Celebrities, participants in timely news stories, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, magazine articles, or other written material. In music, ghostwriters are often used to write songs, screenplay authors can use ghostwriters to either edit or rewrite their scripts to improve them. Usually, there is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the author that obligates the former to remain anonymous. Ghostwriting occurs in other creative fields, ghosting occurs in popular music. A pop music ghostwriter writes lyrics and a melody in the style of the credited musician, in hip hop music, the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip-hop stars has led to controversy. In the visual arts, it is not uncommon in either fine art or commercial art such as comics for a number of assistants to do work on a piece that is credited to a single artist. However, when credit is established for the writer, the acknowledgement of their contribution is public domain, a consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance her credibility as an expert in their field.
Public officials and politicians employ correspondence officers to respond to the volume of official correspondence. A number of papal encyclicals have been written by ghostwriters, some university and college students hire ghostwriters from essay mills to write entrance essays, term papers and dissertations. This is largely considered unethical unless the actual ghostwriting work is just light editing, ghostwriters are hired for numerous reasons. In many cases, celebrities or public figures do not have the time, discipline, or writing skills to write and research a several-hundred page autobiography or how-to book. Even if a celebrity or public figure has the skills to pen a short article, they may not know how to structure and edit a several-hundred page book so that it is captivating. Ghostwriters may have varying degrees of involvement in the production of a finished work, some ghostwriters are hired to edit and clean up a rough draft or partially completed work, while others are hired to do most of the writing based on an outline provided by the credited author.
For some projects, such as creating an autobiography for a celebrity, ghostwriters are hired to write fiction in the style of an existing author, often as a way of increasing the number of books that can be published by a popular author. Ghostwriters will often spend a period from several months to a year researching, writing. Ghostwriters are paid either per page, per each word or via total word count, with a fee, with a percentage of the royalties of the sales. The division of work between the ghostwriter and the credited author varies a great deal, in some cases, the ghostwriter is hired to edit a rough draft of a mostly completed manuscript. In this case, the outline and much of the language in the book or article are those of the credited author
Skype is an instant messaging app that provides online text message and video chat services. Users may transmit both text and video messages and may exchange digital documents such as images, Skype operate based on a freemium model. Much of the service is free, but Skype Credit or a subscription is required to call a landline or a phone number. At the end of 2010, there were over 660 million worldwide users, at one point in February 2012, there were thirty four million users concurrently online on Skype. In September 2005, eBay acquired Skype for $2.6 billion, Microsoft bought Skype in May 2011 for $8.5 billion. Skype division headquarters are in Luxembourg but most of the development team and 44% of all the employees are still situated in Tallinn and Tartu. Skype allows users to communicate over the Internet by voice using a microphone, by using a webcam. Skype-to-Skype calls to other users are free of charge, while calls to landline telephones, Skype originally featured a hybrid peer-to-peer and client–server system.
Skype has been powered entirely by Microsoft-operated supernodes since May 2012, the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures revealed that Microsoft had granted intelligence agencies unfettered access to supernodes and Skype communication content. The name for the software is derived from Sky peer-to-peer, which was abbreviated to Skyper. However, some of the names associated with Skyper were already taken. Dropping the final r left the current title Skype, for domain names were available. Skype was founded in 2003 by Niklas Zennström, from Sweden, the Skype software was created by Estonians Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, and Jaan Tallinn. The first public version was released on 29 August 2003. In June 2005, Skype entered into an agreement with the Polish web portal Onet. pl for an offering on the Polish market. On 10 May 2011, Microsoft Corporation acquired Skype Communications, S. à r. l for US$8.5 billion, the company was incorporated as a division of Microsoft, which acquired all Its technologies with the purchase.
This was completed on 13 October 2011 and this app became downloadable from the Windows Store when the new OS launched on 26 October 2012. When the company introduced Office 2013 on 27 February 2013, it was announced that 60 Skype world minutes per month would be included in Office 365 consumer plans, on 11 November 2014, Microsoft announced that in 2015 Lync would be replaced by Skype for Business
It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by blues and blues and country music. Rock music drew strongly on a number of genres such as electric blues and folk. Musically, rock has centered on the guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass guitar. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form, like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of subgenres, including new wave, post-punk. From the 1990s alternative rock began to rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures and this trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers.
The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group, Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock, because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm, as a result, it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality, according to Simon Frith rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll.
Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the concept of art as artistic expression, original. The foundations of music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Its immediate origins lay in a melding of various musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country. In 1951, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis
Multitracking became possible in the mid-1950s when the idea of simultaneously recording different audio channels to separate discrete tracks on the same reel-to-reel tape was developed. Prior to the development of recording, all of the singers, band instrumentalists, and/or orchestra accompanists had to sing. Multitracking allowed the engineer to adjust the levels and tone of each individual track, as well, different electronic effects such as reverb could be applied to specific tracks, such as the lead vocals, while not being applied to other tracks where this effect would not be desirable. In the 1980s and 1990s, computers provided means by which sound recording and reproduction could be digitized, revolutionizing audio recording and distribution. Though magnetic tape has not been replaced as a recording medium. Even in the 2010s, with digital multitracking being the dominant technology, with the introduction of SMPTE timecode in the early 1970s, engineers began to use computers to perfectly synchronize separate audio and video playback, and or multiple audio tape machines.
In this system, one track of each carried the timecode signal. Some large studios were able to link multiple 24-track machines together, an extreme example of this occurred in 1982, when the rock group Toto recorded Toto IV on three synchronized 24-track machines. This setup theoretically provided for up to 69 audio tracks, which is far more than necessary for most recording projects. For computer-based systems, the trend in the 2000s is towards unlimited numbers of tracks, although issues such as RAM memory. Moreover, on computer-based systems, the number of available recording tracks is limited by the number of sound card discrete analog or digital inputs. At any given point on the tape, any of the tracks on the device can be recording or playing back using sel-sync or Selective Synchronous recording. They might record a version on track 4 while listening to the other tracks. All the tracks can be played back in perfect synchrony and this can be repeated until all of the available tracks have been used, or in some cases, reused.
During mix down a set of playback heads with higher fidelity are used. Before all tracks are filled, any number of existing tracks can be bounced into one or two tracks, and the original tracks erased, making room for more tracks to be reused for fresh recording. In 1963, The Beatles were using twin track for Please Please Me, the Beach Boys Pet Sounds made innovative use of multitracking with 8-track machines of the day. Motown began recording with 8-track machines in 1965 before moving to 16-track machines in mid-1969, a recording engineer can record only the section being worked on, without erasing any other section of that track
Crooner is an American epithet given to male singers of jazz standards, mostly from the Great American Songbook, backed by either a full orchestra, a big band or a piano. Originally it was a term denoting a sentimental singing style made possible by the use of microphones. Some performers, such as Russ Columbo, did not accept the term and this dominant popular vocal style coincided with the advent of radio broadcasting and electrical recording. Before the advent of the microphone, popular singers like Al Jolson had to project to the seats of a theater, as did opera singers. The microphone made possible the more personal style and he could be heard by anyone with a phonograph or a radio. His first film, The Vagabond Lover, was promoted with the line, while his success brought press warnings of the Vallee Peril, this punk from Maine with the dripping voice required mounted police to beat back screaming, swooning females at his vaudeville shows. Even The New York Times predicted that crooning would be just a passing fad, the newspaper printed, They sing like that because they can’t help it.
Their style is begging to go out of fashion…, crooners will soon go the way of tandem bicycles, mah jongg and midget golf. Voice range shifted from tenor to baritone, still, a 1931 record by Dick Robinson, Columbo & Vallee, called upon men to fight these public enemies brought into homes via radio. There were female crooners, including Annette Hanshaw, Mildred Bailey and their performances had a variety of influences including ballads and swing and was included in popular film soundtracks. The term is used to describe a female singer, although Mildred Baileys pre-swing records as well as Helen Rowland are often considered part of the crooning style. Due to the country songs popularized by Bing Crosby, the style of singing became an enduring part of country music. Bing Crosby achieved a million seller with his 1940 rendition of the song San Antonio Rose, eddy Arnold, Jim Reeves and Ray Price are especially well known for their country crooner standards. Dean Martin is rather famous for the music he recorded in the period when he was working for Reprise Records.
Fellow Italian-American crooner Perry Como recorded several albums with country producer Chet Atkins in Nashville, list of crooners Gary Giddins, Bing Crosby, A Pocketful of Dreams, The Early Years, 1903–1940. Boston, Brown and Co.2001, allison McCracken, Real Men Dont Sing, Crooning in American Culture. Durham, NC, Duke University Press,2015
A recording studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties. The engineers and producers listen to the music and the recorded tracks on monitor speakers and/or headphones. Major recording studios typically have a range of large, Isolation booths are small sound-insulated rooms with doors, designed for instrumentalists. This equipment may interfere with the recording process, Recording studios are carefully designed around the principles of room acoustics to create a set of spaces with the acoustical properties required for recording sound with precision and accuracy. This will consist of both room treatment and soundproofing to prevent sound from leaving the property. Even though sound isolation is a key goal, the musicians, audio engineers and record producers still need to be able to see other, to see cue gestures. As such, the room, isolation booths, vocal booths.
