National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine is a self-governing state-funded organization in Ukraine, the main center of development of science and technology by coordinating a system of research institutes in the country. It is the main research oriented organization along with the five other academies in Ukraine specialized in various scientific disciplines. NAS Ukraine consists of numerous departments, research institutes, scientific centers and various other supporting scientific organizations; the Academy reports on the annual basis to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The presidium of the academy is located at the following address vulytsia Volodymyrska, 57, across the street from the Building of Pedagogical Museum where used to preside the Central Council during the independence period of 1917-18. In 1921–1991 it was a republican branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. Over the course of its history, the NAS Ukraine has had 5 different names. From 1918 to 1921, it was known as the Ukrainian Academy of Science.
From 1921 until 1936, it was known as the All-Ukrainian Academy of Science. From 1936 to 1991, it was known as the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. From 1991 to 1993, it was known as the Academy of Science of Ukraine. Since 1994, it has been known by National Academy of Science of Ukraine; the direct institutional predecessors of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences were the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Lemberg and the Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kiev that due to various circumstances did not developed into national academy. The initiative to create such an institution came from the Ukrainian Science Society in April 1917, eight months before the beginning of the Soviet-Ukrainian War; however it was materialized during the time of the Ukrainian State, when on the proposal of the Minister of Education and Arts Mykola Vasylenko a special commission was formed. Headed by academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Volodymyr Vernadskyi, the commission has drafted a bill about creation of the Ukrainian Academy of Science in Kiev with its National Library, National Museum, other scientific institutions.
During July 9 - September 17, 1918 the commission based on the proposed by Vernadskyi a model of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences as an academy with universal characteristics has developed a bill for the creation of the Academy, a draft of its statute and staff, estimate. Based on them on November 14, 1918 Hetman of Ukraine Pavlo Skoropadsky signed the Law of Ukrainian State about establishing of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kiev, approved the UAS statute, the UAS staff and its institutions and the order of Ministry of National Education about appointing the first 12 full members of the UAS. According to its original statute, the Academy consisted of three research departments in history and philology and mathematics, as well as social studies, its structural units institutes. There were planned 15 institutes, 14 permanent commissions, 6 museums, 2 offices, 2 laboratories and acclimatization gardens, astronomical observatory, biology station, printing house and national library. All publishing of academy was to be printed in the Ukrainian language.
Its statute emphasized the all-Ukrainian nature: the members could be not only citizens of the Ukrainian State, but the Ukrainian scientists of the West Ukraine. Foreigners could become academicians as well, but on the resolution of the 2/3 of the active members' composition; the presidium and its first academicians appointed the government, while the future members were elected by those academicians. The first academicians were appointed historians academician Dmytro Bahaliy and Orest Levytsky, economists Mykhailo Tuhan-Baranovsky and Volodymyr Kosynsky, eastern studies Ahathanhel Krymsky and Mykola Petrov, linguist Stepan Smal-Stotsky, goelogists academician Volodymyr Vernadsky and Pavlo Tutkovsky, biologist Mykola Kashchenko, mechanic Stepan Tymoshenko, law studies Fedir Taranovsky. For the President of the Academy, the Hetman of Ukraine invited Mykhailo Hrushevsky Mykhailo Hrushevsky declined an invitation, but at date became a major figure in the Ukrainian Academy of Science in Kyiv, its official operations the academy started at the end of November 1918 with having several sessions of General Assembly and assemblies of its departments.
