Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
See branches of biology. The term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and the suffix -λογία, -logia, "study of." The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica. It was used again in 1766 in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: tomus III, continens geologian, phytologian generalis, by Michael Christoph Hanov, a disciple of Christian Wolff; the first German use, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus' work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, Grundzüge der Lehre van der Lebenskraft. Karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological and psychological perspective; the term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, who announced: The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, the causes through which they have been effected.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, Rhazes who wrote on anatomy and physiology.
Medicine was well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew on Aristotelian thought in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life. Biology began to develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope, it was that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria and the diversity of microscopic life. Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy had a profound impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell. In 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that the basic unit of organisms is the cell and that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that all cells come from the division of other cells. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.
Meanwhile and classification became the focus of natural historians. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in 1735, in the 1750s introduced scientific names for all his species. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable—even suggesting the possibility of common descent. Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought. Serious evolutionary thinking originated with the works of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the first to present a coherent theory of evolution, he posited that evolution was the result of environmental stress on properties of animals, meaning that the more and rigorously an organ was used, the more complex and efficient it would become, thus adapting the animal to its environment. Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would
The biosphere known as the ecosphere, is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems. It can be termed the zone of life on Earth, a closed system, self-regulating. By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere and atmosphere; the biosphere is postulated to have evolved, beginning with a process of biopoiesis or biogenesis, at least some 3.5 billion years ago. In a general sense, biospheres are any self-regulating systems containing ecosystems; this includes artificial biospheres such as Biosphere 2 and BIOS-3, ones on other planets or moons. The term "biosphere" was coined by geologist Eduard Suess in 1875, which he defined as the place on Earth's surface where life dwells. While the concept has a geological origin, it is an indication of the effect of both Charles Darwin and Matthew F. Maury on the Earth sciences; the biosphere's ecological context comes from the 1920s, preceding the 1935 introduction of the term "ecosystem" by Sir Arthur Tansley.
Vernadsky defined ecology as the science of the biosphere. It is an interdisciplinary concept for integrating astronomy, meteorology, evolution, geochemistry and speaking, all life and Earth sciences. Geochemists define the biosphere as being the total sum of living organisms. In this sense, the biosphere is but one of four separate components of the geochemical model, the other three being geosphere and atmosphere; when these four component spheres are combined into one system, it is known as the Ecosphere. This term was coined during the 1960s and encompasses both biological and physical components of the planet; the Second International Conference on Closed Life Systems defined biospherics as the science and technology of analogs and models of Earth's biosphere. Others may include the creation of artificial non-Earth biospheres—for example, human-centered biospheres or a native Martian biosphere—as part of the topic of biospherics; the earliest evidence for life on Earth includes biogenic graphite found in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks from Western Greenland and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone from Western Australia.
More in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia. In 2017, putative fossilized microorganisms were announced to have been discovered in hydrothermal vent precipitates in the Nuvvuagittuq Belt of Quebec, Canada that were as old as 4.28 billion years, the oldest record of life on earth, suggesting "an instantaneous emergence of life" after ocean formation 4.4 billion years ago, not long after the formation of the Earth 4.54 billion years ago. According to biologist Stephen Blair Hedges, "If life arose quickly on Earth... it could be common in the universe." Every part of the planet, from the polar ice caps to the equator, features life of some kind. Recent advances in microbiology have demonstrated that microbes live deep beneath the Earth's terrestrial surface, that the total mass of microbial life in so-called "uninhabitable zones" may, in biomass, exceed all animal and plant life on the surface; the actual thickness of the biosphere on earth is difficult to measure.
Birds fly at altitudes as high as 1,800 m and fish live as much as 8,372 m underwater in the Puerto Rico Trench. There are more extreme examples for life on the planet: Rüppell's vulture has been found at altitudes of 11,300 m. Herbivorous animals at these elevations depend on lichens and herbs. Life forms live in every part of the Earth's biosphere, including soil, hot springs, inside rocks at least 19 km deep underground, the deepest parts of the ocean, at least 64 km high in the atmosphere. Microorganisms, under certain test conditions, have been observed to survive the vacuum of outer space; the total amount of soil and subsurface bacterial carbon is estimated as 5 × 1017 g, or the "weight of the United Kingdom". The mass of prokaryote microorganisms—which includes bacteria and archaea, but not the nucleated eukaryote microorganisms—may be as much as 0.8 trillion tons of carbon. Barophilic marine microbes have been found at more than a depth of 10,000 m in the Mariana Trench, the deepest spot in the Earth's oceans.
