century, an important industry was the Sharples cream separator company. In the late 20th century, Commodore International, one of the pioneers of home computers, giving its headquarters as West Chester, was located a mile northeast of the borough; the West Chester Downtown Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. Other listed buildings are the Bank of Chester County, Buckwalter Building, Butler House, Chester County Courthouse, William Everhart Buildings and Mechanics Building, First Presbyterian Church of West Chester, New Century Clubhouse, Joseph Rothrock House, Sharples Homestead, Sharples Separator Works, Warner Theater, West Chester Boarding School for Boys, the components of the West Chester State College Quadrangle Historic District. West Goshen Township borders West Chester to the north and east, while East Bradford Township borders West Chester to the west; the borough straddles the Brandywine Chester Creek watersheds. It is located 17 miles north of Wilmington, Delaware.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.8 square miles, all of it land. As with much of eastern Pennsylvania east of the Appalachian mountains, West Chester straddles the humid continental and humid subtropical climate zones, with more characteristics of the former than the latter. Summers are hot and humid and winters are cold but variable. Annual high temperatures average between 39.0 °F and 85.4 °F, annual low temperatures average between 22.2 °F and 64.4 °F, with the record high being 105 °F, record low being −16 °F. Annual precipitation averages 46.7 inches, annual snowfall averages 27.7 inches. At the 2010 census, the borough was 72.1% non-Hispanic White, 12.1% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 2.4% was of two or more races. About 13.4 % of the population was of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, 17,861 people, 6,265 households, 2,662 families resided in the borough; the population density was 9,703.3 people per square mile.
The 6,541 housing units averaged 3,553.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 75.44% White, 17.08% Black, 3.64% from other races, 1.46% Asian, 0.31% Native American, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.00% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 8.94%. Of the 6,265 households, 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 26.8% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 57.5% were not families. About 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.95. In the borough the population was spread out, with 13.4% under the age of 18, 37.7% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 13.3% from 45 to 64, 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $37,803, for a family was $51,018.
Males had a median income of $35,540, versus $30,819 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $19,073. About 9.8% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.5% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. Corporate headquarters include: Commodore Business Machines, the operational headquarters of Commodore International Communications Test Design, Inc. engineering and logistics for telecommunications equipment Mars Drinks, maker of Flavia Beverage Systems VWR International Synthes Economy.com, part of Moody's AnalyticsQVC has its headquarters and television studios in West Goshen Township, near West Chester. It is located in the same buildings that were once the corporate headquarters of Commodore International. Electronics Boutique, when it existed as an independent company, had its headquarters in West Goshen Township, in proximity to West Chester. Among the major shopping centers in the area is Bradford Plaza, a 22-acre property with a 161,000-square-ft center which sold in 2014 to New York Life for US$35,700,000.
The West Chester Public Library has provided library services to area residents since 1872. It has a collection of 50,000 items and receives 110,000 visits every year; the Francis Harvey Green Library on the university campus has additional collections. The Daily Local News headquartered in West Ch
Daniel Lioneye is a Finnish alternative metal band, formed by members of the band HIM. Consisting of guitarist and vocalist Mikko "Linde" Lindström, bassist Mikko "Mige" Paananen, drummer Ville Valo, the group released their debut album The King of Rock'n Roll in 2001, the title-track of, used as the theme to Bam Margera's Viva La Bam TV series. In 2010, the newly reformed Daniel Lioneye, now with Black Vomit Bolton on drums and HIM's Janne "Burton" Puurtinen on keyboards and released the album Vol. II. In 2011, the band toured the United States, with Mige once again on bass, Seppo Tarvainen on drums and Manu Patel on backing vocals. On December 30, 2014, the original line-up of Daniel Lioneye reunited at HIM's annual Helldone Festival. On August 19, 2016, Daniel Lioneye, with Lindström, Mige and Tarvainen, released their third album Vol. III. Daniel Lioneye was formed by members of the Finnish rock band HIM in 2001. Composed of vocalist-guitarist Mikko "Linde" Lindström, drummer Ville Valo and bassist Mikko "Mige" Paananen, the band was born as a way to relieve stress brought on by the amount of success HIM was achieving at the time, according to Valo.