The first General Assembly that took place on November 27, 1918 academician Volodymyr Vernadsky was elected the President of academy, while the permanent secretary became Ahathanhel Krymsky. The same day, at the sessions of the 2nd and the 3rd departments there were elected as chairmen Mykola Kashchenko and Mykhailo Tuhan-Baranovsky, on 8 December 1918 the chairman of the 1st department was elected Dmytro Bahaliy. All appointments were approved by Hetman Skoropadskyi; the first institutions of the UAS established in December 1918 were such commissions: for compilation of historic and geographic dictionary of the Ukrainian land for compilation of historic dictionary of Ukrainian language for compilation of the Ukrainian living language dictionary for publishing landmarks of the modern Ukrainian script for publishing landmarks of language and his
Lublin Governorate, Polish: Gubernia lubelska) was an administrative unit of the Congress Poland. It was created in 1837 from the Lublin Voivodeship, had the same borders and capital as the voivodeship, its lower levels of administration were mostly unchanged, although renamed from obwóds to powiats. There were ten of those units named after their capital cities: biłgorajski, chełmski, janowski, lubartowski, lubelski, puławski and zamojski. Reform of 1844 merged the governorate with Podlasie Governorate, until the 1867 reform which reversed those changes. In 1912 some of the territories of the governorate were split off into the newly created Kholm Governorate. By the Imperial census of 1897. In bold are languages spoken by more people than the state language
The Buran programme known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme", was a Soviet and Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993. In addition to being the designation for the whole Soviet/Russian reusable spacecraft project, Buran was the name given to Orbiter K1, which completed one unmanned spaceflight in 1988 and was the only Soviet reusable spacecraft to be launched into space; the Buran-class orbiters used the expendable Energia rocket as a launch vehicle. They are treated as a Soviet equivalent of the United States' Space Shuttle, but in the Buran project, only the airplane-shaped orbiter itself was theoretically reusable. While Orbiter K1 was recovered after its first orbital flight in 1988, it was never reused; the Buran programme was started by the Soviet Union as a response to the United States Space Shuttle program. The project was the most expensive in the history of Soviet space exploration.
Development work included sending BOR-5 test vehicles on multiple sub-orbital test flights, atmospheric flights of the OK-GLI aerodynamic prototype. Buran completed one unmanned orbital spaceflight in 1988 before its cancellation in 1993. Orbiter K1, which flew the test flight in 1988 was crushed in a hangar collapse on 12 May 2002 in Kazakhstan; the OK-GLI resides in Technikmuseum Speyer. Although the Buran class was similar in appearance to NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter, could operate as a re-entry spaceplane, its internal and functional design was distinct. For example, the main engines during launch were on the Energia rocket and were not taken into orbit by the spacecraft. Smaller rocket engines on the craft's body provided propulsion in orbit and de-orbital burns; the Buran orbital vehicle programme was developed in response to the U. S. Space Shuttle programme, which in the 1980s raised considerable concerns among the Soviet military and Defense Minister Dmitry Ustinov. An authoritative chronicler of the Soviet and Russian space programmes, the academic Boris Chertok, recounts how the programme came into being.
According to Chertok, after the U. S. developed its Space Shuttle programme, the Soviet military became suspicious that it could be used for military purposes, due to its enormous payload, several times that of previous U. S. launch vehicles. The Soviet government asked the TsNIIMash for an expert opinion. Institute director, Yuri Mozzhorin, recalls that for a long time the institute could not envisage a civilian payload large enough to require a vehicle of that capacity; the Buran orbital vehicle was designed for the delivery to orbit and return to Earth of spacecraft and supplies. Both Chertok and Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy suggest that from the beginning, the programme was military in nature. Commenting on the discontinuation of the programme in his interview to New Scientist, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov confirms their accounts: We had no civilian tasks for Buran and the military ones were no longer needed, it was designed as a military system for weapon delivery, maybe nuclear weapons. The American shuttle has military uses.
Like its American counterpart, the Buran orbital vehicle, when in transit from its landing sites back to the launch complex, was transported on the back of a large jet aeroplane — the Antonov An-225 Mriya transport aircraft, designed in part for this task and remains the largest aircraft in the world to fly multiple times. Before the Mriya was ready, the Myasishchev VM-T Atlant, a variant on the Soviet Myasishchev M-4 Molot bomber, fulfilled the same role; the Soviet reusable space-craft programme has its roots in the beginning of the space age, the late 1950s. The idea of Soviet reusable space flight is old, though it was neither continuous, nor organized. Before Buran, no project of the programme reached production; the idea saw its first iteration in the Burya high-altitude jet aircraft, which reached the prototype stage. Several test flights are known; the Burya had the goal of delivering a nuclear payload to the United States, returning to base. The cancellation was based on a final decision to develop ICBMs.