In fact, single-celled life forms have been found in the deepest part of the Mariana Trench, by the Challenger Deep, at depths of 11,034 m. Other researchers reported related studies that microorganisms thrive inside rocks up to 580 m below the sea floor under 2,590 m of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States, as well as 2,400 m beneath the seabed off Japan. Culturable thermophilic microbes have been extracted from cores drilled more than 5,000 m (1
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies
Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies named after M. V. Lomonosov is one of the oldest universities in the country that offer training in a wide range of specialties in the field of chemical technology. There are more than 4,500 students in nine areas of undergraduate, 28 master's programs and 23 scientific specialties for training of candidates and doctors of science. In MITHT there are 8 dissertation councils for PhD theses. Research and teaching activities are performed by more than 400 professors and 158 scientists, including more than 120 doctors of science and professors. Located in Moscow at Vernadsky Avenue, Building 86 and Malaya Pirogovskaya, Building 1. History of the University and its continuing operations as a higher education institution begins 1 July 1900 and covers several stages. 1 July 1900 was organized the Moscow Higher Women Courses. Their structure consisted of two departments: History and Philosophy and Physics and Mathematics. On the last one were soon opened two offices: mathematical and natural, after a few years two more – medical and chemical-pharmaceutical.
The initiators and the first lecturers were outstanding scientists, academics subsequently S. A. Chaplygin, V. I. Vernadsky, N. D. Zelinsky, Professors V. F. Davidov, B. K. Mlodzeevskii, A. N. Reformatsky, A. A. Eichenwald, S. G. Krapivin; the first director of MHWC was Professor V. I. Guerrier. In 1905 as a director was elected S. A. Chaplygin, the leading scientist in the field of hydro- and aerodynamics, the organizer of the construction of school buildings on the Malaya Pirogovskaya street, he remained in that post until 1918. By the beginning of World War I MHWC turned into the one of the largest higher education institutions in the country; the number of trainees reached 710, during the existence of courses released 5760 professionals. In turning into a first-class university MHWC paramount importance had an exceptional organizational skill of S. A. Chaplygin shown to them with equal brilliance in creating TsAGI. 16 October 1918 MHWC were converted into second Moscow State University. The first rector of the 2nd Moscow State University was appointed academician S. S. Nametkin who worked since 1913 as a head of the Department of Organic Chemistry of MHWC.
As rector, he remained until 1924. As part of the 2nd Moscow State University became the chemical-pharmaceutical department, which in 1919 was transformed into the chemical and pharmaceutical department. At this time, on the faculty worked well-known Professors A. M. Berkengeim, B. K. Mlodzeevskii, S. S. Nametkin, M. I. Prozin, A. N. Reformatsky, O. N. Tsuberbiller. In 1929, the faculty became a chemical faculty of the university type with specialties such as: Chemical – pharmaceutical chemistry. Faculty graduates go to work in the factories, involve in the implementation of research projects that receive a wide scope. During 1922 -- 1928 years it has been published about 11 monographs; the greatest successes are achieved in the fields of organic and pharmaceutical chemistry under the direction of heads of departments, academics S. S. Nametkin, B. M. Rodionov, Professor A. M. Berkengeim. Production of new drugs being introduced in the pharmaceutical factory belonging to faculty. 18 April 1930 by order of the People's Commissariat second MSU was reorganized into three independent institutions: Medical Pedagogical, Chemical Technology.
Last transferred to the jurisdiction of the Vsehimprom VSNKh USSR. In addressing this issue directly involved Sergo Ordzhonikidze. 10 May 1931 Chemical and Pharmaceutical Faculty became an independent and received a new name – the Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical Technology. The name of the Institute is due to the nature of objects that are studied by students: they were small capacity chemical and pharmaceutical technology, technology of platinum group metals and rare-earth elements. From this moment begins a new stage of development of the institution, becoming one of the leading universities in the chemical industry. Front of it set the goal of training for high-tech industries of chemical technology. In MITHT the first time in the country began to train engineers on the technology of thin inorganic products, synthetic rubber, thin organic produce synthetic liquid fuels, organometallic compounds and a number of other specialties. In the process of restructuring of education at the institute have been preserved and developed the best traditions of MHWC and 2nd Moscow State University: a high level of theoretical training and a combination of academic and scientific work, helped by the fact that the teaching work at the institute and chairing of departments were performed by outstanding scientists and educators which created a school and research areas.
Special departments were prepared engineers for industries which were still being created in the first five years. At the time, were of great importance establishment of a domestic pharmaceutical industry and the country's liberation on imports of medicines. Were developed and implemented methods of production of such drugs as atophan, procaine, thiokol, validol, caffeine and others. In 1938, in MITHT under the leadership of academic A. N. Nesmeyanov began work in the field of organometallic compounds; the Institute prepared professionals for the companies producing such important national defense materials, such as tungsten, vanadi
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Vasily Vasilyevich Dokuchaev was a Russian geologist and geographer, credited with laying the foundations of soil science. Vasily Vasil'evich Dokuchaev is regarded as the father of Soil science, the study of soils in its natural setting, he developed soil science in Russia, was the first person to make wide geographical investigations of different soil types. His great contribution to science was, figuratively, to "put soils on the map", he introduced the idea that geographical variations in soil type could be explained in relation not only to geological factors, but to climatic and topographic factors, the time available for pedogenesis to operate. Using these ideas as a basis, he created the first soil classification, his ideas were taken up by a number of soil scientists, including Hans Jenny. He worked on soil science, developed a classification scheme describing five factors for soil formation, he arrived at his theory after extensive field studies on Russian soils in 1883. His most famous work is Russian Chernozem.
Thanks to Dokuchaev's works a number of Russian soil terms are in the international soil science vocabulary. A crater on Mars is named in his honor and the Dokuchaev Award, the equivalent of the Nobel Prize in the field of Soil Science, was instituted by the International Union of Soil Sciences; the scientific basis of soil science as a natural science was established by the classical works of Dokuchaev. Soil had been considered a product of physicochemical transformations of rocks, a dead substrate from which plants derive nutritious mineral elements. Soil and bedrock were in fact equated. Dokuchaev considers the soil as a natural body having its own genesis and its own history of development, a body with complex and multiform processes taking place within it; the soil is considered as different from bedrock. The latter becomes soil under the influence of a series of soil-formation factors. According to him, soil should be called the "daily" or outward horizons of rocks regardless of the type.
Dokuchaev published in 1869-1901: 285 works, including 4 maps. List of publications Dokoutchaief B. 1879. Tchernozème de la Russie d'Europe. St.-Ptb.: Soc. imp. libre économ. 66 p.. Inostrantzev A. Schmidt Th. Moeller V. Karpinsky A. Dokoutchaief B. et al. 1882. Rapport de la Sous-commission russe sur l’uniformité de la nomenclature géologique // Congrès géologique international. 2-me session. Bologne. 1881: Compte rendu. Bologne: Fava et Garagnani. P. 529-534. Dokoutchaief B. B. 1892. Les steppes russes autrefois et aujurd’hui // Congrès international d'archéologie, préhistorique et d'antroppologie. 11 ses. Moscou. 1892. T. 1. Мoscou: impr. universite, T. 1. P. 197-240. St.-Ptb.: Dept. Agriculture Ministry of Crown Domains for the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, 1893. 62 p. Dokoutchaief B. B. 1892. Notes sur l’étude scientifique du sol en Russie au point de vue de l’agronomie et de la cartographie agricole // Bull. Soc. Belge géol. paleontol. Hydrol. 1891/1892. Vol. 4. P. 113-115. Dokouchaev V. V. 1893. Notes sur le loess // Bull.