Prior to their debut album, Daniel Lioneye had played only a few shows at various parties around Finland. When the group entered the studio to record their debut album with producer Hiili Hiilesmaa, they only had three songs ready, while the rest were written while recording. According to Lindström, none of the material was intended to be released, as the group had collaborated with Hiilesmaa for many years on unreleased experimental music. Daniel Lioneye decided to release their debut album The King of Rock'n Roll "as a joke" in the spring of 2001 in Finland and Germany Described as "psychedelic stoner rock", with lyrics dealing with themes of "sex and rock'n' roll", The King of Rock'n Roll received negative reviews from critics, with Pertti Ojala of Soundi calling the album "dirty and diversely unpleasant". Despite this, the album's title-track was used by professional skateboarder and television personality Bam Margera as the opening theme to his TV series Viva La Bam; the song became the second-most-played Finnish song in the world in 2006.
The album's release was followed by a three-date festival tour across Finland. For these shows the band recruited Hiilesmaa on keyboards. In February 2010, Daniel Lioneye announced they would release their sophomore album Vol. II in April 2010, via The End Records. Now with fellow HIM-member Janne "Burton" Puurtinen on keyboards, as well Black Vomit Bolton replacing Ville Valo on drums, Daniel Lioneye's second album featured a much heavier sound than their debut, being described by Lindström as "extreme rock n' roll", with influences from black metal. Vol. II received mixed reviews, with Antti Mattila of Soundi awarding it three out of five stars, while Eduardo Rivadavia of Allmusic called it "clearly a hit-and-miss affair." In 2011, Daniel Lioneye embarked on their first tour of the United States, supporting Cradle of Filth, with Seppo Tarvainen on drums, as well as Manu Patel on backing vocals. On December 30, 2014, the original line-up of Daniel Lioneye reunited for a performance at HIM's annual New Year's Eve festival Helldone.
When asked about the possibility of new music, Lindström responded: "Let's see if something could happen next year." Nothing surfaced in 2015. The band announced a five date tour across Finland for September 2016. On June 30, 2016, Daniel Lioneye released the official track-listing for Vol. III, as well as its first single "Ravensong". According to Lindström, musically the album would be a combination of its two predecessors, with "more fuzz-guitar, more singing, less growling". On August 4, 2016, Daniel Lioneye released the official music video for the song "Aetherside", directed by Matti Penttila. Vol. III received positive reviews from critics, with Neil Z. Yeung of Allmusic stating "Vol. III is most accomplished effort, balanced by equal measures of ferocity and harmony, professionally on par with anything the guys have done with HIM", echoed by Jarkko Jokelainen of Helsingin Sanomat, who gave the album four out of five stars; the band were scheduled to perform several European shows in the fall of 2016, but the dates were cancelled, after drummer Seppo Tarvainen broke his arm.
The King of Rock'n Roll Vol. II Vol. III Current membersMikko "Linde" Lindström - guitar, vocals Mikko "Mige" Paananen - bass guitar Janne "Burton" Puurtinen - keyboards Seppo Tarvainen - drums Former membersVille Valo - drums Hiili Hiilesmaa - keyboards Ike Vil - sound effects Black Vomit Bolton - drums Manu Patel - backing vocals Daniel Lioneye at AllMusic
The Bloodhound Gang was an American rock band which began as a hip hop group before branching out into other genres, including punk rock, alternative hip hop, funk metal, electronic rock, as their career progressed. Their songs were known for off-beat and vulgar lyrics that dealt with sexual subjects and contained many puns and innuendos, they were influenced by the Beastie Boys. They are best known for their singles "Fire Water Burn", "The Bad Touch", "Foxtrot Uniform Charlie Kilo", "Along Comes Mary", "Uhn Tiss Uhn Tiss Uhn Tiss", "The Ballad of Chasey Lain". Formed in 1988, the Bloodhound Gang has sold more than 6 million albums; the Bloodhound Gang began in 1988 as a small alternative band called Bang Chamber 8. It consisted of both graduates of Perkiomen Valley High School, they released an eponymous tape in 1990 before changing their name to the Bloodhound Gang the following year, a reference to "The Bloodhound Gang", a segment on the 1980s PBS kids' show 3-2-1 Contact that featured three young detectives solving mysteries and fighting crime.