The next iteration of the idea was Zvezda from the early 1960s, which reached a prototype stage. Decades another project with the same name was used as a service module for the International Space Station. After Zvezda, there was a hiatus in reusable projects until Buran; the development of the Buran began in the early 1970s as a response to the U. S. Space Shuttle program. Soviet officials were concerned about a perceived military threat posed by the U. S. Space Shuttle. In their opinion, the Shuttle's 30-ton payload-to-orbit capacity and, more its 15-ton payload return capacity, were a clear indication that one of its main objectives would be to place massive experimental laser weapons into orbit that could destroy enemy missiles from a distance of several thousands of kilometers, their reasoning was that such weapons could only be tested in actual space conditions and that to cut their development time and save costs it would be necessary to bring them back to Earth for modifications and fine-tuning.
Soviet officials were concerned that the U. S. Sp
The Salyut programme was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union. It involved a series of four crewed scientific research space stations and two crewed military reconnaissance space stations over a period of 15 years, from 1971 to 1986. Two other Salyut launches failed. In one respect, Salyut had the task of carrying out long-term research into the problems of living in space and a variety of astronomical and Earth-resources experiments, on the other hand the USSR used this civilian program as a cover for the secretive military Almaz stations, which flew under the Salyut designation. Salyut 1, the first station in the program, became the world's first crewed space station. Salyut flights broke several spaceflight records, including several mission-duration records, achieved the first orbital handover of a space station from one crew to another, various spacewalk records; the ensuing Soyuz programme was vital for evolving space station technology from a basic, engineering development stage, from single docking port stations to complex, multi-ported, long-term orbital outposts with impressive scientific capabilities, whose technological legacy continues to the present day.
Experience gained from the Salyut stations paved the way for multimodular space stations such as Mir and the International Space Station, with each of those stations possessing a Salyut-derived core module at its heart. Mir-2, the final spacecraft from the Salyut series, became one of the first modules of the ISS; the first module of the ISS, the Russian-made Zarya, relied on technologies developed in the Salyut programme. The program was composed of DOS civilian stations and OPS military stations: The Almaz-OPS space station cores were designed in October 1964 by Vladimir Chelomei's OKB-52 organization as military space stations, long before the Salyut programme started. For Salyut, small modifications had to be made to the docking port of the OPS to accommodate Soyuz spacecraft in addition to TKS spacecraft; the civilian DOS space station cores were designed by Sergei Korolev's OKB-1 organization – Korolev and Chelomei had been in fierce competition in the Soviet space industry during the time of the Soviet manned lunar programme.
In an effort by OKB-1 to catch up with OKB-52, they took Chelomei's Almaz-OPS hull design and mated it with subsystems derived from their own Soyuz. This was done beginning with conceptual work in August 1969; the DOS differed from the OPS modules in several aspects, including extra solar panels and rear docking ports for Soyuz spacecraft and TKS spacecraft, more docking ports in DOS-7 and DOS-8 to attach further space station modules. When it was realized that the civilian DOS stations could not only offer a cover story for the military Almaz programme, but could be finished within one year, the Salyut programme begun on 15 February 1970 – under the condition that the manned lunar program would not suffer. However, the engineers at OKB-1 switched from the L3 lunar lander effort, perceived as a dead-end, to start work on DOS – despite fears that it would kill the Soviet manned Moon shot. In the end it turned out that the Soviet N1 "Moon Shot" rocket never flew so OKB-1's decisions to abandon the ill-fated Soviet manned lunar program, to derive a DOS space station from existing Soyuz subsystems and an Almaz/OPS hull proved to be right: The actual time from the DOS station's inception to the launch of the first DOS-based Salyut 1 space station took only 16 months.
The space stations were to be named Zarya, the Russian word for'Dawn'. However, as the launch of the first station in the programme was prepared, it was realised that this would conflict with the call sign Zarya of the flight control centre in Korolyov – therefore the name of the space stations was changed to Salyut shortly before launch of Salyut 1. Another explanation given is that the name might have offended the Chinese, who purportedly were preparing a new rocket for launch, which they had named "Dawn"; the Salyut programme was managed by Kerim Kerimov, chairman of the state commission for Soyuz missions. While a total of nine space stations were launched in the Salyut programme, with six manned, setting some records along the way, it was the stations Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 that became the workhorses of the program. Out of the total of 1,697 days of occupancy that all Salyut crews achieved, Salyut 6 and 7 accounted for 1,499. While Skylab featured a second docking port, these two Salyut stations became the first that utilized two docking ports: This made it possible for two Soyuz spacecraft to dock at the same time for crew exchange of the station and for Progress spacecraft to resupply the station, allowing for the first time a continuous occupation of space stations.
