Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or in various jobs such as a tradesman or an artisan. Vocational education is sometimes referred to technical education. A vocational school is a type of educational institution designed to provide vocational education. Vocational education can take place at the post-secondary, further education, or higher education level and can interact with the apprenticeship system. At the post-secondary level, vocational education is provided by specialized trade schools, technical schools, community colleges, colleges of further education, universities, as well as institutes of technology. All vocational education took place in the classroom or on the job site, with students learning trade skills and trade theory from accredited professors or established professionals. However, in recent years, online vocational education has grown in popularity, making learning various trade skills and soft skills from established professionals easier than for students those who may live far away from a traditional vocational school.
The World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on the future of work suggests that flexibility between general and vocational education in higher education is imperative to enable workers to compete in changing labor markets where technology plays an important role. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training. In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: "There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life." The philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between "McKinsey", to describe vocational training, Humboldt.
Argentina was one of the first countries in Latin America to run apprenticeship and vocational programs. From 1903 to 1909 basic programs were delivered at main cities; the entity charged with delivering these programs was the General Workers' Union, an Argentine national labor confederation. The massive development of vocational education in Argentina took place during the period between World War I and World War II, with the large influx of immigrants from Europe. During the presidency of Juan Perón, the first formal apprenticeship and vocational training programs were offered free of charge across the country becoming the National Workers' University under the National Vocational Programs Law 13229, implemented on August 19, 1948; these programs were created and supported by the federal government and delivered by provincial governments at various technical colleges and regional universities as well as industrial centers. The degrees granted were that of factory engineer in many specialties.
Vocational education programs are delivered by public and private learning organizations, supported by the Argentine Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Education. The leading providers of technical and vocational education in the country are the National Technological University and the National University of the Arts. In Australia vocational education and training is post-secondary and provided through the vocational education and training system by registered training organisations; however some secondary schools do offer school-based apprenticeships and traineeships for students in years 10, 11 and 12. There were 24 Technical Colleges in Australia but now only 5 independent Trade Colleges remain with three in Queensland; this system encompasses both public, TAFE, private providers in a national training framework consisting of the Australian Quality Training Framework, Australian Qualifications Framework and Industry Training Packages which define the competency standards for the different vocational qualifications.
Australia's apprenticeship system includes both apprenticeships in "traditional" trades and "traineeships" in other more service-oriented occupations. Both involve a legal contract between the employer and the apprentice or trainee and provide a combination of school-based and workplace training. Apprenticeships last three to four years, traineeships only one to two years. Apprentices and trainees receive a wage which increases as they progress through the training scheme; the states and territories are responsible for providing funding for government subsidised delivery in their jurisdiction and the Commonwealth Government, through the Australian Quality Skills Authority, provides regulation of registered training organisations except in Victoria and Western Australia. A central concept of the VET system is "national recognition", whereby th
Donald Richard Ashburn known by the nicknames, "Putt-Putt", "The Tilden Flash", "Whitey", was an American center fielder in Major League Baseball. He was born in Tilden, Nebraska. From his youth on a farm, he grew up to become a professional outfielder and veteran broadcaster for the Philadelphia Phillies and one of the most beloved sports figures in Philadelphia history, he was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1995. One of the famous "Whiz Kids" of the National League champion 1950 Phillies, Ashburn spent 12 of his 15 major-league seasons as the Phillies' center fielder, he sported a.308 lifetime batting average, leading the National League twice, led the league in fielding percentage. In 1950, in the last game of the regular season, he threw Dodgers' runner Cal Abrams out at home plate to preserve a 1–1 tie and set the stage for Dick Sisler's pennant-clinching home run, he had been playing in to back up a pick-off throw on a pitchout, but pitcher Robin Roberts had instead thrown a fastball to the batter, Duke Snider.