Some smaller studios do not have instruments, and bands and artists are expected to bring their own instruments, having musical instruments and equipment in the studio creates additional costs for a studio, as pianos have to be tuned and instruments need to be maintained. However, it makes it convenient for recording artists, as they do not have to bring in large. As well, less costly studio time is spent moving in gear, drummers bring their own snare drum and sticks/brushes. The types and brands of equipment owned by a studio depends on the styles of music for the bands. A studio that mainly records heavy metal music will be likely to have large, powerful guitar amp heads, in contrast, a studio which mainly records country bands will likely have a selection of small, vintage combo amps. A studio that records a lot of 1970s-style funk may have an electric piano. General purpose computers have rapidly assumed a role in the recording process. A computer thus outfitted is called a Digital Audio Workstation, or DAW, other software applications include Ableton Live, Cakewalk Sonar, ACID Pro, FL Studio, Adobe Audition, Auto-Tune and Ardour.
While Apple Macintosh is used for most studio work, there is a breadth of available for Microsoft Windows. If no mixing console is used and all mixing is done using only a keyboard and mouse, the OTB is used when mixing with other hardware and not just the PC software
Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. Music training from preschool through post-secondary education is common in most nations because involvement with music is considered a component of human culture. Music, like language, is an accomplishment that distinguishes humans as a species, during the 20th century, many distinctive approaches were developed or further refined for the teaching of music, some of which have had widespread impact. The Dalcroze method was developed in the early 20th century by Swiss musician, the Kodály Method emphasizes the benefits of physical instruction and response to music. The Orff Schulwerk approach to music education students to develop their music abilities in a way that parallels the development of western music. The Suzuki method creates the environment for learning music that a person has for learning their native language. Gordon Music Learning Theory provides the music teacher with a method for teaching musicianship through audiation, conversational Solfège immerses students in the musical literature of their own culture, in this case American.
The Carabo-Cone Method involves using props and toys for children to basic musical concepts of staff, note duration. The concrete environment of the specially planned classroom allows the child to learn the fundamentals of music by exploring through touch, popular music pedagogy is the systematic teaching and learning of rock music and other forms of popular music both inside and outside formal classroom settings. The MMCP aims to shape attitudes, helping students see music not as static content to be mastered, but as personal, American fiddler Mark OConnor developed a method of violin education that is designed to guide students in developing musical techniques necessary to become a proficient violinist. During its tenure, the Mumbai-based Boss School of Music developed a method of education using audio-visual technology, simplified concepts. In primary schools in European countries, children learn to play instruments such as keyboards or recorders, sing in small choirs. In countries such as India, the harmonium is used in schools, students are normally taught basics of Indian Raga music.
In some secondary schools, additional classes may be available. In junior high school or its equivalent, music continues to be a required part of the curriculum. In addition, most North American and European universities offer music ensembles - such as choir, concert band, marching band, most universities offer degree programs in music education, certifying students as primary and secondary music educators. Advanced degrees such as the D. M. A. or the Ph. D can lead to university employment. The study of art music is increasingly common in music education outside of North America and Europe, including Asian nations such as South Korea, Japan
Accompaniment is the musical parts which provide the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece. There are many different styles and types of accompaniment in different genres and styles of music, in homophonic music, the main accompaniment approach used in popular music, a clear vocal melody is supported by subordinate chords. In popular music and traditional music, the accompaniment parts typically provide the beat for the music, the accompaniment for a vocal melody or instrumental solo can be played by a single musician playing an instrument such as piano, pipe organ, or guitar. A solo singer can accompany herself by playing guitar or piano while she sings, and in rare cases. With choral music, the accompaniment to a vocal solo can be provided by other singers in the choir, accompaniment parts range from so simple that a beginner can play them to so complex that only an advanced player or singer can perform them. An accompanist is a musician who plays an accompaniment part, accompanists often play keyboard instruments (e. g. piano, pipe organ, synthesizer or, in folk music and traditional styles, a guitar.
A number of classical pianists have found success as accompanists rather than soloists, arguably the best known example is Gerald Moore, the accompaniment instrumentalists and/or singers can be provided with a fully notated accompaniment part written or printed on sheet music. This is the norm in Classical music and in most large ensemble writing, chord-playing musicians can improvise chords, fill-in melodic lines and solos from the chord chart. It is rare for chords to be written out in music notation in pop. Some guitarists and other stringed instrumentalists read accompaniment parts using tabulature, drummers can play accompaniment by following the lead sheet, a sheet music part in music notation, or by playing by ear. In some cases, an arranger or composer may give a bassist a bass part that is written out in music notation. Comping Counter-melody Figure Figured bass Guitar picking Hauptstimme Strum The dictionary definition of accompaniment at Wiktionary
Gospel music is a music genre in Christian music. The creation, performance and even the definition of music varies according to culture. Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, Gospel music usually has dominant vocals with Christian lyrics. Gospel music can be traced to the early 17th century, with roots in the oral tradition. Hymns and sacred songs were repeated in a call and response fashion, most of the churches relied on hand clapping and foot stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Most of the singing was done a cappella, the first published use of the term Gospel Song probably appeared in 1874. The original gospel songs were written and composed by such as George F. Root, Philip Bliss, Charles H. Gabriel, William Howard Doane. The advent of radio in the 1920s greatly increased the audience for gospel music, following World War II, gospel music moved into major auditoriums, and gospel music concerts became quite elaborate.
Gospel blues is a form of gospel music. Southern gospel used all male, tenor-lead-baritone-bass quartet make-up, progressive Southern gospel is an American music genre that has grown out of Southern gospel over the past couple of decades. Christian country music, sometimes referred to as gospel music, is a subgenre of gospel music with a country flair. It peaked in popularity in the mid-1990s, bluegrass gospel music is rooted in American mountain music. Celtic gospel music infuses gospel music with a Celtic flair, and is popular in countries such as Ireland. British black gospel refers to Gospel music of the African diaspora, some proponents of standard hymns generally dislike gospel music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, with distance, there is a greater acceptance of such gospel songs into official denominational hymnals. Gospel music in general is characterized by dominant vocals referencing lyrics of a Christian nature, subgenres include contemporary gospel, urban contemporary gospel, Southern gospel, and modern gospel music.
Several forms of gospel music utilize choirs, use piano or Hammond organ, drums, bass guitar and, electric guitar. In comparison with hymns, which are generally of a statelier measure, several attempts have been made to describe the style of late 19th and early 20th century gospel songs in general
An audio engineer works on the recording, manipulating the record using equalization and electronic effects, mixing and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the. technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the physical recording of any project is done by an engineer. Many audio engineers creatively use technologies to produce sound for film, television, electronic products and computer games. Audio engineers set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using an audio console and development audio engineers invent new technologies and techniques, to enhance the process and art of audio engineering. They might be referred to as acoustic engineers, audio engineers in research and development usually possess a bachelors degree, masters degree or higher qualification in acoustics, computer science or another engineering discipline. They might work in consultancy, specializing in architectural acoustics. Alternatively they might work in companies, or other industries that need audio expertise.
Some positions, such as faculty require a Doctor of Philosophy, in Germany a Toningenieur is an audio engineer who designs and repairs audio systems. The listed subdisciplines are based on PACS coding used by the Acoustical Society of America with some revision, audio engineers develop algorithms to allow the electronic manipulation of audio signals. These can be processed at the heart of audio production such as reverberation. Alternatively, the algorithms might carry out echo cancellation on Skype, or identify, architectural acoustics is the science and engineering of achieving a good sound within a room. For audio engineers, architectural acoustics can be about achieving good speech intelligibility in a stadium or enhancing the quality of music in a theatre, architectural Acoustic design is usually done by acoustic consultants. Electroacoustics is concerned with the design of headphones, loudspeakers, sound reproduction systems, examples of electroacoustic design include portable electronic devices, sound systems in architectural acoustics, surround sound in movie theater and vehicle audio.
Musical acoustics is concerned with researching and describing the science of music, in audio engineering, this includes the design of electronic instruments such as synthesizers, the human voice, computer analysis of audio, music therapy, and the perception and cognition of music. Psychoacoustics is the study of how humans respond to what they hear. At the heart of audio engineering are listeners who are the final arbitrator as to whether a design is successful. The production, computer processing and perception of speech is an important part of audio engineering, ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly and with high quality, in rooms, through public address systems and through mobile telephone systems are important areas of study. Producer and mixer Phil Ek has described audio engineering as the aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, the turning of pre-amp knobs
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, and a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist, Singers perform music that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is often done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists, Singers may perform as soloists, or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Singing can be formal or informal, arranged or improvised and it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort, or ritual, as part of music education, or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice, if practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers usually build their careers around one specific genre, such as classical or rock.
They typically take voice training provided by teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort, exhalation may be aided by the abdominal, internal intercostal and lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles, the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming, humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individuals size, Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract.
This is known as vocal resonation, another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds. These different kinds of function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singers Formant and it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa. The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds, Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds