Chiapas the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas, is one of the 31 states that along with the federal district of Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 124 municipalities as of September 2017 and its capital city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez. Other important population centers in Chiapas include Ocosingo, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Comitán and Arriaga, it is the southernmost state in Mexico. It is located in Southeastern Mexico, it borders the states of Oaxaca to the west, Veracruz to the northwest and Tabasco to the north, by the Petén, Quiché, Huehuetenango and San Marcos departments of Guatemala to the east and southeast. Chiapas has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the south. In general, Chiapas has a tropical climate. In the north, in the area bordering Tabasco, near Teapa, rainfall can average more than 3,000 mm per year. In the past, natural vegetation in this region was lowland, tall perennial rainforest, but this vegetation has been completely cleared to allow agriculture and ranching.
Rainfall decreases moving towards the Pacific Ocean, but it is still abundant enough to allow the farming of bananas and many other tropical crops near Tapachula. On the several parallel "sierras" or mountain ranges running along the center of Chiapas, climate can be quite temperate and foggy, allowing the development of cloud forests like those of the Reserva de la Biosfera el Triunfo, home to a handful of resplendent quetzals and horned guans. Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak and Toniná, it is home to one of the largest indigenous populations in the country with twelve federally recognized ethnicities. Much of the state's history is centered on the subjugation of these peoples with occasional rebellions; the last of these rebellions was the 1994 Zapatista uprising, which succeeded in obtaining new rights for indigenous people. The official name of the state is Chiapas, it is believed to have come from the ancient city of Chiapan, which in Náhuatl means "the place where the chia sage grows."
After the Spanish arrived, they established two cities called Chiapas de los Indios and Chiapas de los Españoles, with the name of Provincia de Chiapas for the area around the cities. The first coat of arms of the region dates from 1535 as that of the Ciudad Real. Chiapas painter Javier Vargas Ballinas designed the modern coat of arms. Hunter gatherers began to occupy the central valley of the state around 7000 BCE, but little is known about them; the oldest archaeological remains in the seat are located at the Santa Elena Ranch in Ocozocoautla whose finds include tools and weapons made of stone and bone. It includes burials. In the pre Classic period from 1800 BCE to 300 CE, agricultural villages appeared all over the state although hunter gather groups would persist for long after the era. Recent excavations in the Soconusco region of the state indicate that the oldest civilization to appear in what is now modern Chiapas is that of the Mokaya, which were cultivating corn and living in houses as early as 1500 BCE, making them one of the oldest in Mesoamerica.
There is speculation that these were the forefathers of the Olmec, migrating across the Grijalva Valley and onto the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico to the north, Olmec territory. One of these people's ancient cities is now the archeological site of Chiapa de Corzo, in, found the oldest calendar known on a piece of ceramic with a date of 36 BCE; this is. The descendants of Mokaya are the Mixe-Zoque. During the pre Classic era, it is known that most of Chiapas was not Olmec, but had close relations with them the Olmecs of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Olmec-influenced sculpture can be found in Chiapas and products from the state including amber and ilmenite were exported to Olmec lands; the Olmecs came to what is now the northwest of the state looking for amber with one of the main pieces of evidence for this called the Simojovel Ax. Mayan civilization began in the pre-Classic period as well, but did not come into prominence until the Classic period. Development of this culture was agricultural villages during the pre-Classic period with city building during the Classic as social stratification became more complex.
The Mayans built cities on west into Guatemala. In Chiapas, Mayan sites are concentrated along the state's borders with Tabasco and Guatemala, near Mayan sites in those entities. Most of this area belongs to the Lacandon Jungle. Mayan civilization in the Lacandon area is marked by rising exploitation of rain forest resources, rigid social stratification, fervent local identity, waging war against neighboring peoples. At its height, it had large cities, a writing system, development of scientific knowledge, such as mathematics and astronomy. Cities were centered on large political and ceremonial structures elaborately decorated with murals and inscriptions. Among these cities are Palenque, Yaxchilan, Toniná and Tenón; the Mayan civilization had extensive trade networks and large markets trading in goods such as animal skins, amber and quetzal feathers. It is not known what ended the civilization but theories range from over population size, natural disasters and loss of natural resources through over exploitation or climate change.
