Narita International Airport
Narita International Airport known as Tokyo Narita Airport and known as New Tokyo International Airport, is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan. It is located 60 kilometres east of central Tokyo in Chiba Prefecture, straddling the border between the city of Narita and the adjacent town of Shibayama. Narita is the predominant international airport in Japan, handling around 50% of the country's international passenger traffic and 60% of its international air cargo traffic; as of 2016, Narita was the second-busiest passenger airport in Japan, was the tenth-busiest air freight hub in the world. Its 4,000-metre main runway shares the record for longest runway in Japan with the second runway at Kansai International Airport in Osaka. Narita serves as the main international hub of Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways and Nippon Cargo Airlines, as a hub for low-cost carriers Jetstar Japan and Vanilla Air. In 2017, Narita served 40,631,193 passengers, making it the 49th busiest airport in the world in terms of passenger traffic.
Prior to the opening of Narita Airport, Tokyo International Airport was the main international airport in Japan. Haneda, located on Tokyo Bay close to densely-populated residential and industrial areas, began to suffer from capacity and noise issues in the early 1960s as jet aircraft became common; the Japanese transport ministry commissioned a study of alternative airport locations in 1963, in 1965 selected a plan to build a five-runway airport in the village of Tomisato. The site was moved 5 km northeast to the villages of Sanrizuka and Shibayama, where the Imperial Household had a large farming estate; this development plan was made public in 1966. The government argued. However, local residents were not consulted during the initial planning phase, learned of the selection of the airport site through the news; this led to anger among the local community, which continued for many years thereafter. Although the Japanese government possessed eminent domain power by law, such power was used due to a preference to resolve land disputes consensually.
At the time, the socialist movement still possessed considerable strength in Japan, evidenced by the large-scale student riots in Tokyo in 1960. Many in the "new left" such as Chukaku-ha opposed the construction of Narita Airport, reasoning that the real purpose for the new airport was to promote capitalism and to provide additional facilities for US military aircraft in the event of war with the Soviet Union; these individuals sought to ally with the more conservative local farmers who did not want to give up their land for the airport. Around 1966, a group of local residents combined with student activists and left-wing political parties formed a popular resistance group known as the Sanrizuka-Shibayama Union to Oppose the Airport, which remained active until fracturing in 1983 and they started protest activity called Sanrizuka Struggle. Similar strategies had been employed during the postwar era to block the expansion of Tachikawa Air Base and other US military facilities in Japan. In June and July 1966, the Union sent formal protests to the mayor of Narita, the governor and vice-governor of Chiba Prefecture and the prefectural office of the Liberal Democratic Party.
In November 1967, when the Transport Ministry began surveying the perimeter of the airport, Union members set up roadblocks. The Zengakuren radical student union began sending students to Narita to help the local farmers. During Eminent domain, three policemen were killed by activists. Takenaka Corporation constructed the first terminal building, completed in 1972; the first runway took several more years due to constant fights with the Union and sympathizers, who occupied several pieces of land necessary to complete the runway and temporarily built large towers in the runway's path. In 1977, the government had destroyed the towers, but 1 activist and 1 policeman were killed; the runway was completed and the airport scheduled to open on March 30, 1978, but this plan was disrupted when, on March 26, 1978, a group of protestors broke into the control tower and destroyed much of its equipment, causing about $500,000 in damage and delaying the opening until May 20. The airport opened under a high level of security.
14,000 security police were met by 6,000 protesters. Protestors attacked police on the opening day with rocks and firebombs while police responded with water cannons; the National Diet passed a special statute, the Emergency Measures Act Relating to the Preservation of Security at New Tokyo International Airport banning the construction and use of buildings for violent and coercive purposes relating to the new airport. Several people have been killed by terrorism, including in arson incidents against Totetsu Kogyo and Nippi Corp. employees in 1983 and 1990 as well as an attack on a Chiba Prefecture official in
Beijing Capital Airlines
Beijing Capital Airlines, operating as Beijing Capital, is a Chinese low-cost airline based in Beijing Capital International Airport. It is a subsidiary of Hainan Airlines; the company was established in 1995 as Deer Jet Airlines. In 1998, it began offering international services under the Deer Air branding. In October 2007, it received its first Airbus A319 and began returning the operated Boeing 737s. Deer Jet began providing charter services in December 2008 using a fleet of A319s and corporate jets; the airline was authorized by the Civil Aviation Administration of China to operate scheduled air services in 2009. On 2 April 2010, Beijing Capital Airlines CO. LTD. launched its first service, based in Beijing Capital International Airport. Deer Jet Airlines was divided into two companies on May 4, 2010. While the charter operation has kept the Deer Jet branding, scheduled operations using Airbus aircraft were renamed Capital Airlines. Capital Airlines operates in China and Taiwan, focusing on international air passenger service and cargo transport operations.