The following year Ashburn displayed his fielding skill on the national stage in the All-Star Game at Tiger Stadium in Detroit. The Associated Press reported, "Richie Ashburn, fleet footed Philadelphia Phillies outfielder, brought the huge Briggs Stadium crowd of 52,075 to its feet with a brilliant leaping catch in the sixth inning to rob Vic Wertz of a near homer. Ashburn caught the ball in front of the right centerfield screen 400 feet distant after a long run." He was the last Phillies player to collect eight hits in a double-header when he singled eight times in a twinbill at Pittsburgh on May 20, 1951. Ashburn was a singles hitter rather than a slugger, accumulating over 2,500 hits in 15 years against only 29 home runs. In his day he was regarded as the archetypal "spray hitter", stroking the ball well to all fields, thus making him harder to defend against. Ashburn accumulated the most hits of any batter during the 1950s. During a game on August 17, 1957, Ashburn hit a foul ball into the stands that struck spectator Alice Roth, wife of Philadelphia Bulletin sports editor Earl Roth, breaking her nose.
When play resumed Ashburn fouled off another ball that struck her while she was being carried off in a stretcher. Ashburn and Mrs. Roth maintained a friendship for many years, the Roths' son served as a Phillies batboy. Ashburn was traded to the Chicago Cubs following the 1959 season for three players, he went on to anchor center field for the North Siders in 1960 and 1961. Anticipating a future career behind a microphone, Ashburn sometimes conducted a post-game baseball instruction clinic at Wrigley Field for the benefit of the youngsters in the WGN-TV viewing audience. Ashburn was purchased by the expansion New York Mets for the 1962 season and was the first batter in franchise history, he had a good year offensively, batting.306, was the team's first All-Star Game representative. It was, however, a frustrating year for the polished professional, who had begun his career with a winner and found himself playing for the least successful team in modern baseball history, he retired at the end of the season.
One oft-told story is that on short flies to center or left-center, center fielder Ashburn would collide with shortstop Elio Chacón. Chacón, from Venezuela, spoke little English and had difficulty understanding when Ashburn was calling him off the ball. To remedy matters teammate Joe Christopher taught Ashburn to say "Yo la tengo", Spanish for "I’ve got it." When Ashburn first used this phrase it worked fine, keeping Chacón from running into him. But left fielder Frank Thomas, who did not speak a word of Spanish, slammed into Ashburn. After getting up Thomas asked Ashburn, "What the heck is a Yellow Tango?" This anecdote inspired the name of the American indie rock group Yo La Tengo. In his last five seasons Ashburn played for the 8th-place Phillies, the 7th-place Cubs, the 10th place Mets; the infamous first-year Mets club won only a quarter of its games, Ashburn decided to retire from active play. The last straw might have been during the Mets' 120th loss, when Ashburn was one of the three Mets victims in a triple play pulled off by his former teammates, the 9th-place Cubs.
According to Jimmy Breslin, it was the prospect of sitting on the bench that led Ashburn to retire: "He sat on the bench for a while with another team once and it bothered him badly. And he said that if he had to be a benchwarmer for the New York Mets he'd commit suicide."Throughout his playing career, who lived in his hometown of Tilden during the offseason, officiated high school basketball games throughout Nebraska as a way to stay in playing condition. He became a well-respected official, but retired from officiating when he retired from baseball. Starting in 1963 Ashburn became a radio and TV color commentator for his original big-league team, the Phillies, he first worked with long-time Phillies announcers Bill Campbell and Byrum Saam. In 1971 Campbell was released by the Phillies and Harry Kalas joined the team. Ashburn worked with two future Ford C. Frick Award winners and Kalas, for the next few years. Saam retired in 1976, Ashburn continued working with Kalas for the next two decades, the two becoming best friends.
Kalas referred to Ashburn as "His Whiteness", a nickname Kalas would use for the rest of his life for the man he adored. Ashburn regularly wrote for The Philadelphia Bulletin and The Philadelphia Daily News. According to his mother, Ashburn planned on retiring from broadcasting at the end of the 1997 season, he died of a heart attack at age 70 on September 9, 1997, in
Emanuel Schäfer was a high-ranking SS functionary and a protégé of Reinhard Heydrich in Nazi Germany. Born in 1900, Schäfer served in World War I. Post-war, he participated in far-right Freikorps groups such as the Marinebrigade Ehrhardt and from 1925–28, the Stahlhelm. Schäfer joined the paramilitary Sturmabteilung in 1933, he was an active member of the Sicherheitsdienst, the SS security service, in 1933, entered the SS in September 1936. During World War II, Schäfer was head of the Nazi security police in Serbia. Between January and May 1942, Schäfer supervised the murder by gassing of around 7,300 Jews from the Semlin camp across the Sava river from Belgrade. A Saurer gas van was used to kill the 7,300. A further 1200 Jews died from executions; the van was used for the last time on 10 May 1942. In May 1942, Schäfer sent a cable to the Reich Main Security Office boasting "with pride" that "Belgrade was the only great city in Europe, free of Jews."In Germany after the war, Schäfer was sentenced to six and a half years in prison for his crimes during the war.
He died in 1974
Alexis Kossenko is a French contemporary flautist and musicologist. Kossenko followed the courses of flautist Alain Marion at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Paris, where he obtained a First Prize, as well as those of Marten Root at the Conservatorium van Amsterdam, which awarded him a soloist's degree. Kossenko's career as a flutist includes regular collaborations with many ensembles such as La Chambre Philharmonique, Le Concert d'Astrée, the Ensemble Matheus, the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, the Barokksolistene, the Philharmonie der Nationen, the Orchestre de chambre de Paris, the Orchestre d'Auvergne, Anima Eterna, the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, the Kölner Akademie, La Grande Écurie et la Chambre du Roy, the Concerto Copenhagen, the ensemble Capriccio Stravagante Les Paladins, Le Concert Spirituel, the Cercle de l’Harmonie, the European Union Baroque Orchestra. Alongside his career as a flautist, Kossenko developed conductor activities as guest conductor of ensembles B'Rock, Holland Baroque Society, European Union Baroque Orchestra, Le Concert d'Astrée and Arte dei Suonatori.
In 2010, Kossenko established the international ensemble of Baroque music on ancient instruments and of classical music Les Ambassadeurs. In October 2019 he was named incoming Music Director of the French period instrument orchestra, Grande Écurie et la Chambre du Roy, to begin in 2020. Complete concertos by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Leçons de ténèbres by Marc-Antoine Charpentier with Stephan MacLeod Concertos for flûte by Antonio Vivaldi 2013: Concerti per l'Orchestra di Dresda by Antonio Vivaldi 2013: Le Grand Théâtre de l'Amour by Jean-Philippe Rameau with Sabine Devieilhe, Samuel Boden, Aimery Lefevre and the Jeune Chœur de Paris 2014: Trio sonatas by Carl Philip Emanuel Bach 2015: Operture & Concerti for Darmstadt by Telemann Conversation with Alexis Kossenko, in Remy Campos, Le Conservatoire de Paris et son histoire, une institution en questions, Paris, L'Œil d'or, 2016, ISBN 9782913661790 Les Ambassadeurs Alexis Kossenko on France Musique Alexis Kossenko et Les Ambassadeurs on FIP Alexis Kossenko on Outhere MOZART - Flute Concerto K.314 in D major - Alexis Kossenko & Les Ambassadeurs on YouTube
Karel Lodewijk Georgette Emmerence De Gucht is a Belgian politician, the European Commissioner for Trade from February 2010 until 31 October 2014. He served as Belgium's Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2004 to 2009 and as the European Commissioner for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response from 2009 to 2010. De Gucht was born in Belgium, he entered politics at a young age, became president of the Flemish Liberal Students while studying at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel in Brussels. He graduated with a master's degree in Law and practised as a lawyer in commercial matters, at the bar of Ghent, he taught European Law at his university. De Gucht became a member of the European Parliament in 1980 and fulfilled this mandate until 1994. In 1989 he was the rapporteur of a landmark Parliamentary Declaration on the Fundamental Rights, leading to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, integrated as an essential part of the Treaty of Lisbon. De Gucht entered the Flemish Parliament after the elections of 1994 and moved to the Belgian Federal Parliament in 2003, where he remained until 2004.
In 1999 he was elected party president of the Flemish liberal party. Although he was elected to the Federal Parliament in the general election on 18 May 2003 and to the European Parliament in the elections of June 2004, he occupied the first seat only briefly and the second not at all, he entered the Belgian government on 18 July 2004 as Belgian Minister of Foreign Affairs. He served as deputy prime minister in 2008–2009, he was Chairman-in-Office of the OSCE in 2006. He was a Member of Member of the European Council. In July 2009 De Gucht was appointed as the Belgian European Commissioner, in succession of Louis Michel. Like his predecessor, he was in charge of Development and Humanitarian Aid, but from February 2010 onwards, he became Commissioner of Trade in the Barroso II Commission, until 31 October 2014, he prepared and launched free trade negotiations with the United States, the so-called Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. He achieved important trade agreements, among others with South-Korea and Peru, Central America, Georgia and Ukraine.
In October 2014 he concluded CETA, the free trade agreement with Canada and the first agreement with a G7 member. He oversaw the start of trade negotiations with Japan and Vietnam, resumed talks with Mercosur and began investment agreement negotiations with China, he concluded landmark economic partnership agreements with West Africa, South Africa and Eastern Africa, covering together 75% of African economy. De Gucht performed his ultimate duty as a commissioner by signing in Nairobi on 31 October 2014 the agreement with the Eastern African Community, consisting of Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda, he played a key role in the conclusion of a comprehensive trade agreement between the European Union and Ukraine, a direct cause of the upheavals in Independence Square and the 2013–14 Ukrainian Crisis. At the end of his mandate he enjoyed a strong reputation within the European Commission because of the progression in the trade portfolio during his mandate and because of his strong views on European policy questions.
At the end of this mandate he decided to leave politics, except on the local level, where he will be the chairman of the local council. De Gucht is well known for his outspoken views on different political issues. On a trip to Africa in late 2004, De Gucht sparked a diplomatic controversy when he said that "there is a problem with the political class in the Congo" and questioned its ability to tackle corruption. De Gucht received a lot of informal support in diplomatic circles and media and refused to retract his statement. Subsequent news stories suggested. In November 2008 he was accused by an anonymous person and by the president of the extreme-right party Vlaams Belang of insider trading; the Ghent public prosecutor decided not to pursue an investigation in the matter stating that "from the investigations it appears that Mr. De Gucht has never abused his inside knowledge of the Fortis situation, more the loss in the value of its shares", closed the case. In his career, De Gucht caused controversy by his active promotion of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.
Some critics accused him of being over-enthusiastic about the TTIP, playing down potential risks to European small and medium-sized companies associated with the so-called Investor-state dispute settlement mechanism, of ignoring public concerns about the ISDS. ArcelorMittal, Member of the Board of Directors Proximus, Member of the Board of Directors CVC Capital Partners, Member of the European Advisory Board Institute for European Studies at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, President Poland: 1st class - Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland. De Gucht is married to Mireille Schreurs, a judge, they live in Berlare and they have two sons, Frédéric and Jean-Jacques De Gucht. Ketterijen – hoe overleven we onze tijd? Polis, 2017. Pluche – Over de banalisering van extreem rechts, Houtekiet, 2007. De toekomst is vrij: over het liberalisme in de 21ste eeuw, Houtekiet, 2002. Het einde der pilaren: een Toscaans gesprek ["The end of religious and philosophical pillars in so
Teuku Mohammad Hadi Thayeb was a senior Indonesia diplomat and politician. Thayeb, one of Indonesia's first diplomats, was a co-founder of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1945, he served as the national Minister of Industry from 1964 to 1966 and the Governor of Aceh from 1981 to 1986. Thayeb was born on 14 September 1922, in Aceh. Thayeb was one of the co-founders of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, founded in 1945 following the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence; the Ministry was headquartered in the garage of the country's first Foreign Minister, Achmad Soebardjo, at Jl. Cikini 80-82 in Jakarta. Thayeb was one of the Foreign Ministry's first six staff members. Thayeb served as Indonesia's envoy to numerous countries throughout his diplomatic career, including Ambassador to Italy, Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom. In 2012, he was appointed an Honorary Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. Thayeb as served as Indonesia's Minister of Industry from 1964 to 1966 and the Governor of the National Resilience Institute from 1974 to 1979.
He was the Governor of Aceh from 1981 to 1986. Hadi Thayeb died in Jakarta on 10 January 2014, at the age of 91, his death was announced in a press release issued by Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa who wrote, "He was one of the founders of the Foreign Ministry... He was one of Indonesia’s best diplomats." Thayeb was buried at Karet Bivak Cemetery in Jakarta