Webster's Third New International Dictionary
Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged was published in September 1961. It was edited by Philip Babcock Gove and a team of lexicographers who spent 757 editor-years and $3.5 million. It contained more than 450,000 entries, including more than 100,000 new entries and as many new senses for entries carried over from previous editions; the final definition, was written on October 17, 1960. The final copy went to the typesetters, RR Donnelley, on December 2; the book was printed by the Riverside Press in Massachusetts. The first edition had 2,726 pages, weighed 13½ lb, sold for $47.50. The changes were the most radical in the history of the Unabridged. Although it was an unprecedented masterwork of scholarship, it was met with considerable criticism for its descriptive approach, it told. Prior to Webster's Third the Unabridged had been expanded with each new edition, with minimal deletion. To make room for 100,000 new words, Gove now made sweeping deletions, he eliminated the "nonlexical matter" that more properly belongs to an encyclopedia, including all names of people and places.
There were no more mythological and fictional names, nor the names of buildings, historical events, or art works. Thirty picture plates were dropped; the rationale was that, while useful, these are not about language. Gove justified the change by the company's publication of Webster's Biographical Dictionary in 1943 and Webster's Geographical Dictionary in 1949, the fact that the topics removed could be found in encyclopedias. Removed were words, out of use for more than two hundred years, rare variants, reformed spellings, self-explanatory combination words, other items considered of little value to the general reader; the number of small text illustrations was reduced, page size increased, print size reduced by one-twelfth, from six point to agate type. All this was considered necessary because of the large amount of new material, Webster's Second had reached the limits of mechanical bookbinding; the fact that the new book had about 700 fewer pages was justified by the need to allow room for future additions.
In style and method, the dictionary bore little resemblance to earlier editions. Headwords were not capitalized. Instead of capitalizing "American", for example, the dictionary had labels next to the entries reading cap and usu cap; this allowed informative distinctions to be drawn: "gallic" is usu cap while "gallicism" is cap and "gallicize" is sometimes cap. The reviews of the Third edition were favorable in Britain. Robert Chapman, a lexicographer, canvassed fellow lexicographers at Funk & Wagnalls, who had used the new edition daily for three years; the consensus held that the Third was a "marvelous achievement, a monument of scholarship and accuracy". They did come up including typographic unattractiveness. Chapman concluded that the "cranks and intransigents who advise us to hang on to the NID 2 are plain fools who deny themselves the riches of a great book"; this dictionary became preferred as a backup source by two influential style guides in the United States, although each one directs writers to go first to other, shorter dictionaries.
The Chicago Manual of Style, followed by many book publishers and magazines in the United States, recommends Webster's Third, along with Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary for "general matters of spelling", the style book "normally opts for" the first spelling listed. The Associated Press Stylebook, used by most newspapers in the United States, refers readers to W3 "if there is no listing in either this book or Webster's New World". In the early 1960s, Webster's Third came under attack for its "permissiveness" and its failure to tell people what proper English was, it was the opening shot in the culture wars, as conservatives detected yet another symbol of the permissiveness of society as a whole and the decline of authority, as represented by the Second Edition. As historian Herbert Morton explained, "Webster's Second was more than respected, it was accepted as the ultimate authority on meaning and usage and its preeminence was unchallenged in the United States. It did not provoke controversies, it settled them."
Critics charged that the dictionary was reluctant to defend standard English, for example eliminating the labels "colloquial", "correct", "incorrect", "proper", "improper", "erroneous", "humorous", "jocular", "poetic", "contemptuous", among others. Gove's stance was an exemplar of descriptivist linguistics: describing language as it is or has been used; as David M. Glixon put it in the Saturday Review: "Having descended from God's throne of supreme authority, the Merriam folks are now seated around the
In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire, wherein it acted as a key regional power occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. The two "Bulgarian Empires" are not treated as separate entities, but rather as one state restored after a period of Byzantine rule over its territory. Bulgaria is one of the few historic states and nations whose economy and society were never based on slavery, slavery never played an important role in Bulgarian statehood development and wealth. Not long after the Slavic incursion, Moesia was once again invaded, this time by the Bulgars under Khan Asparukh, their horde was a remnant of Old Great Bulgaria, an extinct tribal confederacy situated north of the Black Sea in what is now Ukraine. Asparukh attacked Byzantine territories in Moesia and conquered the Slavic tribes there in 680. A peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire was signed in 681, marking the foundation of the First Bulgarian Empire on the territory both north and south of the lower course of the Danube River in 681 as an alliance between the ruling Bulgars and the numerous slavs in the area, becoming the oldest still existing Slavic state.
The minority Bulgars formed a close-knit ruling caste. It is described as having lasted between 681 and 1018, when it was subjugated by the Byzantine Empire despite Emperor Samuel's fierce resistance. Tervel of Bulgaria, son of Asparuh, was the Khan at the beginning of the 8th century. In 705 Emperor Justinian II named him Caesar, the first foreigner to receive this title. Tervel played an important role in defeating the Arabs during the Siege of Constantinople in 717–718. During Krum reign in the early 9th century Bulgarian territory doubled in size, spreading from the middle Danube to the Dnieper and from Odrin to the Tatra Mountains, his able and energetic rule brought law and order to Bulgaria and developed the rudiments of state organization. Bulgaria reached its cultural and territorial apogee in the 9th century and early 10th century under Prince Boris I and Emperor Simeon the Great, when its early christianization in 864 allowed it to develop into the cultural and literary center of Slavic Europe, as well as one of the largest states in Europe, thus the period is considered the Golden Age of medieval Bulgarian culture.
Major event is the development of the Cyrillic script at the Preslav Literary School, declared official in 893, as was declared the liturgy in Old Church Slavonic called Old Bulgarian. The medieval Bulgarian state was restored as the Second Bulgarian Empire after a successful uprising of two nobles from Tarnovo and Peter, in 1185, existed until it was conquered during the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans in the late 14th century, with the date of its subjugation given as 1396, although some fringe views place it at 1422; until 1256, the Second Bulgarian Empire was the dominant power in the Balkans, defeating the Byzantine Empire in several major battles. In 1205 Emperor Kaloyan defeated the newly established Latin Empire in the Battle of Adrianople, his nephew Ivan Asen II made Bulgaria a regional power again. During his reign, Bulgaria spread from the Adriatic to the economy flourished. Under Ivan Asen II in the first half of the 13th century the country recovered much of its former power, though this did not last long due to internal problems and foreign invasions.
Bulgarian artists and architects created their own distinctive style. Until the 14th century, during the period known as the Second Golden Age of Bulgarian culture, literature and architecture flourished; the capital city Tarnovo, considered a "New Constantinople", became the country's main cultural hub and the centre of the Eastern Orthodox world. The Empire became tributary to the Golden Horde, a successor state of the Mongol Empire in the 13th to 14th centuries. After the death of Emperor Ivan Alexander in 1371 Bulgaria was split into three countries and in the following decades fell under the domination of the Ottomans. After the Ottoman conquest, many Bulgarian clerics and scholars emigrated to Serbia, Wallachia and Russian principalities, where they introduced Bulgarian culture and hesychastic ideas. Kingdom of Bulgaria History of Bulgaria Zlatarski, Vasil N.. Medieval History of the Bulgarian State. Sofia: Science and Arts Publishers, 2nd Edition, Zahari Stoyanov Publishers, 4th Edition, 2006.
ISBN 978-954-739-928-0. Бакалов, Георги. Електронна издание – История на България. София: Труд, Сирма. ISBN 978-954-528-613-1. Делев, Петър. История и цивилизация за 11. Клас. Труд, Сирма. Българите и България. Министерство на външните работи на България, Труд, Сирма. 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-11-10. Fine, John V. A. Jr.. The Early Medieval Balkans. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3
Voivode, Vojvoda or Wojewoda is a Slavic term for a military commander in Central and Southern Europe during the Early Middle Ages, or a governor of a territorial voivodeship. The different permutations of the term all share two roots, voi related to warring and secondly, vod meaning leading in Old Slavic, together denoting a "war-leader" or "warlord". In early Slavic vojevoda meant the bellidux the military leader in battle. During the Byzantine Empire it referred to military commanders of Slavic populations in the Balkans, the Bulgarian Empire being the first permanently established Slavic state in the region; the title voevodas occurs in the work of the 10th-century Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in his De Administrando Imperio in reference to Hungarian military leaders. The title was used in medieval Bohemia, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland, Rügen, Russian Empire, Serbia and Wallachia In the Late Middle Ages the voivode, Latin translation is comes palatinus for the principal commander of a military force, deputising for the monarch became the title of territorial Voivodeship governors of senatorial rank in Poland and the Czech lands and in the Balkans.
In the Kingdom of Serbia the highest military rank was Army General. After the Second World War, the newly formed Yugoslav People's Army stopped using the royal ranking system, making the name obsolete; the transition of the voivode from military leader to a high ranking civic role in territorial administration occurred in most Slavic countries and in the Balkans in the Late Middle Ages. They included Bulgaria, the Czech lands, Moldavia and Russia. Moreover in the Czech lands it was an aristocratic title corresponding to Duke or Knyaz. In the 16th-century Commonwealth of Two Nations the Wojewoda was a civic role of senatorial rank and neither heritable nor a title of nobility, his powers and duties depended on his location. The least onerous role was in Ruthenia; the role began in the crown lands as that of an administrative overseer, but his powers were ceremonial. Over time he became a representative in the Sejm, his military functions were reduced to supervising a Mass mobilization and in practice he ended up as little more than overseer of weights and measures.
Appointments to the role were made until 1775 by the King. The exceptions were the voivodes of Polock and Vitebsk who were elected by a local poll of male electors for confirmation by the monarch. In 1791 it was decided to adopt the procedure throughout the country but the Partitions of Poland put a stop to it.. Polish voivodes were subject to the Law of Incompatibility which prevented them from holding ministerial or other civic offices in their area; the role was revived during the Second Polish Republic after Poland regained her independence in 1918. Voivodes continue to have a role in local government in Poland today, as overseers of self-governing local councils, answerable not to the local electorate but as representatives/emissaries of the central government's Council of Ministers, they are appointed by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers and among their main tasks are budgetary control and supervision of the administrative code. Bjelajac, Mile. Generali i admirali Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1918—1941.
Belgrade: Institut za novu istoriju Srbije. ISBN 86-7005-039-0. Franz Ritter von Miklosich. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der slavischen Sprachen. W. Braumüller. P. 393. Konstantin Jireček. Staat und gesellschaft im mittelalterlichen Serbien: studien zur kulturgeschichte des 13.-15. Jahrhunderts. In Kommission bei Alfred Hölder
A duchy is a country, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. The term is used exclusively in Europe, where in the present day there is no sovereign duchy left; the term "duke" should not be confused with the title Grand Duke, as there exists a significant difference of rank between the two. In common European cultural heritage, a grand duke is the third highest monarchic rank, after emperor and king, its synonym in many Slavic and Baltic European languages is translated as Grand Prince, whereas most Germanic and Romance European languages use expressions corresponding to Grand Duke. Unlike a duke, the sovereign grand duke is considered royalty; the proper form of address for a grand duke is His Royal Highness, whereas for a non-royal duke in the United Kingdom it is His Grace. In contrast to this, the rank of a duke differs from one country to the next. In Germany, for example, a duke is listed in the aristocratic hierarchy below an emperor, grand duke, elector – in that order – whereas in Britain the duke comes third after king/queen and prince.
In all countries, there existed an important difference between "sovereign dukes" and dukes subordinate to a king or emperor. Some historic duchies were sovereign in areas that would become part of nation-states only during the modern era, such as Germany and Italy. In contrast, others were subordinate districts of those kingdoms that had unified either or during the medieval era, such as France, Sicily and the Papal States. In England, the term is used in respect of non-territorial entities. Traditionally, a grand duchy, such as Luxembourg or Tuscany, was independent and sovereign. There were many sovereign or semi-sovereign duchies in the de facto confederate Holy Roman Empire and German-speaking areas. In France, a number of duchies existed in the medieval period including Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine; the medieval German stem duchies were associated with the Frankish Kingdom and corresponded with the areas of settlement of the major Germanic tribes. They formed the nuclei of the major feudal states that comprised the early era of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation.
These were Schwaben and Sachsen in pre-Carolingian times, to which Franken and Lothringen were added in post-Carolingian times. As mentioned above, such a duke was styled Herzog. In medieval England, duchies associated with the territories of Lancashire and Cornwall were created, with certain powers and estates of land accruing to their dukes; the Duchy of Lancaster was created in 1351 but became merged with the Crown when, in 1399, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, ascended the throne of England as Henry IV. Nowadays the Duchy of Lancaster always belongs to the sovereign and its revenue is the Privy Purse; the Duchy of Cornwall was created in 1337 and held successively by the Dukes of Cornwall, who were heirs to the throne. Nowadays, the Duchy of Cornwall belongs to the sovereign's heir apparent, if there is one: it reverts to the Crown in the absence of an heir apparent, is automatically conferred to the heir apparent upon birth; these duchies today have lost any non-ceremonial political role, but generate their holders' private income.
During the Wars of the Roses, the Duke of York made a successful entry into the City of York, by claiming no harm and that it was his right to possess "his duchy of York". Any and all feudal duchies that made up the patchwork of England have since been absorbed within the Royal Family. Other than Cornwall and Lancaster, British royal dukedoms are titular and do not include land holdings. Non-royal dukedoms are associated with ducal property, but this is meant as the duke's private property, with no other feudal privileges attached. In more recent times, territorial duchies have become rare. At present all independent duchies have disappeared. Luxembourg, an independent and sovereign nation with a history dating back as far as the 8th century, is the only remaining independent grand duchy, with HRH the Grand Duke Henri I as its head of state since the year 2000. In the middle east the concept of beylik can be seen as equivalent to duchy. For example, the Ottoman Empire, first just the nomadic Kayı tribe among the Ghuzz, settled in Bithynia on the border to the Byzantine Empire, evolved under the Sultanate of Rûm into a border principality.
It became an independent principality. It grew further into its own empire by conquering the nearby Anatolian beyliks remnants of the Sultanate of Rûm. Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Grand Duchy of
Mazovian Voivodeship or Mazovia Province is the largest and most populous of the 16 Polish provinces, or voivodeships, created in 1999. It occupies 35,579 square kilometres of east-central Poland, has 5,324,500 inhabitants, its principal cities are Warsaw in the centre of the Warsaw metropolitan area, Radom in the south, Płock in the west, Siedlce in the east, Ostrołęka in the north. The capital of the voivodeship is Warsaw; the province was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Warsaw, Płock, Ciechanów, Ostrołęka, Siedlce and Radom Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province's name recalls the traditional name of the region, with which it is coterminous. However, southern part of the voivodeship, with Radom belongs to Lesser Poland, while Łomża and its surroundings though part of Mazovia, now is part of Podlaskie Voivodeship, it is bordered by six other voivodeships: Warmian-Masurian to the north, Podlaskie to the north-east, Lublin to the south-east, Świętokrzyskie to the south, Łódź to the south-west, Kuyavian-Pomeranian to the north-west.
Mazovia is the centre of science, education and infrastructure in the country. It has the lowest unemployment rate in Poland and is classified as a high income province. Moreover, it is popular among holidaymakers due to the number of historical monuments and greenery. Additionally, the Kampinos National Park located within Masovia is a UNESCO-designated biosphere reserve. Masovian Voivodeship is divided into 42 counties: 5 city counties and 37 "land counties"; these are subdivided into 314 gminas, which include 85 "urban gminas". The counties, shown on the numbered map, are described in the table below; the voivodeship contains 85 towns. These are listed below in descending order of population: Protected areas in Masovian Voivodeship include one National Park and nine Landscape Parks; these are listed below. Kampinos National Park Bolimów Landscape Park Brudzeń Landscape Park Bug Landscape Park Chojnów Landscape Park Górzno-Lidzbark Landscape Park Gostynin-Włocławek Landscape Park Kozienice Landscape Park Masovian Landscape Park Podlaskie Bug Gorge Landscape Park Kowalski: 26,270 Wiśniewski: 21,940 Kowalczyk: 21,586 Lukasik: 15,562 Mazurkiewicz: Founding of Masovia Name.
Masovia Voivodeship, 1526–1795 was an administrative region of the Kingdom of Poland, of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, from the 15th century until the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Together with Płock and Rawa Voivodeships, it formed the province of Masovia. Masovian Voivodeship was one of the voivodeships of Congress Poland, it was formed from Warsaw Department, transformed into Masovia Governorate. There are three main road routes that pass through the voivodeship: Cork–Berlin–Poznań–Warszawa–Minsk–Moscow–Omsk, Prague–Wrocław–Warsaw–Białystok–Helsinki and Pskov–Gdańsk–Warsaw–Kraków–Budapest. There are various stretches of autostrada in the area, with the A2 autostrada connecting the region, therefore the capital city, with the rest of Europe; the autostrada passes directly through the voivodship from west to east, connecting it with Belarus and Germany. However, the A2 is yet to be built east of Warsaw to connect Poland with Belarus; the S8 expressway connects Warsaw with Białystok in the neighboring eastern province, along with the S17 being built to connect Warsaw with Lublin.
The railroad system is based on PKP Intercity. The main international airport in the region is Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport. Mazovian Voivodeship is the wealthiest province in Poland, it produces 22% of Polish GDP, GDP per capita is 160% of country average. The unemployment rate stood at 4.8% in 2017 and was higher than the national and the european average. Second Polish Republic's Warsaw Voivodeship Official website Things to do in Warsaw