Franks and Bowe took on the stage names "Jimmy Pop Ali" and "Daddy Long Legs" respectively. Jimmy Pop and Jared Hennegan both attended Temple University in Pennsylvania. Unable to book shows anywhere else, the Bloodhound Gang first performed in an extra room at Hennegan's house, in exchange for Schlitz, a chance to hand out their first demo tape, titled Just Another Demo; when the floor caved in one night, they began performing every month at CBGBs in New York City. When asked about the band's tenure at the club, Jimmy Pop was quoted as saying, "I've seen cavemen with better clubs."In April 1994, the band released their second demo tape, The Original Motion Picture Soundtrack to Hitler's Handicapped Helpers. This resulted in a record deal with Cheese Factory Records. In summer 1994, Jimmy Pop had a small role in the short independent film The Chick That Was Naked by independent filmmaker Kurt Fitzpatrick. A song by the band was used on its soundtrack. In November 1994, the Bloodhound Gang released Dingleberry Haze.
In March 1995, the Bloodhound Gang signed a record deal with Columbia Records. They released their first full-length album, titled Use Your Fingers, they began touring around the United States. At this time, Daddy Long Legs and M. S. G. who were angry with Columbia Records, left the band to form Wolfpac. Bass player Hennegan and turntablist Tard-E-Tard joined the group as replacements, with Hennegan taking on the stage name "Evil Jared Hasselhoff"; when the tour ended, the deal with Columbia Records was dropped and band members Skip O'Pot2Mus and Tard-E-Tard left to pursue careers outside of the music industry. In March 1996, the band, complete with a new line-up, recorded their second full-length album, One Fierce Beer Coaster, with Richard Gavalis, a producer and owner of Dome Sound Studios, in Royersford, local to Jimmy Pop. Lupus Thunder had recorded with Rich at the Dome with a former band, introduced Jimmy Pop to Rich, the first studio in the Pennsylvania area to embrace computer recording and could edit live instruments in ways other studios could not.
This led to a relationship. One Fierce Beer Coaster was first released on Cheese Factory Records; the original release, designed by Michael Calleia at Industrial Strength Design in New York City, had an actual beer coaster as part of the packaging. The album's leading single, "Fire Water Burn", played a major role in the slow build of interest that led to the band's mainstream breakthrough; as the band could not afford national tours they promoted themselves by sending their music to radio stations across the country that fit the alternative rock format. One significant early radio breakthrough came when an intern at 107.7 The End in Seattle brought the band to the attention of the music director who, liking what he heard, played "Fire Water Burn" on his Friday night show. The feature prompted a flood of phone calls asking about the band; the director passed the song on to his friend, the music director at KROQ-FM in Los Angeles, who added it to her playlist. The snowball effect meant the band was overwhelmed with demands for their records that they struggled to meet.
Record labels started to call. According to manager Brett Alperowitz in an interview with HitQuarters, Madonna's label Maverick "really wanted to sign the band in the worst possible way to the point where I had to tell Madonna that I couldn’t put her on the phone with Jimmy Pop." The Bloodhound Gang signed with Geffen Records, which re-released One Fierce Beer Coaster on December 1996. They embarked on their first "real tour" of the United States and Europe, including presentations on Loveline, The Howard Stern Show, Ricki Lake and The Jenny McCarthy Show. After a couple of years of doing shows, taking advantage of the Internet, spreading the word through retail and radio in every way the band and management could on an independent level, they began to experience major success. On October 4, 1999, they released Hooray for Boobies, in Europe; this album was recorded in California, where their engineer, Rich Gavalis relocated. The album was recorded at a Los Angeles studio the band rented, at Rich Gavalis's home in the "Valley".
Powered by the hit single "The Bad Touch", they embarked on two more tours of Europe, where their popularity had increased ("The Bad Touch" and Hooray for Boobies reached No. 1 in Germany, wh
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Turbonegro is a Norwegian rock band active from 1989 to 1998, reformed in 2002. Their style combines glam rock, punk rock and hard rock into a style the band describes as, "deathpunk." Among the band's main influences are Black Flag, the Rolling Stones, KISS, Radio Birdman, AC/DC, Iggy Pop & James Williamson, Circle Jerks, David Bowie, the Lewd, Hanoi Rocks, Alice Cooper, the Dictators and the Stooges. Turbonegro came together as a band in Oslo, during the winter of 1988-1989; the initial lineup was Thomas Seltzer, Vegard Heskestad, Pål Bøttger Kjærnes, Rune Grønn, Pål Erik Carlin and Tor-Kristian "TK" Jenssen. Seltzer and Heskestad had performed in a band called "De Dype" – a noisy and subversive ensemble inspired by American rock band Butthole Surfers. Early Turbonegro continued their conceptional styles. Turbonegro performed their first show at Ungdomshuset in Copenhagen, Denmark in March 1989. By April, Turbonegro played their first show in their hometown of Oslo. In the following weeks, they recorded their debut single Route Zero and additional songs for their Turboloid 12" EP.