Since 2015, long haul flights between China and other cities have been operated by Beijing Capital Airlines with Airbus A330 aircraft. The airline planned to commence long-haul flights to Helsinki, Mexico City and Zagreb in the first half of 2017. In November 2016, Beijing Capital Airlines announced the launch of a Hangzhou-Qingdao-Vancouver service on December 30, 2016, served by Airbus A330 aircraft; as of September 2018, Beijing Capital Airlines has an all-Airbus fleet consisting of the following aircraft: Beijing Capital Airlines has operated the following aircraft: Boeing 737-300 Boeing 737-700 Media related to Beijing Capital Airlines at Wikimedia Commons Official Beijing Capital Airlines website Official Deer Jet website
JSC Vladivostok Air was an independent airline with its head office at the airport in Artyom, Primorski Krai, Russia. In 2011, it was reacquired by Aeroflot; as the largest carrier in the Russian Far East and Siberia, Vladivostok Air operated scheduled domestic flights within Russia and international flights to Africa and Europe, as well as charter flights and a well established helicopter service. The main hub of operations was Vladivostok International Airport, with secondary hubs at Moscow Sheremetyevo International Airport and Khabarovsk Novy International Airport and a focus city in Ekaterinburg Koltsovo Airport. Prior to late September 2008, only a few flights between the cities of Vladivostok and Khabarovsk were available on Vladivostok Air, but when the Russian government decided to close Dalavia, due to high debt levels, Vladivostok Air soon announced the start of 7 additional domestic routes and 4 new international routes from Khabarovsk; the 1930s saw active construction of airports in the Soviet republics throughout the USSR.
The Primorye region gained its first airport in 1931. Construction began on two airfields. On 27 August 1932, a hydroplane destined to become the predecessor of Vladivostok Air completed its first flight and on 2 September, the hydroplane delivered four passengers from Khabarovsk to the Second River Airport marking; this is considered to be the official beginning of operations for Vladivostok Air, with regular flights from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok since. In 1934, the Second River airport was moved to a dry location, allowing for the use of Polikarpov Po-2 aircraft, with which regular flights were made, new airports opened at Iman and Ozernye Klyuchi which, combined with newer aircraft fueled growth of the nascent airline. During World War II, Vladivostok Air's Po-2s carried supplies of lead-tin concentrates for industrial purposes and ammunition to the front lines. In July 1941, Vladivostok Air's fleet of Polikarpov U-2, Polikarpov P-5, Shavrov Sh-2 aircraft were transferred to the Ozernye Klyuchi airport, opening a new era of development in the history of Primorye civil aviation and Vladivostok Air.
Chemical, nautical and forest management applications followed after the end of the Great Patriotic War, operating from the developing airfields around the Primorye region. Many of which served as the basis for modern airports constructed from the 1960s onwards. Passenger flights from Vladivostok to Moscow began using Ilyushin Il-12 airliners in 1948. Five years in 1953, the Antonov An-2 commenced service, becoming a significant educational tool for Vladivostok Air, allowing pilots to amass experience in a number of different flight-related activities, while carrying several thousand passengers. Taking over the workload of the Po-2, the An-2 "Annushka" became a nearly irreplaceable aircraft for Vladivostok Air's agricultural charters. Vladivostok Air began basic use of the Lisunov Li-2 aircraft, which would continue to operate regular passenger flights from Ozernye Klyuchi Airport to Khabarovsk for the next 15 years. Vladivostok Air's robust helicopter operations began with the Mil Mi-1, Kamov Ka-15 and Mil Mi-4.
These three helicopter types dutifully toiled away for some 30 odd-years and were succeeded by the Mil Mi-8, Kamov Ka-26, Kamov Ka-32. By 1958, the beginnings of the Primorye region's passenger-jet era started with the introduction of the Tupolev Tu-104 airliner, the Tupolev Tu-114D which completed the first trial, non-stop flight from Moscow to Vladivostok in May 1958; when the size of the Ozernye Klyuchi airport restricted Vladivostok Air's expansion, the ground facilities were improved to allow regular flights with Tu-104s, Ilyushin Il-18s, Antonov An-10s. These improvements to the airport increased passenger volumes; the first brick built terminal opened in February 1961, facilitating the processing of up to 200 passengers at once, marking the beginning of the larger airport known as Vladivostok International Airport. Between the 1960s and 1980s, pilots from Vladivostok Air became pioneers in servicing the region's various whaling and fishing towns. While with Mi-1 helicopters, on 30 August 1961, Vladivostok Air entered the fishing industry as well.
Helicopters from Vladivostok Air have served as flying-cranes and ambulances, further expanding their growing helicopter charter operations. In 1973, construction started on a new terminal at Vladivostok International Airport which began operating at the end of 1976. With the increase in terminal capacity, Vladivostok Air soon began regular service with Tupolev Tu-154s, heralding a period of dynamic development of Vladivostok Air's fleet as new Yakovlev Yak-40s and Mil Mi-8s were purchased; the completion of a second runway in June 1985 opened up Vladivostok Airport to all modern aircraft and provided for the non-stop Aeroflot air service between Moscow and Vladivostok onboard Ilyushin Il-62 aircraft. In 1990, after having signed an agreement in Papua New Guinea for the use of Ka-32 helicopters, Vladivostok Air entered the international arena. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992, Vladivostok opened to international flights, fueling rapid expansion at Vladivostok Air. During this time period, two Ilyushin Il-76 cargo aircraft in addition to several Tupolev Tu-154B-2 aircraft were purchased for use on international routes.
Beginning in 1994, Vladivostok Air was an traded stock company, "Vladi
PJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines known as Aeroflot, is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation. The carrier is an open joint stock company that operates domestic and international passenger and services from its hub at Sheremetyevo International Airport. Aeroflot is one of the oldest airlines in the world, tracing its history back to 1923. During the Soviet era, Aeroflot was the Soviet national airline and the largest airline in the world. Following the dissolution of the USSR, the carrier has been transformed from a state-run enterprise into a semi-privatised company which ranked 19th most profitable airline in the world in 2007. Aeroflot is still considered the de facto national airline of Russia, it is 51%-owned by the Russian Government. As of September 2013, the Aeroflot Group had 30,328 employees. By the end of 2017, Aeroflot controlled 40% of the air market in Russia; the company has embarked on a fleet modernisation programme, extensive route restructuring and an image overhaul.
The airline joined SkyTeam in April 2006. On 17 January 1921, the Sovnarkom of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic published "About Air Transportation"; the document signed by Lenin set out the basic regulations on air transport over the territory of the RSFSR. The document was significant as it was the first time that a Russian state had declared sovereignty over its airspace. In addition, the document defined rules for the operation of foreign aircraft over the Soviet Union's airspace and territory. After Lenin issued an order, a State Commission was formed on 31 January 1921 for the purpose of civil aviation planning in the Soviet Union; as a result of the commission's plans, Glavvozdukhflot was established, it began mail and passenger flights on the Moscow-Oryol-Kursk-Kharkov route on 1 May 1921 using Sikorsky Ilya Muromets aircraft. This was followed by the formation of Deruluft-Deutsch Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. in Berlin on 11 November 1921, as a joint venture between the Soviet Union and Germany.
The company, whose aircraft were registered in both Germany and the Soviet Union, began operations on 1 May 1922 with a Fokker F. III flying between Königsberg and Moscow; the service was operated twice a week and restricted to the carriage of mail. On 3 February 1923 Sovnarkom approved plans for the expansion of the Red Air Fleet, it is this date, recognised as the beginning of civil aviation in the Soviet Union. After a resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Enterprise for Friends of the Air Fleet was founded on 8 March 1923, followed by the formation of Dobrolet on 17 March 1923; the artist Alexander Rodchenko became involved in the ODVF at this time. He designed posters encouraging citizens to buy stock in Dobrolet and the famous "Winged Hammer and Sickle" logo still used by Aeroflot. Regular flights by Dobrolet from Moscow to Nizhniy Novgorod commenced on 15 July 1923. During the same period, an additional two airlines were established. During 1923 an agreement was signed establishing a subdivision of Dobrolet to be based in Tashkent, which would operate to points in Soviet Central Asia.
