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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by his alias Lenin, was a Russian revolutionary and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration and the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism. Born to a moderately prosperous middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empire's Tsarist government, he devoted the following years to a law degree, he became a senior Marxist activist. In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent theorist in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.

In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, leading the Bolshevik faction against Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Encouraging insurrection during Russia's failed Revolution of 1905, he campaigned for the First World War to be transformed into a Europe-wide proletarian revolution, which as a Marxist he believed would cause the overthrow of capitalism and its replacement with socialism. After the 1917 February Revolution ousted the Tsar and established a Provisional Government, he returned to Russia to play a leading role in the October Revolution, in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the new regime. Lenin's Bolshevik government shared power with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, elected soviets, a multi-party Constituent Assembly, although by 1918 it had centralised power in the new Communist Party. Lenin's administration redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry, it withdrew from the First World War by signing a treaty conceding territory to the Central Powers, promoted world revolution through the Communist International.

Opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign administered by the state security services. His administration defeated right and left-wing anti-Bolshevik armies in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922 and oversaw the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. Responding to wartime devastation and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin encouraged economic growth through the market-oriented New Economic Policy. Several non-Russian nations had secured independence from the Russian Empire after 1917, but three were re-united into the new Soviet Union in 1922, his health failing, Lenin died in Gorki, with Joseph Stalin succeeding him as the pre-eminent figure in the Soviet government. Considered one of the most significant and influential figures of the 20th century, Lenin was the posthumous subject of a pervasive personality cult within the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991, he became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism–Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement.

A controversial and divisive historical figure, Lenin is viewed by supporters as a champion of socialism and the working class, while critics on both the left and right emphasize his role as founder and leader of an authoritarian regime responsible for political repression and mass killings. Lenin's father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs. Despite this lower-class background Ilya had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility. Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863. Well educated, she was the daughter of a wealthy German–Swedish Lutheran mother, a Russian Jewish father who had converted to Christianity and worked as a physician, it is that Lenin was unaware of his mother's half-Jewish ancestry, only discovered by his sister Anna after his death. Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, rising to become Director of Primary Schools in the Simbirsk district six years later.

Five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450 schools as a part of the government's plans for modernisation. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, which bestowed on him the status of hereditary nobleman. Lenin was baptised six days later, he was the third of eight children, having two older siblings and Alexander. They were followed by three more children, Olga and Maria. Two siblings died in infancy. Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria—a Lutheran by upbringing—was indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children. Both parents were monarchists and liberal conservatives, being committed to the emancipation reform of 1861 introduced by the reformist Tsar Alexander II; every summer they holidayed at a rural manor in Kokushkino. Among his siblings, Lenin was closest to his sister Olga, whom he bossed around.

Abbey Stadium

Abbey Stadium is a football stadium in Cambridge, England. It has been the home ground of Cambridge United F. C. since 1932, has a maximum capacity of 8,127 spectators. Cambridge Regional College F. C. Cambridge United's feeder club, played their home games at The Abbey from 2006 until their dissolution in 2014; the first match played at the Abbey was a friendly against a team from Cambridge University Press on 31 August 1932. The record attendance at the ground was for a friendly, against Chelsea to mark the first use of the ground's new floodlights on 1 May 1970; this was the first time. Until well into the modern era, the Abbey Stadium was the only Football League ground to be styled a stadium, was second only to Wembley Stadium in so being named. However, more recent ground moves and name changes have meant that a number of league clubs now play at grounds styled stadiums. For sponsorship reasons, the ground was until 2017 named the Cambs Glass Stadium. For similar reasons it has previously been named the Trade Recruitment Stadium, the R Costings Abbey Stadium.

However, thanks to the cooperation of sponsors the ground has reverted to its original name of the Abbey Stadium. Abbey United had moved to Parker's Piece at the start of the 1930–31 season. Despite the special significance of Parker's Piece in the history of football, it being the first place where the Cambridge Rules were played out, the lack of spectator capacity and disruption caused during games meant this move was not a successful one. Henry Francis president of the club, offered United a lifeline in 1931 when he donated land he had acquired to the club, erected a grandstand and changing rooms on it; this land, where United have been resident since, was close to one of the club's former grounds where, with the approval of the Cambridgeshire FA, the club played while the new ground was being prepared. The first match at the newly constructed Abbey was played on 31 August 1932 against Cambridge University Press. A grandstand was not opened until March 1934, subsequent stands were constructed between a period of many years up until 1954 when the final terrace, on the west of the ground, was completed.

Much redevelopment has occurred since including the redevelopment of the main stand to include a roof and extra seating and, most the erection of a new all-seated stand at the south of the ground to replace the original open terrace that had stood there since 1966. Despite planning permission being granted for further development, as part of the same scheme, at the north end of the ground, financial difficulties meant this has yet to be entered into. In the 1991-92 season, Cambridge were challenging for promotion to the forthcoming new Premier League and were faced with the prospect of changing Abbey Stadium into an all-seater venue, as all teams in the highest two divisions of the English league were obliged to be all-seater by 1994 due to the changes in legislation that followed the Hillsborough disaster of 1989, but due to Cambridge's subsequent decline meant that the ground has changed little in the last 15 years, with standing accommodation still permitted below the second tier of the English league there has been little pressure to make the stadium all-seater and in 2001 the club's directors stated that it was their intention to retain standing accommodation for as long as they are at a level that will permit it.

The same financial difficulties meant the Abbey Stadium land, donated to the club by Henry Francis in 1931, was sold to director John Howard's company Bideawhile 445 Ltd. in December 2004. Although the club confirmed in January 2006 it had "reached an agreement in principle" to buy back the ground, this has not yet happened, but is seen as crucial in safeguarding its long term financial security. In January 2006, John Howard announced plans to move out of the Abbey Stadium to a new purpose built stadium in Milton; these were criticised by fans as risking the club's identity by moving out of the city and, despite Howard describing them as crucial to the club's future, little else has been heard of them since. In April 2008, the club announced that for the first time, the corporate naming rights in the stadium had been sold. Although the club's Chief Executive Norman Gautrey acknowledged that the fans would'mourn the passing' of the Abbey Stadium name, it was stated to be crucial to the club's finances given the high annual rent on the ground.

Trade Recruitment began a five-year sponsorship deal on 1 May 2008 for a total fee of £250,000. In the June 2009 a new deal was announced with a St Ives-based legal firm to rename the stadium as the R Costings Abbey Stadium. In March 2010 Cambridge Fans United started a project to purchase the Abbey Stadium from Bideawhile 445 Ltd; the attempt was unsuccessful and the stadium was sold to Grosvenor Estates for £3.5m. Positive talks between the club and Grosvenor have resulted in a "significant" rent reduction from the annual £240,000 being paid to previous ground owners Bideawhile over the next three years. Cambridge United and their development partners, Great Shelford-based Wrenbridge, have shaken hands on a memorandum of understanding to consider options for a new community stadium in Cambridgeshire; the Main Stand — a single-tier, all-seater stand running the length of the east side of the pitch including a family area and media box. The Habbin Stand — a single-tier, all-terraced stand

Romain Langasque

Romain Langasque is a French professional golfer who plays on the European Tour. He won The Amateur Championship in 2015 and in 2018 had his biggest professional success in the Hopps Open de Provence. Langasque won The Amateur Championship in 2015 at Carnoustie Golf Links, beating Grant Forrest 4&2 in the final, his Amateur Championship win gave an entry to the 2015 Open Championship where he made the cut and finished tied for 65th place. He got an entry to the 2016 Masters Tournament where he was one of two amateurs to make the cut and finished tied for 39th place. Langasque turned professional after the 2016 Masters Tournament, thus forfeiting his exemption into the 2016 U. S. Open. Langasque played on the Challenge Tour in 2016, where he was runner-up in the Barclays Kenya Open, the D+D Real Slovakia Challenge and the Vierumäki Finnish Challenge, he finished ninth in the Road to Oman, the order of merit, to gain entry to the European Tour for 2017. Langasque started the 2017 European Tour season by finishing tied for 10th place in the Australian PGA Championship.

This was his only top-10 finish of the season and he finished 151st in the Race to Dubai, losing his European Tour place. In December 2017 he finished tied third at the AfrAsia Bank Mauritius Open, where he had been invited, he missed the cut in 5 of the 6 other European Tour events he was able to play, the last of them being the HNA Open de France in July 2018. Back on the 2018 Challenge Tour, he had a difficult start, earning less than €6,000 until mid-July. From the Le Vaudreuil Golf Challenge he started playing more solidly, making eight cuts in a row, including a tied fifth place at the Kazakhstan Open in September and his first professional victory a week at the Hopps Open de Provence. Despite a fourth place finish in the Ras Al Khaimah Challenge Tour Grand Final, he finished 19th in the Road to Ras Al Khaimah rankings, missing out on a European Tour place. However, less than two weeks he finished in 5th place in the European Tour Q-School to earn a place on the European Tour for 2019.

Langasque had a successful start to the 2019 European Tour season, finishing second in the South African Open in December 2018. The event was part of the Open Qualifying Series and his high finish gave him an entry to the 2019 Open Championship, his first major as a professional, he had solo third-place finishes in the Made in Denmark tournament and the Scottish Open and finished the 2019 season 24th in the Order of Merit. 2011 Tournoi Federal Jeunes 2013 Grand Prix de la Ligue Messieurs 2014 Grand Prix de Bordeaux, Trophee des Regions 2015 Southern Cross Invitational, Coupe Frayssineau Mouchy, The Amateur Championship 2016 Spanish International Amateur Golf ChampionshipSource: CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" = tied Amateur Jacques Léglise Trophy: 2012, 2013 European Boys Team Championship: 2011, 2012, 2013 Professional World Cup: 2016 2016 Challenge Tour graduates 2018 European Tour Qualifying School graduates Romain Langasque at the European Tour official site Romain Langasque at the Official World Golf Ranking official site