Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
People's Artist of the USSR
People's Artist of the USSR sometimes translated as National Artist of the USSR, was an honorary title granted to artists of the Soviet Union. The term is confusingly used to translate two Russian language titles: Народный артист СССР, awarded in performing arts and Народный художник СССР, granted in some visual arts; each Soviet Republic, as well as the Autonomous Republics, had a similar award held by every receiver of the higher title of People's Artist of the USSR. As this title was granted by the government, honorees were afforded certain privileges and would receive commissions from the Minister of Culture of the Soviet Union. Accordingly and authors who expressed criticism of the Communist Party were granted such recognition, if not outright censored; the title was bestowed for exceptional achievements in the performing arts in the Soviet Union. Its recipients included many of the most-acclaimed composers, singers and theatre directors and actors of every Soviet republic. In all, there were 1010 recipients of the award.
The title was introduced in 1936, replacing the earlier title of "People's Artist of the Republic". The first recipients of the title were Konstantin Stanislavski, Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, Ivan Moskvin, Antonina Nezhdanova, Boris Shchukin, Kulyash Baiseitova and some other actors; the last persons to be honoured with the title were Oleg Yankovsky. The title was bestowed on theatre actors, ballet dancers, opera singers only, it came to be bestowed upon film actors, violinist, pop singers and circus performers such as Natalya Durova and Oleg Popov. A person was named the People's Artist of the USSR after 40 years of age. Exceptions were made for dancers, e.g. Nadezhda Pavlova, a ballet artist, received the title at the age of 28, Malika Kalantarova, a famous Bukharian Jewish folk dancer from Tajikistan, received the title at the age of 34; the youngest female persons to receive this title were Kazakh opera singers Kulyash Baiseitova and Halima Nasyrova. The youngest male person was pop singer Muslim Magomayev.
Among the actors, the youngest recipient was Sergey Bondarchuk. The youngest actress to receive the title was Yuri Andropov's daughter-in-law, Lyudmila Chursina, at age 40. Sofia Rotaru, for example, was named Merited Artist of the Ukrainian SSR in 1973, People's Artist of the Ukrainian SSR in 1976, People's Artist of the Moldavian SSR in 1983, an attained cumulation of People's Artist titles, People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1988, the first female pop-singer to be honored with this award and the only one with three People's Artists; as of 2018, the earliest living recipient is Ukrainian opera singer Bela Rudenko. The title of People's Painter of the Soviet Union was awarded for exceptional achievements in certain visual arts: painting, sculpture and photography; the lesser title of Meritorious Painter of the Soviet Union was awarded for achievement in these fields. People's Architect of the Soviet Union: Народный архитектор СССР People's Teacher of the Soviet Union: Народный учитель СССР People's Doctor of the Soviet Union: Народный врач СССР Category:People's Artists of the USSR - list of recipients Category:People's Artists of the USSR - list of recipients Hero of Socialist Labour - the highest civilian decoration in the Soviet Union List of People's Artists of Azerbaijan Meritorious Artist People's Artist People's Artist of Russia Russian Academy of Art
Guria is a region in Georgia, in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. The region has a population of 113,000, with Ozurgeti as the regional capital. Guria is bordered by Samegrelo to the north-west, Imereti to the north, Samtskhe-Javakheti to the east, Ajaria to the south, the Black Sea to the west; the province has an area of 2,033 km². Guria is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal longitude. Guria is divided into 4 entities, including: City of Ozurgeti Ozurgeti Municipality Lanchkhuti Municipality Chokhatauri Municipality The toponym "Guria" is first attested in the c. 800 Georgian chronicle of Pseudo-Juansher. Guria first appears c. 1352 as a fief of the house of Vardanidze-Dadiani. The principality, comprising modern Guria and much of Adjara with the city of Batumi, was subsequently reduced in size and devastated in a series of conflicts with the Ottoman Empire. A Russian protectorate was established by the treaty concluded on June 19, 1810 between Mamia V Gurieli and the empire, in 1829, during the regency for the last prince, the Gurieli David, the principality was annexed by Russia.
There were uprisings against Russian rule in 1819 and again in 1841. In 1840, Guria was renamed Ozurgeti, after one of its main towns. In 1846, it was transferred to the new Kutais Governorate. By 1904, the population was just under 100,000, occupying an area of 532,000 acres of mountains and swampy valleys, covered by corn fields and some tea plantations, it was the most ethnically homogenous of Georgian areas, with the peasantry and lesser rural nobility making up the entire population, with a high level of literacy and high degree of economic self-satisfaction. The peasant protest movement, which originated in 1902 and culminated in an open insurrection against the government during the Russian Revolution of 1905, was the most effective and organized peasant movement in the empire; the peasants’ self-government, the so-called Gurian Republic, survived into 1906, when it was crashed and Guria devastated by the Cossack punitive expedition. The region was a native powerbase of the Georgian Social Democratic Party which dominated the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921.
Guria was a scene of guerrilla resistance to the militarily imposed Soviet rule early in the 1920s. Under the Soviet government, Guria was an agrarian area divided into three administrative districts. In 1995, the Georgian government decreed the creation of the region of Guria, restoring the province’s historical name to official usage; the Orthodox churches of Likhauri and Shemokmedi are the main historical buildings in the province. As for the etymology of the name of Guria, some say that the root of the word refers to restlessness and the word should mean “the land of the restless” and may be associated with events during the eighth and ninth centuries when “Leon became the King of Abkhazeti, Guruls refused to obey the ruler of Odzrakho, ceased their vassal relations with Adarnase and Ashot Bagrationi and united with Leon” as it was described in Vakhushti Bagrationi’s historical works of the eighteenth century. According to a explanation, in the times of Georgia’s prosperity, when its borders stretched from "Nikopsia to Daruband", Guria was situated in the heart of the Georgian territory.
The linguistic evidence for the above hypothesis is the Megrelian for “heart” – “guri”. Subtropic farming and tourism is a mainstay of the region’s economy. Water is one of the Guria’s main assets; the province is famous for the mineral water of Nabeglavi, similar to Borjomi in its chemical composition and the Black Sea health resort of Ureki rich in magnetic sand. Guria is one of the largest tea growing regions in Georgia. According to the 2014 census, Guria has a population of 113.000 inhabitants, which accounts for 3.1% of the total population of Georgia. 98% of the population is ethnic Georgian, 1% is ethnic Armenian and the remaining 1% is composed of Ossetians and Russians and the majority of the population is Orthodox Christians, followed by Islam. The Gurians or Gurulebi is one of the ethnographical groups of Georgians. Gurians speak the Gurian dialect of the Georgian language; the administration centre is Ozurgeti. There are 189 populated areas, including: City: 2: Ozurgeti, Lanchkhuti Daba: 5: Chokhatauri, Naruja, Kveda Nasakirali Villages: 172 Ekvtime Takaishvili, historian.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921. Pavle Ingorokva, historian and public benefactor. Eduard Shevardnadze, Georgia's former president. Nodar Dumbadze, Writer. Subdivisions of Georgia
Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, to the southeast by Azerbaijan; the capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia; the Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The common belief had an enormous importance for spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and disintegrated under hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, successive dynasties of Iran.
In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century. During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and emerged as an independent republic before the Red Army invasion in 1921 which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation which in 1922 would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During the Great Patriotic War 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the German invaders.
After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956. From that time on, Georgia would become marred with blatant corruption and increased alienation of the government from the people. By the 1980s, Georgians were ready to abandon the existing system altogether. A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; this strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia. Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development.
It contains two de facto independent regions and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation. "Georgia" stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān and Arabic ĵurĵan/ĵurzan. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός; as Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān as the root of the word. Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages; this term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, referred to as Gorgan.
The native name is Sakartvelo, derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi; the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times; the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, or Iberia as it is known in sources of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians; the Georgian circumfix sa-X-o is a standard geographic construction designating "the area where X dwell", where X is an ethnonym. To
The Russian nobility originated in the 14th century. In 1914 it consisted of 1,900,000 members. Up until the February Revolution of 1917 the noble estates staffed most of the Russian government; the Russian word for nobility, derives from Slavonic dvor, meaning the court of a prince or duke and of the tsar or emperor. Here, dvor referred to servants at the estate of an aristocrat. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, the word dvoryane described the highest rank of gentry, who performed duties at the royal court, lived in it, or were candidates to it. A nobleman is called a dvoryanin. Pre-Soviet Russia shared with other countries the concept that nobility connotes a status or social category rather than a title. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, the title of nobleman in Russia became a formal status, rather than a reference to a member of aristocracy, due to a massive influx of commoners via the Table of ranks. Many descendants of former ancient Russian aristocracy, including royalty, had changed their formal standing to merchants, burghers or peasants, while people descended from serfs or clergy gained formal nobility.
The nobility arose in the 12th and 13th centuries as the lowest part of the feudal military class, which comprised the court of a prince or an important boyar. From the 14th century land ownership by nobles increased, by the 17th century the bulk of feudal lords and the majority of landowners were nobles; the nobles were granted estates out of State lands in return for their service to the Tsar, either for as long as they performed service, or for their lifetime. By the 18th century, these estates had become private property, they made up the Landed army —the basic military force of Russia. Peter the Great finalized the status of the nobility, while abolishing the boyar title; the adoption of the fashions and ideals of Western Europe by the Russian nobility was a gradual process rooted in the strict guidelines of Peter the Great and the educational reforms of Catherine the Great. While cultural westernization was superficial and restricted to court, it coincided with the efforts of Russian autocrats to link Russia to Western Europe in more fundamental ways – economically and politically.
However, Russia's existing economic system, which lacked a sizable middle class and which relied on forced labor, proved an insurmountable obstacle to the development of a free market economy. Furthermore, the lower classes lived isolated from the upper classes and the imperial court. Thus, most of the nobility's “western” tendencies were aesthetic and confined to a tiny proportion of the populace; as different rulers ascended the throne in the 19th century, each figure brought a different attitude and approach to ruling the nobility. By introducing the nobility to political literature from Western Europe, Catherine exposed Russia's autocracy to them as archaic and illiberal. While the nobility was conservative as a whole, a liberal and radical minority remained constant throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, resorting to violence on multiple occasions to challenge Russia's traditional political system. Although Peter the Great is considered by many to be the first westernized person of Russia, there were, in fact, contacts between the Muscovite nobility and Western Europe before his reign.
Ivan III, starting in 1472, sent numerous agents to Italy to study architecture. Both Michael Romanov and his son Alexis invited and sponsored European visitors – military and building specialists – who came to Moscow in foreign dress, speaking foreign languages; when the boyars began to imitate the westerners in dress and hair style, Tsar Alexis in 1675 and Tsar Feodor in 1680 restricted foreign fashions to distinguish between Russians and outsiders, but due to ineffective enforcement these efforts proved ineffective until the 1690s. Peter the Great was and foremost, eager to do away with Russia's reputation as an Asiatic land and to propel his new empire onto the political stage of Western Europe. One of the many ways he hoped to achieve this was by changing upper class culture. In 1697, he began to send nobles on compulsory trips abroad to England and Italy. While the Tsar designed these expeditions for naval training, he encouraged the noblemen to learn about the arts of the west. Furthermore Peter prioritized sending Russian natives as opposed to foreign expatriates.
When the travelers returned to Moscow, Peter tested them on their training, insisting on further education for those whose accumulated knowledge was unsatisfactory. By 1724, he had established – for the purpose of scientific study and discovery – the Academy of Sciences, which he modeled after “the ones in Paris, London and other places”. Peter's westernizing efforts became more radical after 1698 when he returned from his expedition through Europe known as the Grand Embassy. Upon arriving Peter summoned the nobility to his court and shaved every b
Olga Leonardovna Knipper-Chekhova was a Russian and Soviet stage actress. She was married to Anton Chekhov. Knipper was among the 39 original members of the Moscow Art Theatre when it was formed by Konstantin Stanislavski in 1898, she played Arkadina in The Seagull, played Elena in the Moscow premiere of Uncle Vanya, was the first to play Masha in Three Sisters and Madame Ranevskaya in The Cherry Orchard. Knipper married Anton Chekhov, the author of these plays, in 1901. Knipper-Chekhova played Ranevskaya again in 1943, when the theatre marked the 300th performance of The Cherry Orchard; the German actress Olga Chekhova was her niece and the Soviet composer Lev Knipper was her nephew. Olga Leonardovna Knipper was born on the 21 September 1868 in Glazov to Anna Knipper. Though both of her parents were of German origin, her father claimed Russia as their family heritage. Around the time of Olga's birth, her father, was in charge of a factory in a small town north-east of European Russia called Glazov.
Two years after Olga was born, her family moved to Moscow, where they became accustomed to an upper-middle-class lifestyle. Growing up in between her two brothers and Vladimir, Olga was pampered extensively, she attended a private school for girls, was fluent in French and English, took music and singing lessons after rigorous schooling days. Olga showed considerable promise as a painter and was her own accompanist on the piano when she entertained friends and family at dinner parties, her father, anxious to conform to the social conventions of his adopted country, made it clear at an early age that Olga's aspirations in life should be confined to marrying well and becoming a house-wife. Her mother, Anna Ivanovna, though talented as a singer and pianist, was forced to give up any hopes of pursuing a professional career in the arts and felt that Olga had to do the same. In 1894, Olga's father died unexpectedly, leaving the 25-year-old and her mother troubled by the outstanding debts he left behind from living well beyond their means.
Olga and her mother both began giving singing lessons to make ends meet. They dismissed four of their five servants, moved into a smaller flat. Olga's hopes of becoming a successful stage actress had not yet diminished. Going ahead with her intentions without her mother's approval and giving up her social circle relations was a sacrifice Olga was willing to make: "Whenever in my life I wanted something, believed in the possibility of achieving what I wanted and acted energetically, I always succeeded and never regretted going my own way", she wrote, she enrolled into the Maly Theatre's drama school, although she dropped out one month later. With the help of her reluctant mother, Olga enrolled at the Philharmonic School, where she was taught by the future co-founder of the Moscow Art Theatre, Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. Nemirovich introduced Knipper and fellow student Vsevolod Meierhold to Constantin Stanislavski. Told in strict confidence, Nemirovich confessed to Knipper and Meierhold that he and Stanislavski were planning the creation of a new theatre company.
Nemirovich assured the two actors that they would be invited to join this company and to help lead it to greatness. After many weeks, enough capital was secured to found the new company; the company gathered in Pushkino, where Stanislavski addressed Knipper and the other members, telling them that he hoped they had all come to dedicate their lives to creating the "first rational and universally accessible theatre in Russia." While rehearsing for The Seagull on 9 September, Olga's 30th birthday, she met Russia's most eligible literary bachelor and playwright of The Seagull, Anton Chekhov 38. Knipper and Chekhov exchanged telegrams and letters for the next few years, while Olga became more familiar with Chekhov's younger sister, Masha. Random letters of teasing and playfulness became letters of love and deep remorse that they lived so far apart from each other. Olga's true colors shone throughout her letters of correspondence, her ill-moods, volatile tempers, combined with her sporadic high spirits, kept Chekhov on his toes.
In the winter of 1900, Chekhov returned from Yalta and headed to Moscow, with a new play that he had written with a'dear actress' in mind. "What a part I’ve got for you in Three Sisters. Give me ten rubles and you can have it, otherwise I’ll give it to another actress", Chekhov wrote to Olga. Many similarities existed between Olga Knipper and the character Chekhov wrote for her in Three Sisters, Masha. Knipper was to play the middle of one brother; the only married sibling of the foursome and "the most original and talented of the three sisters. To portray a young woman of culture and refinement, who speaks French and English, is a first-class pianist" was no problem for Knipper who acquired those skills. Knipper received much praise for her portrayal as Masha, much to Chekhov's amusement. Anton Chekhov and Olga Knipper married on 25 May 1901 at the Church of the Exaltation of the Cross, it was a spur of the moment, small wedding about which hardly anyone knew, including Chekhov's mother and sister, Olga's mother.
Many close friends and family were hurt by the secrecy. Their marriage ended when Chekhov died of tuberculosis in 1904, it has been claimed in 1902 she had an operation to abort an ectopic pregnancy. The conception must have taken place at a time when she and Chekhov were temporarily living apart and he could not have been the father.