The heritage of the Salyut programme continued to live on in the first multi-module space station Mir with the Mir Core Module, that accumulated 4,592 days of occupancy, in the International Space Station with the Zvezda module, that as of 21 August 2012 accumulated 4,310 days of occupancy. Furthermore, the Functional Cargo Block space station modules were derived from the Almaz programme, with the Zarya ISS module being still in operation together with Zvezda. Salyut 1 was launched on 19 April 1971, it was the first space station to orbit the Earth. Its first cre
Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute
The National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" is a major university in Kiev, Ukraine. In January 2012 Webometrics Ranking KPI made it into top 1,000 – taking 957th place out of 20,300 universities, 510th. 1898–1918 Kiev Polytechnic Institute of Emperor Alexander II. The institute was founded on 31 August 1898 as the Kiev Polytechnic Institute of Emperor Alexander II, but its current building complex was not built until 1902; until the institute was renting out its space at the building of Commercial School located on Vorovsky Street. At that time it had four departments: Mechanical, Chemical and Civil Engineering; the first enrolment constituted 360 students. The leading Russian scientists Dmitri Mendeleev, Nikolai Zhukovsky and Kliment Arkadyevich Timiryazev gave substantial scientific and organizational assistance in the founding of the institute. Viktor Kyrpychov was the first rector of the KPI, it was due to Kyrpychov's efforts that such professors like V.
P. Yermakov, S. M. Reformatsky, M. I. Konovalov or Vladimir Zworykin became members of the first faculty. Since its establishing the institute was involved in the 1899 All-Russian student strike, which resulted in arrest and exile of 32 students. In the beginning of 1899 in the institute was established underground organizational committee and had a close relation with the Kiev council of united communities and organizations. In 1930, the Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture was established on the basis of factory and communal construction branch of the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute and the Architectural faculty of the Kyiv Art Institute. Educational and Scientific Complex "Institute of Applied Systems Analysis" - ESC "IASA" Educational and Research Institute of Telecommunication Systems - ITS Institute of Energy Saving and Energy Management - IEE Institute of Special Communication and Information Security - ISIS Mechanics and Machine-Building Institute - MMI Publishing and Printing Institute - VPI Physics and Engineering Institute - PTI Inter-branch Institute of Post-graduate Education Institute of Pre-admission education and Vocational Guidance Aviation and Space Applied Mathematics Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering Chemical Engineering Electricity and Energy Engineering Electronics Engineering & Chemistry Engineering & Physics Heat-and-power Engineering Informatics and Computer Engineering Instrument-Making Inter-university Medical Engineering Faculty Law Linguistics Management and Marketing Radioengineering Physical Training and Sports Physics and Mathematics Sociology Welding The university has two campuses the central one being located in Kiev, the other in town of Slavutych.
The Kiev campus of the university is located near the city centre in a park named after the university. Here 9,000 of non-Kievite students are accommodated in 21 dormitories, 3 of them for married students; the life conditions at the university domes is a matter of numerous complaints of their inhabitants living in an 18 square meters rooms by 4 people in the room. The institute has an outpatient medical department for students; the Institute considers organized leisure a important factor in bringing up young specialists. The Knowledge Square is the centre of the entire KPI complex. 105 x 100 meters. The Knowledge square is connected to one of the main city thoroughfare, prospect "Peremohy". Meetings and graduation ceremonies take place at the square; the University has an assembly hall with 1,750 seats. It was opened in August 1984. Various sport facilities exist at the institute. There are training grounds, soccer fields and basketball courts at student disposal. There are many nationally; some Institutes were organized on the KPI basis.
Among them are: the Civil Engineering Institute. Technological Institute of Light and Food Industry, the Institute of civil Aviation and Road Building Institute and others. In 1934 - 1944 the KPI was called an Industrial Institute. Scientific Society of Students and Post-graduates Scientific-industrial laboratory DIDAKTIK UNESCO Chair in Higher Technical Education, Applied System Analysis and Informatics State Polytechnic Museum University Interclub University Library The Summer School “Achievements and Applications of Contemporary Informatics and Physics” - is an annual international scientific-educational project of volunteers from the university's Student Science Association of National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, it is aimed at an international audience of advanced students and young scientists. There are about 100 participants, it has been traditionally held each August since 2006. As a rule, the duration of the
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta