SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Volapük

Volapük is a constructed language created in 1879 and 1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. Schleyer felt. Volapük conventions took place in 1884, 1887 and 1889; the first two conventions used German, the last conference used only Volapük. In 1889, there were an estimated 283 clubs, 25 periodicals in or about Volapük, 316 textbooks in 25 languages. Volapük was displaced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Esperanto. Schleyer first published a sketch of Volapük in May 1879 in Sionsharfe, a Catholic poetry magazine of which he was editor; this was followed in 1880 by a full-length book in German. Schleyer himself did not write books on Volapük in other languages. André Cherpillod writes of the third Volapük convention, In August 1889 the third convention was held in Paris. About two hundred people from many countries attended. And, unlike in the first two conventions, people spoke only Volapük. For the first time in the history of mankind, sixteen years before the Boulogne convention, an international convention spoke an international language.

The Dutch cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs was for a number of years Director of the Academy of Volapük, introduced the movement to several countries. The French Association for the Propagation of Volapük was authorized on 8 April 1886, with A. Lourdelet as President and a central committee that included the deputy Edgar Raoul-Duval. However, tensions arose between Kerckhoffs and others in the Academy, who wanted reforms made to the language, Schleyer, who insisted on retaining his proprietary rights; this led to schism, with much of the Academy abandoning Schleyer's Volapük Eiscritzscarben in favor of Idiom Neutral and other new constructed language projects. Another reason for the decline of Volapük may have been the rise of Esperanto. In 1887 the first Esperanto book was published. Many Volapük clubs became Esperanto clubs. By 1890 the movement was with violent arguments among the members. Schleyer created a rival academy. Derived languages such as Nal Bino, Bopal, Spelin and Orba were invented and forgotten.

By 1900 there were only 159 members of Volapük clubs recognized by Schleyer. The umlauts, which may have been one of the reasons for the language's eventual decline into obscurity, were the subject of ridicule. For example, the Milwaukee Sentinel published the limerick: In the 1920s, Arie de Jong, with the consent of the leaders of the small remnant of Volapük speakers, made a revision of Volapük, published in 1931; this revision was accepted by the few speakers of the language. De Jong simplified the grammar, eliminating some used verb forms, eliminated some gendered pronouns and gendered verb endings, he rehabilitated the phoneme /r/ and used it to make some morphemes more recognizable. For instance, lömib "rain" became rein. Volapük enjoyed a brief renewal of popularity in the Netherlands and Germany under de Jong's leadership, but was suppressed in countries under Nazi rule and never recovered. Regarding the success of this artificial language, the Spanish scientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal wrote in the first edition of his Tonics of Willingness, in 1898: Nowadays, many scientific papers are published in more than six languages.

To the attempt of restoring Latin or using Esperanto as the universal language of science, wise men have responded by multiplying the number of languages in which scientific works are published. We have to acknowledge that Volapük or Esperanto are one more language to be learnt; this result was predictable because neither the popularized and democratic tendencies of modern knowledge, nor the economic views of authors and editors consent in a different way. However, some years in the third edition of the same book, he added the following footnote to the former assertion: "As it was presumable, nowadays -1920-, the brand new Volapük has been forgotten definitively. We forecast the same for Esperanto." Large Volapük collections are held by the International Esperanto Museum in Austria. In 2000 there were an estimated 20 Volapük speakers in the world. In December 2007 it was reported that the Volapük version of Wikipedia had jumped to 15th place among language editions, with more than 112,000 articles.

A few months earlier there had been only 797 articles. The massive increase in the size of "Vükiped", bringing it ahead of the Esperanto Wikipedia, was due to an enthusiast who had used a computer program to automatically create geographical articles, many on small villages; the motive was to gain visibility for the language. By March 2013 the Esperanto Wikipedia, with a active user community, had risen to 176,792 articles, while the Volapük Wikipedia had at that point 119,091 articles. There has been a continuous Volapük speaker community since Schleyer's time, with an unbroken succession of Cifals; these were: Johann Martin Schleyer 1879–1912 Albert Sleumer 1912–1948 Arie de Jong 1947–1948, 1951–1957 Jakob Sprenger 1948–1950 Johann Schmidt 1950–1977 Johann Krüger 1977–1983 Brian Bishop 1984–2014 Hermann Philipps 2014–present The alphabet is as follows: That is, the vowel letters ä, ö, ü have the pronu

Janice E. Clements

Janice Ellen Clements is Vice Dean for Faculty at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and the Mary Wallace Stanton Professor of Faculty Affairs. She is a professor in the departments of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology and Pathology, has a joint appointment in molecular biology and genetics, her molecular biology and virology research examines lentiviruses and how they cause neurological diseases. Clements earned a PhD in biochemistry from the University of Maryland, she pursued post-doctoral work at Johns Hopkins during the 1970s, working first with Bernard Weiss and with Opendra "Bill" Narayan and Richard T. Johnson. Along with Diane Griffin and others, Clements was one of several trainees of Johnson who went on to notable academic careers at Johns Hopkins. Clements became a faculty member at Johns Hopkins in 1978 as an assistant professor in the Department of Neurology and became a full professor in 1990, the 24th woman to achieve this rank at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Clements joined the Division of Comparative Medicine in 1988 and headed its retrovirus laboratory from 1992.

Clements convinced the school to elevate the division to department-level status, in 2002 became the first director of the new department renamed the Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology. In 2000, Clements was appointed vice dean for the School of Medicine, taking over the duties of Catherine D. DeAngelis, who had left Johns Hopkins to become the first woman editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Clements stepped down as director of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology in 2008, she was succeeded by a longtime colleague of Clements. Clements has conducted and led research into numerous viruses, concentrating on the animal lentiviruses. Lentiviruses are a complex type of retroviruses, include the human immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2. Clements was the first to characterize the complex genome of the lentiviruses, describing the genomic structure of visna virus, a lentivirus of sheep, she performed similar work with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, a related virus of goats.

With the discovery of AIDS and its cause, HIV, Clements' work took on a new dimension of relevance. In 1985, she published an article with HIV co-discoverer Robert Gallo and others describing the relationship of HIV to visna virus; this article helped to establish HIV as a lentivirus, not a leukemia virus as was thought. At the time, the origin of HIV was unknown, Clements' work presented the possibility that HIV could have been transferred to humans from animals, it was found that simian immunodeficiency virus strains from chimpanzee and monkey hosts were the progenitors of HIV. In addition to her work with visna and CAEV, Clements has conducted extensive research into SIV and HIV. Clements and her laboratory have published over 160 scientific articles. Alongside collaborators including Chris Zink, Joseph L. Mankowski, Kenneth Witwer, Clements has investigated the innate immune response to retrovirus infection in an animal model of HIV encephalitis, her recent work includes the use of minocycline, a common antibiotic used against acne, to protect against viral encephalitis and slow viral replication.

With Zink, Mankowski and HIV researchers Joel Blankson and Bob Siliciano, Clements has developed a model of active antiretroviral therapy to study viral reservoirs: where HIV conceals itself in the body. Clements has advocated and fostered the creation of opportunities and supportive environments for women in academia, she is a member of the steering committee of the Johns Hopkins Women's Leadership Council. In 2005, the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine celebrated the promotion of the 100th woman to the rank of full professor in a ceremony organized by Clements and others at Johns Hopkins; the event was entitled "The Legacy of Mary Elizabeth Garrett, 100 Women Professors at Johns Hopkins Medicine" to honor the woman whose financial gift allowed the school of medicine to begin its first cohort of medical students in 1893. Garrett herself had stressed the importance of equal opportunity in medical education, specifying that the school must allow women and men alike to seek admission and "prizes, dignities or honor that are awarded by competitive examination, or regarded as rewards of merit."

Tabakhmela

Tabakhmela is a village in the Kartli region, overlooking the city of Tbilisi, Georgia. The village is home to several traditional religious festivals throughout a year Tamaroba. In 1921, the area was the scene of heavy fighting during the Battle for Tbilisi as part of the Red Army invasion of Georgia. In 2007, the Sheikh Saud Bin Saqr Al Qasimi of Ras Al Khaimah, a member of the United Arab Emirates, visited Tabakhkmela for a groundbreaking ceremony after buying a huge plot of land there; the real estate developer Rakeen, owned by RAK Airways, RAK Properties, Reyada Company, pledged to develop the 200,000 square meter plateau into a luxury residential and commercial neighborhood, dubbed Tbilisi heights. Although glossy promotional material was prepared, nothing has been constructed. In 2010, Ras Al Khaimah decided to sell all foreign assets. At the time, the impact of the Dubai financial crisis of November 2009 had obliged Ras Al Khaimah to make serious efforts to reduce its 5 billion AED debts.

The repatriation of capital held in Georgia was one of several measures by which Ras Al Khaimah tried to improve its credit rating. This was necessary in order to maintain control over spiraling borrowing costs, since the poor emirate finances investments by raising funds on financial markets