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Voice-over is a production technique where a voice—that is not part of the narrative —is used in a radio, television production, theatre, or other presentations. The voice-over is read from a script and may be spoken by someone who appears elsewhere in the production or by a specialist voice talent. Synchronous dialogue, where the voice-over is narrating the action, taking place at the same time, remains the most common technique in voice-overs. Asynchronous, however, is used in cinema, it is prerecorded and placed over the top of a film or video and used in documentaries or news reports to explain information. Voice-overs are used in video games and on-hold messages, as well as for announcements and information at events and tourist destinations, it may be read live for events such as award presentations. Voice-over is added in addition to any existing dialogue, it is not to be confused with the process of replacing dialogue with a translated version, called dubbing or revoicing. In Herman Melville's Moby Dick, Ishmael narrates the story, he sometimes comments on the action in voice-over, as does Joe Gillis in Sunset Boulevard and Eric Erickson in The Counterfeit Traitor.

Voice-over technique is used to give voices and personalities to animated characters. Noteworthy and versatile voice actors include Mel Blanc, Daws Butler, Don Messick, Paul Frees, June Foray. Charactering techniques in voice-overs are used to give personalities and voice to fictional characters. There has been some controversy with charactering techniques in voice-overs with white radio entertainers who would mimic black speech patterns. Radio made this racial mockery easier to get away with because it was a non-confrontational platform to express anything the broadcasters found fit, it became the ideal medium for voice impersonations. Characterization has always been popular in all forms of media. In the late 1920s radio started to stray away from reporting on musicals and sporting events, radio began to create serial talk shows as well as shows with fictional storylines; the technique of characterization can be a creative outlet to expand on film and radio, but it must be done carefully. In film, the filmmaker places the sound of a human voice over images shown on the screen that may or may not be related to the words that are being spoken.

Voice-overs are sometimes used to create ironic counterpoint. Sometimes they can be random voices not directly connected to the people seen on the screen. In works of fiction, the voice-over is by a character reflecting on his or her past, or by a person external to the story who has a more complete knowledge of the events in the film than the other characters. Voice-overs are used to create the effect of storytelling by a character/omniscient narrator. For example, in The Usual Suspects, the character of Roger "Verbal" Kint has voice-over segments as he is recounting details of a crime. Classic voice-overs in cinema history can be heard in The Naked City. Sometimes, voice-over can be used to aid continuity in edited versions of films, in order for the audience to gain a better understanding of what has gone on between scenes; this was done when the film Joan of Arc starring Ingrid Bergman turned out to be far from the box-office and critical hit, expected and it was edited down from 145 minutes to 100 minutes for its second run in theaters.

The edited version, which circulated for years, used narration to conceal the fact that large chunks of the film had been cut out. In the full-length version, restored in 1998 and released on DVD in 2004, the voice-over narration is heard only at the beginning of the film. Film noir is associated with the voice-over technique; the golden age of first-person narration was during the 1940s. Film noir used male voice-over narration but there are a few rare female voice-overs. In radio, voice-overs are an integral part of the creation of the radio program; the voice-over artist might be used to remind listeners of the station name or as characters to enhance or develop show content. During the 1980s, the British broadcasters Steve Wright and Kenny Everett used voice-over artists to create a virtual "posse" or studio crew who contributed to the programmes, it is believed. The American radio broadcaster Howard Stern has used voice-overs in this way; the voice-over has many applications in non-fiction as well.

Television news is presented as a series of video clips of newsworthy events, with voice-over by the reporters describing the significance of the scenes being presented. Television networks such as The History Channel and the Discovery Channel make extensive use of voice-overs. On NBC, the television show Starting Over used Sylvia Villagran as the voice-over narrator to tell a story. Live sports broadcasts are shown as extensive voice-overs by sports commentators over video of the sporting event. Game shows made extensive use of voice-overs to introduce contestants and describe available or awarded prizes, but this technique has diminished as shows have moved toward predominantly cash prizes; the most prolific have included Don Pardo, Johnny Olson, John Harlan, Jay Stewart, Gene Wood and Johnny Gilbert. Voice-over commentary by a leading critic, historian, or by the production personnel

Devang Gandhi

Devang Jayant Gandhi pronunciation is an Indian cricketer. He is a right-handed opening batsman and a occasional right-arm medium-pace bowler, he played for Thundersley Cricket Club, Essex. Despite the 1999–2000 tour of Australia exposing Gandhi's weakness in technique against faster deliveries, his domestic form stayed constant, having had a good start to his international career in India. Successive stands with Sadagoppan Ramesh in New Zealand lifted Gandhi's Test average above 50. Poor performances saw. Gandhi played domestic cricket for Bengal in the Ranji Trophy and East Zone in the Duleep Trophy before retiring after the 2005–06 season. Gandhi had two seasons playing for Gwersyllt Park CC, who play in the North Wales cricket league, he was appointed as a national selector for Indian cricket team. Batting Career Summary M Inn NO Runs HS Avg BF SR 100 200 50 4s 6s Test 4 7 1 204 88 34.0 545 37.43 0 0 2 27 1 ODI 3 3 0 49 30 16.33 97 50.52 0 0 0 8 0 Bowling Career Summary M Inn B Runs Wkts BBI BBM Econ Avg SR 5W 10W Test 4 - - - - - - - - - - - ODI 3 - - - - - - - - - - - Career Information Test debutvs New Zealand at Punjab Cricket Association IS Bindra Stadium, Oct 10, 1999Last Testvs Australia at Adelaide Oval, Dec 10, 1999ODI debutvs New Zealand at Arun Jaitley Stadium, Nov 17, 1999Last ODIvs Australia at W.

A. C. A. Ground, Jan 30, 2000ProfileA former Indian opening batsman, Devang Gandhi, featured for India in 4 Tests and 3 ODIs. Despite showing a lot of promise at the beginning of his international career, Gandhi's inability to handle short-pitched bowling meant that his days as an Indian opener were limited, he made his international debut in the first Test against New Zealand in Mohali in 1999. Though he got out for a duck in the first innings, he cemented his place in the team by scoring 75 in the second essay and put on 137 runs for the opening wicket with Sadagoppan Ramesh, his good form continued in the second Test as well. He was the top scorer for India in the game, making 88 and 31 not out as India won the game by 8 wickets. With India winning the series 1-0 and his average being close to 50 after three Tests, many started believing that Gandhi was destined to be a formidable opener. With the success he found during the New Zealand series, he was selected for India's tour of Australia in 1999/00.

However, the tour Down Under turned out to be a disastrous affair for Gandhi. His poor technique against the short ball got highlighted during the first Test match in Adelaide, it was not just his scores of 4 and 0, but how he never looked comfortable against the rising ball and Glenn McGrath exploited his weakness to put India under pressure right from the beginning. Gandhi played two ODIs against Australia during the tri-series, he registered scores of 13 in those two games and never played for India again. He played 95 first-class matches during his career, collecting 6111 runs at an average of 42.73. He retired in April 2006. By Sidhant Maheshwari Devang Gandhi retires from first-class cricket, from Cricinfo, 27 April 2006

Buster Ramsey

Garrard Sliger "Buster" Ramsey was an American football player for the College of William and Mary and Chicago Cardinals. He was the first head coach of the AFL's Buffalo Bills. After a stint in the United States Navy during World War II, Ramsey played for the Chicago Cardinals of the National Football League from 1946 to 1951. During his time with the Cardinals, Ramsey was a member of the franchise’s 1947 NFL World Championship team. In 1951, Ramsey served as a player-coach for the Cardinals before becoming the Detroit Lions’ defensive coordinator in 1952. During his tenure with the Lions, Ramsey developed a staple of modern football. In addition, he was the first coach to blitz linebackers, in a package. With Ramsey as defensive coordinator the Lions won three World Championships in the 1950s, he developed a number of Lions greats including Yale Lary, Jack Christiansen, Jim David, among others. In 1960, he was hired as the first head coach of the American Football League’s Buffalo Bills. Though fired by Bills' owner Ralph C. Wilson Jr. after the 1961 AFL season, Ramsey is credited with laying the foundation of what would become one of the best defenses in AFL history.

He would go on to serve as the defensive coordinator of the Pittsburgh Steelers from 1962 to 1964. Ramsey had a brother, Knox Ramsey, who played for the College of William and Mary, professionally for the Chicago Cardinals and Washington Redskins. Ramsey was elected into the Virginia Sports Hall of Fame in 1974, the College Football Hall of Fame in 1978. List of American Football League players Buster Ramsey at the College Football Hall of Fame Buster Ramsey at Find a Grave First Bills coach Garrard "Buster" Ramsey dies USA Today September 18, 2007 Garrard Ramsey Obituary - Signal Mountain, Tennessee |

Madison Public Schools

The Madison Public Schools are a comprehensive community public school district that serves students in kindergarten through twelfth grade from Madison, in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2016-17 school year, the district's five schools had an enrollment of 2,637 students and 208.4 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 12.7:1. The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "I", the second-highest of eight groupings. District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local districts. From lowest socioeconomic status to highest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J; the district's high school serves the neighboring community of Harding Township, who attend as part of a sending/receiving relationship with the Harding Township School District. Average K-12 class sizes range from 19-22 students. 70% of faculty members possess advanced degrees, all faculty members fulfilled the Highly Qualified Teacher standards established by the federal No Child Left Behind legislation.

90% of Madison High graduates annually attend institutions of higher learning. Madison High School is accredited by the Middle States Association of Schools; the district provides a comprehensive K-12 curriculum of study in language arts, science, social studies, world languages, music and performing arts, computer sciences and physical education. Educationally disabled students are provided with a full continuum of educational supports. Madison High School provides students with the opportunity to participate in 18 Advanced Placement Program courses; the school's partnered with the Borough of Madison on the community-wide Rosenet computer network and K-12 students have extensive access to computer technology. The Madison School District offers a comprehensive extracurricular program. Madison High School features 45 girls athletic teams spanning 18 sports. Competing in the Suburban Division of the Northern Hills Conference, Madison High School teams have earned an ample array of conference and state titles.

Music students participate in orchestra and chorus beginning in elementary school, numerous Madison High School music students are chosen annually to participate in regional and state select performing groups. The schools partner with the Madison-based New Jersey Playwrights Theater to provide playwriting and drama experiences to our students. Schools in the district are: Elementary schoolsCentral Avenue School Thomas Liss, Principal Kings Road School Kathleen Koop, Principal Torey J. Sabatini School Allison Stager, PrincipalMiddle schoolMadison Junior School Louis F. Caruso, Principal Lori-Lubieski Hutmaker, Assistant PrincipalHigh schoolMadison High School David Drechsel, Principal Vacant as of July 2019, Assistant Principal Core members of the district's administration are: Mark Schwarz, Superintendent Gary S. Lane - Business Administrator / Board Secretary Notable district alumni include: Janeane Garofalo attended, but did not graduate from Madison High School. Neil O'Donnell, quarterback for the Pittsburgh Steelers, Cincinnati Bengals, New York Jets.

Madison Public Schools Madison Public Schools's 2015–16 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education School Data for the Madison Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics

Robert F. Dorr

Robert F. Dorr was an American author and retired senior diplomat who published over 70 books, hundreds of short stories, numerous contemporary non-fiction articles on international affairs, military issues, the Vietnam War. Most he headed the weekly "Back Talk" opinion column for the Military Times newspaper and the monthly "Washington Watch" feature of Aerospace America, he is on the Masthead as the technical editor of Air Power History, the journal of the Air Force Historical Foundation, was Washington correspondent for the discontinued World Air Power Journal. He has appeared as an expert on numerous CNN, History News Network, C-SPAN and other national and cable television programs. Dorr was born in Washington, DC on September 11, 1939 to government workers Blanche Boisvert and Lawrence Gerald Dorr of 2800 - 33rd Street, Washington, DC. In 1947, Dorr moved with his family to the nearby Maryland suburbs where he would graduate from high school. A humorous 2017 article featured on Gizmodo uncovered that at 14 years old, Dorr wrote letters to Boeing and other companies requesting photos of certain planes.

As the planes were classified at the time, the FBI opened multiple espionage investigations but concluded he was a "loyal American boy."After high school, Dorr joined the U. S. Air Force in 1957, served in Korea. Upon leaving the Air Force in 1960, Dorr moved to San Francisco to attend the University of California, Berkeley, his writing career in Men's adventure magazines began around this time. In 1964, Dorr became a Foreign Service Officer with the U. S. Department of State, where he was assigned as a US diplomat and political officer to U. S. Embassies and Consulates in Madagascar, South Korea, Liberia and the United Kingdom. Dorr was fluent in French, Korean, Russian and German, retired as a Senior Foreign Service officer in 1990, he devoted the rest of his life to writing. Dorr spent 25 years as a Senior Foreign Service Officer with the U. S. State Department, he held senior positions in Washington after tours of duty in Madagascar. He married his wife, a South Korean national, in 1968 in a ceremony, held at the home of his Foreign Service mentor, Ambassador William J. Porter.

Dorr published his first magazine article in 1955 and is best known for his magazine and newspaper work. In 1960, fresh out of the Air Force, Dorr moved to San Francisco to attend the University of California, staying at the famed Baker's Acres boarding house for much of the period 1960-1964 with several lifelong friends, including: future Air Force Colonel Larry Harry, it was during this time that Dorr began to publish what would become thousands of fictional action stories for numerous men's adventure and pulp magazines, something Dorr continued to do on the side after his appointment as a Foreign Service Officer in 1964. Dorr's many contributions to this genre were only recently resurfaced in "A Handful of Hell - Classic War and Adventure Stories by Robert F. Dorr" edited by Robert Deis and Wyatt Doyle, as well as the compendium: "Weasels Ripped My Flesh!". In 1978, he received a non-fiction award from the now-defunct Aviation/Space Writers Association, he contributed articles to Air Forces Monthly, Air International, Combat Aircraft, Aerospace America magazine, the journal of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air & Space/Smithsonian, Flight Journal.

Dorr was engaged in writing for London-based Aerospace Publishing - for its partwork magazines and latterly for its prestigious quarterlies, including World Air Power Journal. Dorr's weekly opinion column in the trade journal Military Times was read by about 100,000 current and retired military members and their families. Dorr's opinion columns combined strong support for the military with a liberal political point of view. In a September 10, 2007 column, reprinted around the United States, he called for an end to the prison camp at Guantanamo Bay and for treating war prisoners under the 1949 Geneva Convention. Before U. S. law changed to permit it, Dorr called for the military to allow homosexuals to serve openly. In other columns he has urged veterans service organizations to get up to date to attract younger veterans and has written about what he calls the dismantling of the Air Force in an era of tight budgets. Dorr was an observer of events in North Korea. Service academies and Veteran's groups have used his speeches and writings on foreign affairs and Air Force history.

Dorr has been interviewed on several networks, including C-SPAN, the Discovery Channel, CNN and local Washington-area newscasts. In 2010, he was given an Achievement Award by the Air Force Historical Foundation for his work for the foundation and its magazine, Air Power History. Fighting Hitler’s Jets was published in 2013 and describes Nazi Germany’s introduction of jet and rocket-powered aircraft into the aerial battlefields of World War II; the book discusses the actions taken by the Allies to counter these advanced aircraft. Dorr's book Mission to Tokyo about B-29 Superfortress crews in the war against Japan was published September 4, 2012. Focused in part on the firebomb mission to the Japanese capital on the night of March 9–10, 1945, the book is based on interviews with crewmembers. Readers encounter characters as disparate as the gruff, cigar-smoking Gen. Curtis LeMay and the author and artist Yoko Ono. Walter J. Boyne wrote in a review: "Mission to Tokyo is yet another incredible solo example of Bob’s prolific scholarship and de

Sopheap Pich

Sopheap Pich is a Cambodian American contemporary artist. His sculptures utilize traditional Cambodian materials, which reflect the history of the nation and the artist's relation to his identity. Sopheap Pich was born in Battambang, Cambodia in 1971, he spent his childhood there until 1984. In 7th grade in the U. S. he enrolled into a school with a teacher for the first time. He continued with his education at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, in 2002 got his MFA at School of the Art Institute of Chicago. In 2002, he returned to Cambodia, to the same place he had evacuated from in formative years because of the refugee crisis. Pich's trip back home renewed and reunited him with his cultural identity, which impacts his artwork, he uses local material found in Cambodia, for example, bamboo. Pich creates a wide range of different of works from sculptures to paints, his sculptures are quite large, some are high enough to touch the top of an art gallery's ceiling. Many of his first creations were recycled because there was no place to store them.

He has many of the only rare photographs of this first works. Sopheap Pich uses specific materials in his work, related to his native Cambodia, his installation The Room consisted of bamboo dye. Other materials include: Rattan Resin Plywood Bamboo Metal Wire Dye GluePich's style aims to be non-autobiographical, but he embraces the materials from his native country to depict its past. Trained as a painter, Pich experimented with sculpting, manipulating materials, he realized. He manipulates his materials through boiling, bending and dying, he let's the materials speak for themselves, with no hidden narrative. His pieces are environmental, inexpensive looking, they are meant to look as though the time put in was worth more than the monetary value of the materials themselves. Pich is a versatile artist, who not only works with weaving, but sculpture and prints. Reliefs was Pich's third solo exhibition at the Tyler Rollins Fine Arts Gallery, featured over ten different sculptural works, his reliefs represents.

Reliefs are made of rattan grids and covered with strips of burlap that were used from rice bags. The bags had been repaired with string and twine. All of the works in the series are used with just two colors: black and a little red; the red is made from powdered clay and the black is made from charcoal. These materials relate to Pich's work because they came from Cambodia, he uses each material as a story, a part of his culture; the grids and strings are all exhibits of the detailed and perfected parts of Pich's work that he wanted to be noticed. He wanted to show a sense of fine execution in his craftmanship. Morning Glory, a 17.5 feet long sculpture, was first exhibited in 2011 at the Tyler Rollins Fine Arts gallery as part of Sopheap Pich's second solo show. Like many of his works, the sculpture is made of rattan and bamboo, materials that are specific to Southeast Asia, although it includes plywood and steel bolts. Pich's memories of the Khmer Rouge period are reflected in this piece; the morning glory, a common flower, was a main source of food in Cambodia during the dictatorship that ran from 1975 to 1979.

In addition to mass murders, the Khmer Rouge rule led to famine, so the plant had a particular importance in people's survival. Its tentacular stems and buds are intertwined, at the end opens in a wide flower, its frail appearance and beauty contrasts with the atrocities that Cambodian people have experienced. A commission from the Indianapolis Museum of Art, A Room is a 40-feet long installation made of 1,200 bamboo strips, it was installed in the fall of 2014 in the museum's atrium. Pich wanted the installation to have an effect on the visitors, "in an emotional kind of way", so the installation is an immersive experience for the visitors, who can touch it and interact with it. Following the pattern of his works, the piece is inspired from Cambodia, the big temples that convey a sense of calm, are real pieces of art. Bamboo is a natural material available in Cambodia; the absence of shops dedicated to art led Sopheap Pich to look into what was present in the environment, but to use more available supplies like common house paint and glue.

Cambodian art Solo exhibitions 1997 - Empty Wooden Cigarette Boxes From Cambodia, The Augusta Savage Gallery, Amherst, MA 2002 - Recent Works, The Brewery Studio, Boston, MA 2003 - Excavating the Vessels, Java Café and Gallery, Phnom Penh, Cambodia 2004 - Pdao, French Cultural Center Phnom Penh, Cambodia 2005 - Chomlak and drawings, The Arts Lounge of Hotel de la Paix, Siem Reap, Cambodia 2005 - Sculptures and Drawings, Amansara Resort, Siem Reap, Cambodia 2006 - Moha Saen Anett, Gallery Dong Xi, Norway 2007 - Recent Works From Kunming, TCG/Nordica, China 2007 - Tidal, H Gallery, Thailand 2007 - Flow, Sala Artspace, Phnom Penh, Cambodia 2008 - Strands, The Esplanade, Singapore 2009 - The Pulse Within, Tyler Rollins Fine Art, New York, NY 2010 - Fragile, French Cultural Center, Phnom Penh, Cambodia 2011 - Morning Glory, Tyler Rollins Fine Art, New York, NY 2011 - Compound, The Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 2012 - In Spite of Order, H Gallery, Thailand 2013 - Cambodian Rattan: The Sculptures of Sopheap Pich, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY 2013 - Compound, Brookfiled Place Winter Garden, New York, NY 2013 - Reliefs, Tyler Rollins Fine Art, New