Soc. Belge géol. paleontol. Hydrol. 1892/1893. Vol. 6. P. 92-101. Dokouchaev V. V. Sibirtzev N. M. 1893. Short scientific review of professor Dockuchaev’s and his pupil’s collection of soils, exposed in Chicago in the year 1893. St.-Ptb.: impr. Evdokimov. 40 p. Dokoutchaief B. B. 1895. Le Court contenu des Travaux de l’expédition, équipée par Departement forestier sous la direction prof. Dokoutschaeff. St.-Ptb.: impr. Evdokimov. 28 p. Docoutschaev V. V. 1897. Collection des sols du professeur Docoutschaev et de ses eleves, exposee au Musee mineralogique de l’Universite a St-Petersbourg:. St.-Ptb.: impr. Evdokimov 17 p. Dokoutschaeff В. B. 1900. Collection pédologique: Zones verticales des sols. Zones agricoles. Sols du Caucase. St.-Ptb.: Ministére des finances. 56 p.: сarte. Translations Dokuchaev, V. V. Russian Chernozem // Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd. S. Monson, Jerusalem, 1967.. Aleksandr Dokuchayev History of soil science List of Russian Earth scientists List of prizes known as the Nobel of a field Esakov V. A. Vasily Vasilievich Dokuchaev.
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Spanagel D. I. Early Russian Pedology: Some Thoughts on the History and Philosophy of a Discipline P. 25-29. V. Dokuchaev - Facebook page
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law and government. As a discipline, political economy originated in moral philosophy, in the 18th century, to explore the administration of states' wealth, with "political" signifying the Greek word polity and "economy" signifying the Greek word "okonomie"; the earliest works of political economy are attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot. In the late 19th century, the term "economics" began to replace the term "political economy" with the rise of mathematical modelling coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890. Earlier, William Stanley Jevons, a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated economics for brevity and with the hope of the term becoming "the recognised name of a science".
Citation measurement metrics from Google Ngram Viewer indicate that use of the term "economics" began to overshadow "political economy" around 1910, becoming the preferred term for the discipline by 1920. Today, the term "economics" refers to the narrow study of the economy absent other political and social considerations while the term "political economy" represents a distinct and competing approach. Political economy, where it is not used as a synonym for economics, may refer to different things. From an academic standpoint, the term may reference Marxian economics, applied public choice approaches emanating from the Chicago school and the Virginia school. In common parlance, "political economy" may refer to the advice given by economists to the government or public on general economic policy or on specific economic proposals developed by political scientists. A growing mainstream literature from the 1970s has expanded beyond the model of economic policy in which planners maximize utility of a representative individual toward examining how political forces affect the choice of economic policies as to distributional conflicts and political institutions.
It is available as a stand-alone area of study in certain universities. Political economy meant the study of the conditions under which production or consumption within limited parameters was organized in nation-states. In that way, political economy expanded the emphasis of economics, which comes from the Greek oikos and nomos. Political economy was thus meant to express the laws of production of wealth at the state level, just as economics was the ordering of the home; the phrase économie politique first appeared in France in 1615 with the well-known book by Antoine de Montchrétien, Traité de l’economie politique. The French physiocrats were the first exponents of political economy, although the intellectual responses of Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George and Karl Marx to the physiocrats receives much greater attention; the world's first professorship in political economy was established in 1754 at the University of Naples Federico II in southern Italy. The Neapolitan philosopher Antonio Genovesi was the first tenured professor.
In 1763, Joseph von Sonnenfels was appointed a Political Economy chair at the University of Vienna, Austria. Thomas Malthus, in 1805, became England's first professor of political economy, at the East India Company College, Hertfordshire. In its contemporary meaning, political economy refers to different yet related approaches to studying economic and related behaviours, ranging from the combination of economics with other fields to the use of different, fundamental assumptions that challenge earlier economic assumptions: Political economy most refers to interdisciplinary studies drawing upon economics and political science in explaining how political institutions, the political environment, the economic system—capitalist, communist, or mixed—influence each other; the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes associate political economy with three sub-areas: the role of government and/or class and power relationships in resource allocation for each type of economic system. Much of the political economy approach is derived from public choice theory on the one hand and radical political economics on the other hand, both dating from the 1960s.
Public choice theory is a microfoundations theory, intertwined with political economy. Both approaches model voters and bureaucrats as behaving in self-interested ways, in contrast to a view, ascribed to earlier mainstream economists, of government officials trying to maximize individual utilities from some kind of social welfare function; as such and political scientists associate political economy with approaches using rational-choice assumptions in game theory and in examining phenomena beyond economics' standard remit, such as government failure and complex decision making in which context the term "positive political economy" is common. Other "traditional" topics include analysis of such public policy issues as economic regulation, rent-seeking, market protection, institutional corruption and distributional politics. Empirical analysis includes the influence of elections on the choice of economic policy and forecasting models of electoral outcome