Both records were released by Thomas Seltzer's own label, Straitjacket Records, which he started in 1983 to release the EP of his first band Akutt Innleggelse. This first session was recorded at Nesodden Musikkverksted by Christian Calmeyer. Seltzer played bass and drums on Route Zero. An initial pressing of 50 copies came with an exclusive demo tape called Computech, featuring a cover of The Stooges' 1970; the early pre-deathpunk Turbonegro sound featured tormented and distorted noise rock. Turboloid was the last release by the original lineup. Drummer Carlos Carrasco left to play guitar for Anal Babes. Route Zero was reissued by Sympathy for the Record Industry in 1990 with two songs from the Turboloid EP. In September of that year, Turbonegro left Norway to tour the U. S. for three weeks. Grønn was beaten up in a quarrel with crack addicts in front of a hotel in Minneapolis a few hours after their arrival and remained in the hospital; the band continued without him. Three weeks Turbonegro returned to Oslo.
In the winter of 1990, Seltzer reformed Turbonegro with Grønn. Norwegian punk veteran Harald Fossberg, who had gained fame in the late 1970s with Norwegian punk pioneers Hærverk, was recruited as the new singer and, in the subsequent months, Bengt "Bingo" Calmeyer joined them on bass guitar. In the summer of 1991 the reformed lineup released the Vaya Con Satan 7" in the U. S. followed in early 1992 by their debut album Hot Cars and Spent Contraceptives on upcoming local label Big Ball Records. Both the single and the CD give an early introduction to the deathpunk sound – Turbonegro's self-acclaimed own genre; the musical pre-settings were anticipating Ass Cobra era – dark death-driven punk rock with occasional excursions into hardcore and metal, as well as a tendency to disruptive and sarcastic lyrics. Swedish broadcasting DJ Lars Aldman once described their sound as, "Radio Birdman meets Venom in an institution for sexually abused retards," and Danish Moshable magazine wrote, "One great big hunk of an album that barfs up the best in Scandinavian punk rock - and slam it into overdrive.
So fucking punk that it will tear you a new asshole - and some!" In December 1992, Turbonegro began a ruinous tour outside Norway. With money left from a grant, they went for one gig confirmed in Ålborg, Denmark headed south to Hamburg, where they became stranded in an unsuccessful search for an opportunity to play. After five days, the band ran out of money, but they were able to make contacts with Gravy Train Agency, who organized several tours for Turbonegro outside Scandinavia in years, as well as people from Crypt Records. In late March 1993, Fossberg played his last show with Turbonegro at Sentrum Scene in Oslo, he quit due to health reasons and was replaced by Hans Erik Husby, who would become their best known vocalist. With the new singer, the band was renamed Stierkampf, they opened up for Poison Idea in Oslo and Denmark, as well as The Ramones in August 1993 at the Oslo Rock Festival. The band's only professional release as Stierkampf was the Grunge Whore EP on Sympathy for the Record Industry.
All songs on this release would resurface on their next album, with the exception of "Six Pack". Their second album "Never is Forever" was recorded by Christian Calmeyer at Nesodden Musikkverksted, was self-released with a friend at Oslo Musikk Distribusjon. In their own words, this second album was "a tribute to Blue Öyster Cult", an attempt to dissociate from the lo-fi aesthetics of the garage. "When the rest of the punk oriented world tried hard to be lo-fi and'real', Turbonegro as usual went the opposite way, creating a miniature suburban deathpunk opera. Have pop culture and desperation blended so well." The release of this album followed their first full European Tour, nicknamed "Nihil Jung" and had 17 shows in Denmark, Switzerland and the Netherlands. By the winter of 1994-1995, the band had reclaimed the name Turbonegro, but had a new look referred to as the "Al Jolson schtick", though it did not last long. Happy-Tom summed it up with an anecdote, "So there we were backstage with our black faces and wigs and little hats, smoking pot with our all-time heroes the Bad Brains, the absurdity just didn't cross our minds.
I mean, those guys didn't mention it, they were just embarrassed on our behalf." The gag was long gone by May 1995 when they debuted the denim and