Services between Tashkent and Alma Ata began on 27 April 1924, by the end of 1924 the subdivision had carried 480 passengers and 500 kilograms of mail and freight, on a total of 210 flights. In March 1924, Dobrolet began operating flights from Sevastopol to Yalta and Yevpatoriya in the Crimea. Dobrolet's route network was extended during the 1925–1927 period to include Kazan and regular flights between Moscow and Kharkov were inaugurated. Plans were made for Dobrolet flights to Kharkov to connect with Ukrvozdukhput services to Kiev and Rostov-on-Don. During 1925, Dobrolet operated 2,000 flights over a distance of 1,000,000 kilometres, carrying 14,000 passengers and 127,500 kilograms of freight, on a route network extending to some 5,000 kilometres. Dobrolet was transformed from a Russian to an all-Union enterprise on 21 September 1926 as a result of Sovnarkom resolutions, in 1928 Dobrolet was merged with Ukrvozdukhput. Responsibility for all civil aviation activities in the Soviet Union came under the control of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet on 25 February 1932, on 25 March 1932 the name "Aeroflot" was adopted for the entire Soviet Civil Air Fleet.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union Congress in 1933 set out development plans for the civil aviation industry for the following five years, which would see air transportation becoming one of the primary means of transportation in the Soviet Union, linking all major cities. The government implemented plans to expand the Soviet aircraft industry to make it less dependent on foreign built aircraft. Expansion of air routes which had taken shape in the late 1920s, continued into the 1930s. Local services were expanded in Soviet Central Asia and the Soviet Far East, which by the end of the second Five-Year Plan in 1937 was 35,000 kilometres in length out of a total network of some 93,300 kilometres; the agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany relating to Deruluft expired on 1 January 1937 and wasn't ren
Ignatyevo Airport is an international airport in Amur Oblast, located near the village of Ignatyevo 20 kilometers north-west of Blagoveshchensk. The large airport services up to medium-sized airliners with parking space for 44 civilian aircraft, conducts 24-hour flight operation. Ignatyevo Airport is state owned by Amur Oblast and jointly operated with the Russian Air Force, with a military pad on the north-west side of the airport; the construction of Ignatyevo Airport began in 1959 next to the village of Ignatyevo, after which the airport is named. The first terminal was made of wood and was located on the spot where the current terminal stands. During the early 1990s the airport's activity declined as the new emerging Russian state was suffering from economic decline following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In July 1997, the Governor of Amur Oblast signed a decree on the establishment of Airport Blagoveshchensk, a unitary enterprise owned by the government of Amur Oblast to own and operate Ignatiyevo Airport.
In the 2000s a partial reconstruction of the airport began in order to increase the volume of transportation and improve the quality of passenger service. In 2007, plans for the construction of a new terminal was resumed after being halted in 1988, was commissioned on December 2010. On 8 August 2011, IrAero Flight 103, operated by Antonov An-24 RA-46561 overran the runway on landing. Of the five crew and 31 passengers on board, twelve people were injured. Blagoveshchensk Airport official website Airport information for UHBB at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF. Airport information for UHBB at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF. Accident history for BQS at Aviation Safety Network Airport Blagoveshchensk Aviateka. Handbook
Khabarovsk Novy Airport
Khabarovsk Novy Airport is located at the eastern part of Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. Khabarovsk Novy Airport was the main hub for the Russian airline Dalavia, shut down by the government due to large debts. Vladivostok Air replaced the role of Dalavia, Khabarovsk was "upgraded" into a secondary hub for Vladivostok Air. Vladivostok Air was merged into Aurora. In 2015, Khabarovsk Novy International Airport carried 1,821,694 passengers. A small airfield is adjacent to the west side of Khabarovsk Novy, is known as Khabarovsk MVL, it handles charter and general aviation operations, has a runway length of 960 m. By 1931, hydroports in the area were not enough to serve the growing demand for air travel, got the need to find a place to build a new airport; the first airport in the current location was opened in 1938. The year 1953 saw the Commissioning of runway with artificial turf with size of 2500 x 80m. On March 21, 1954 a terminal with a capacity of 400 passengers per hour was put into operations.
In 1964 a new, larger terminal was built. In 1970 the airport was given international status and completed first charter international flight Khabarovsk - Osaka: On board were the participants of the international exhibition Expo'70 In 2016, the old, unfunctioning terminal was demolished, on its site, the construction of a new terminal commenced, later; the new terminal is planned to be equipped by new air-bridges and escalators and it will be integrated with current Soviet-built terminal, which will be re-constructed in future after the new one will commence its operations. The new terminal is planned to serve domestic flights; the new terminal construction is planned to be finished by the end of 2019. List of the busiest airports in Russia List of the busiest airports in the former USSR "Khabarovsk - Novy Airport". A-Z Publications. Retrieved 2008-05-23. Airport Khabarovsk Aviateka. Handbook Media related to Khabarovsk Novy Airport at Wikimedia Commons Airport information for UHHH at World Aero Data.
Data current as of October 2006
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use