Nearly all Mayan cities collapsed around the same time, 900 CE. From until 1500 CE, social organization of the region fragmented into much smaller units and social structure became much less complex. There was some influence from the ris
For the mountain in Antarctica, see Mount Steele. Mount Steele is the fifth-highest mountain in Canada and the eleventh-highest peak in North America reaching the height of 5,073 metres. A lower southeast peak of Mt. Steele stands at 4,300 m, it was named after Sir Sam Steele, the North-West Mounted Police officer in charge of the force in the Yukon during the Klondike Gold Rush. Walter A. Wood led a team consisting of Foresta Wood, Swiss guide Hans Fuhrer, Joseph W. Fobes, Harrison Wood and I. Pearce Hazard; the expedition approached the peak on the eastern side from Kluane Lake. Base camp was established at the foot of the Steele Glacier with horses carrying loads to Advance Base Camp further along the glacier. ABC provided good views of the mountain and the team decided on the east ridge as their line of ascent. After waiting for the weather to improve after heavy snowfalls, a four-man team consisting of Walter Wood, Harrison Wood and Forbes left Camp 8 at the base of the ridge, their plan to was to make a 2,440-meter push to the summit.
After steady upwards progress, deteriorating weather forced them to return to Camp 8 where they waited out a five-day storm which dumped over a metre of fresh snow. They started out again on August 15 and the ascent was made easier this time by windblown and hard steep snow slopes rather than steep soft snow on their earlier attempt. At 4,570 m, a plateau of wretched snow forced the team to crawl on all fours. Walter Wood commented: The humour of it impressed me. Here were four normal human beings crawling across a snow field 15,000 ft. up in the air, engaged in what they fondly believed to be a sporting venue. Alternating the lead every 100 paces, they made their way from the plateau to the top reaching the summit at 2:30 pm; the team enjoyed a blissful thirty minutes of windless conditions on top before beginning their descent. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada
Dacite is an igneous, volcanic rock. It has an aphanitic to porphyritic texture and is intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite; the word dacite comes from Dacia, a province of the Roman Empire which lay between the Danube River and Carpathian Mountains where the rock was first described. Dacite consists of plagioclase feldspar with biotite and pyroxene, it has quartz as an element of the ground-mass. The relative proportions of feldspars and quartz in dacite, in many other volcanic rocks, are illustrated in the QAPF diagram; the TAS classification, based on silica and alkali contents, puts dacite in the O3 sector. The plagioclase ranges from oligoclase to labradorite. Sanidine occurs, although in small proportions, in some dacites, when abundant gives rise to rocks that form transitions to the rhyolites; the groundmass of these rocks is composed of quartz. In hand specimen, many of the hornblende and biotite dacites are grey or pale brown and yellow rocks with white feldspars, black crystals of biotite and hornblende.
Other dacites pyroxene-bearing dacites, are darker colored. In thin section, dacites may have an aphanitic to porphyritic texture. Porphyritic dacites contain blocky zoned plagioclase phenocrysts and/or rounded corroded quartz phenocrysts. Subhedral hornblende and elongated biotite grains are present. Sanidine phenocrysts and augite are found in some samples; the groundmass of these rocks is aphanitic microcrystalline, with a web of minute feldspars mixed with interstitial grains of quartz or tridymite. Dacite forms as an intrusive rock such as a dike or sill. Examples of this type of dacite outcrop are found in northeastern Bulgaria; because of the moderately high silica content, dacitic magma is quite viscous and therefore prone to explosive eruption. A notorious example of this is Mount St. Helens in which dacite domes formed from previous eruptions. Pyroclastic flows may be of dacitic composition as is the case with the Fish Canyon Tuff of La Garita Caldera. Dacitic magma is formed by the subduction of young oceanic crust under a thick felsic continental plate.
Oceanic crust is hydrothermally altered causing addition of sodium. As the young, hot oceanic plate is subducted under continental crust, the subducted slab melts and interacts with the upper mantle through convection and dehydration reactions; the process of subduction creates metamorphism in the subducting slab. When this slab reaches the mantle and initiates the dehydration reactions, minerals such as talc, serpentine and amphiboles break down generating a more sodic melt; the magma continues to migrate upwards causing differentiation and becomes more sodic and silicic as it rises. Once at the cold surface, the sodium rich magma crystallizes plagioclase and hornblende. Accessory minerals like pyroxenes provide insight to the history of the magma; the formation of dacite provides a great deal of information about the connection between oceanic crust and continental crust. It provides a model for the generation of felsic, perennial rock from a mafic, short-lived one; the process by which dacite forms has been used to explain the generation of continental crust during the Archean eon.
At that time, the fabrication of dacitic magma was more ubiquitous due to the availability of young hot oceanic crust. Today, the colder oceanic crust that subducts under most plates is not capable of melting before the dehydration reactions therefore inhibiting the process. Dacite magma was encountered in a drillhole during geothermal exploration on Kīlauea in 2005. At a depth of 2488 m, the magma flowed up the wellbore; this produced several kilograms of colorless vitric cuttings at the surface. The dacite magma is a residual melt of the typical basalt magma of Kīlauea. Dacite is common and occurs in various tectonic and magmatic contexts: In oceanic volcanic series. Examples: Iceland, Juan de Fuca Ridge In limestone-alkaline and tholeiitic volcanic series of the subduction zones of island arcs and active continental margins. Examples of dacitic magmatism in island arcs are Japan, the Philippines, the Aleutians, the Antilles, the Sunda Arc and the South Sandwich Islands. Examples of dacitic magmatism in active continental margins are the Cascade Range and the Andes.
In continental volcanic series in association with tholeiitic basalts and intermediary rocks. Sites of dacite in Europe are Germany, Italy, Romania, Slovakia, Spain and Hungary. Sites outside Europe include Iran, New Zealand, Turkey, USA and Zambia. Dacite is found extraterrestrially at Nili Patera caldera of Syrtis Major Planum on Mars. Lassen Volcanic National Park Potosí
Sierra Madre de Chiapas
The Sierra Madre de Chiapas is a major mountain range in Central America. The Sierra Madre de Chiapas is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America; the range runs northwest–southeast from the state of Chiapas in Mexico, across western Guatemala, into El Salvador and Honduras. Most of the volcanoes of Guatemala, part of the Central America Volcanic Arc, are within the range. A narrow coastal plain lies south of the range, between the Pacific Ocean. To the north lie a series of highlands and depressions, including the Chiapas Depression, which separates the Sierra Madre from the Chiapas Plateau, the Guatemalan Highlands, Honduras' interior highlands; the range forms the main drainage divide between the Atlantic river systems. On the Pacific side the distance to the sea is short, the streams, while numerous, are small and rapid. A few of the streams of the Pacific slopes rise in the Guatemalan Highlands, force a way through the Sierra Madre at the bottom of deep ravines.
On the eastern side a number of the rivers of the Atlantic slopes attain a considerable volume and size. It is known near Guatemala city as the Sierra de las Nubes, enters Mexico as the Sierra de Istatan, its summit is not a well-defined crest, but is rounded or flattened into a table-land. The direction of the great volcanic cones, which rise in an irregular line above it, is not identical with the main axis of the Sierra itself, except near the Mexican frontier, but has a more southerly trend towards El Salvador; the base of many of the volcanic igneous peaks rests among the southern foothills in the southern region of the range. It is, impossible to subdivide the Sierra Madre into a northern and a volcanic chain. Viewed from the coast, the volcanic cones seem to rise directly from the central heights of the Sierra Madre, above which they tower. East of Volcán Tacana which marks the Mexican frontier, the principal volcanoes are Tajumulco. East of the Guatemalan border, the range forms the boundary between El Honduras.
In El Salvador, the volcanoes form a line well south of the range, where over twenty volcanoes form five clusters. Between the Sierra Madre and the Volcanic line lies a central plateau. Geography of Mesoamerica Sierra Madre de Chiapas topics Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Chiapas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 117
Pico de Orizaba
Pico de Orizaba known as Citlaltépetl, is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America, after Denali of Alaska in the United States and Mount Logan of Canada. It rises 5,636 metres above sea level in the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, on the border between the states of Veracruz and Puebla; the volcano is dormant but not extinct, with the last eruption taking place during the 19th century. It is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Pico de Orizaba overlooks the city of Orizaba, from which it gets its name; the name Citlaltépetl is not used by Nahuatl speakers of the Orizaba area, who instead call it Istaktepetl, or'White Mountain'. Citlaltépetl comes from the Náhuatl citlalli and tepētl and thus means "Star Mountain"; this name is thought to be based on the fact that the snow-covered peak can be seen year round for hundreds of kilometers throughout the region. During the colonial era, the volcano was known as Cerro de San Andrés due to the nearby settlement of San Andrés Chalchicomula at its base.
A third name, which means "the one that colors or illuminates", has been recorded. This name was given by the Tlaxcaltecs in memory of their lost country; the peak of Citlaltépetl rises to an elevation of 5,636 m above sea level. Regionally dominant, Pico de Orizaba is the highest peak in Mexico and the highest volcano in North America. Orizaba is ranked 7th in the world in topographic prominence, it is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro, the volcano is ranked 16th in the world for topographic isolation. About 110 km to the west of the port of Veracruz, its peak is visible to ships approaching the port in the Gulf of Mexico, at dawn rays of sunlight strike the Pico while Veracruz still lies in shadow; the topography of Pico de Orizaba is asymmetrical from the center of the crater. The gradual slopes of the northwestern face of the volcano allows for the presence of large glaciers and is the most traveled route to take for hikers traveling to the summit.
Pico de Orizaba is one of only three volcanoes in México that continue to support glaciers and is home to the largest glacier in Mexico, Gran Glaciar Norte. Orizaba has nine known glaciers: Gran Glaciar Norte, Lengua del Chichimeco, Toro, Glaciar de la Barba, Occidental and Oriental; the equilibrium line altitude is not known for Orizaba. Snow on the south and southeast sides of the volcano melts because of solar radiation, but lower temperatures on the northwest and north sides allow for glaciers; the insolation angle and wind redeposition on the northwest and north sides allow for constant accumulation of snow providing a source for the outlet glaciers. On the north side of Orizaba, the Gran Glaciar Norte fills the elongated highland basin and is the source for seven outlet glaciers; the main glacier extends 3.5 km north of the crater rim, has a surface area of about 9.08 km2 descending from 5,650 m to about 5,000 m. It has a irregular and stepped profile, caused in part by the configuration of the bedrock.
Most crevasses show an ice thickness of 50 m. Below the 5,000 m in elevation on the north side of the volcano, the outlet glaciers Lengua del Chichimeco and Jamapa extend north and northwest another 1.5 km and 2 km, respectively. The terminal lobe of Lengua del Chichimeco at 4,740 m, having a gradient of only 140 m/km, is a low, broad ice fan that has a convex-upward profile, a front typical of all Mexican glaciers; the most distinct glacier is Glaciar de Jamapa, which leaves Gran Glaciar Norte at about 4,975 m and, after 2 km with a gradient of 145 m/km, divides into two small tongues that end at 4,650 m and 4,640 m. Both tongues terminate in broad convex-upward ice fans thinning along their edges; the retreat of these tongues prior to 1994 produced much erosion downstream and buried their edges by ablation rock debris. The west side of Gran Glaciar Norte generates five outlet glaciers. From north to south, the first two, Glaciar del Toro and Glaciar de la Barba, are hanging cliff or icefall glaciers, reaching the tops of giant lava steps at 4,930 m and 5,090 m, respectively.
They descend 200 to 300 m farther down into the heads of stream valleys as huge ice blocks but are not regenerated there. About 1 km, Glaciar Noroccidental, a small outlet glacier 300 m long, drains away from the side of Gran Glaciar Norte at about 5,100 m and draws down the ice surface a few tens of meters over a distance of 500 m, descending to 4,920 m with a gradient of 255 m/km. Another 1 km still farther south, Glaciar Occidental breaks away from Gran Glaciar Norte west of the summit crater at about 5,175 m as a steep, 1 km long glacier having a gradient of 270 m/km that ends at 4,930 m. From the southwest corner of the mountain, another outlet glacier, Glaciar Suroccidental, 1.6 km long, flows from Gran Glaciar Norte at 5,250 m with a gradient of 200 m/km, which en
Mount Lucania is the third-highest mountain located in Canada. A long ridge connects Mount Lucania with the fifth-highest in Canada. Lucania was named by the Duke of Abruzzi, as he stood on the summit of Mount Saint Elias on July 31, 1897, having just completed the first ascent. Seeing Lucania in the far distance, beyond Mount Logan, he named it "after the ship on which the expedition had sailed from Liverpool to New York," the RMS Lucania; the first ascent of Mount Lucania was made in 1937 by Robert Hicks Bates. They used an airplane to reach 2,670 m above sea level. Washburn called upon Bob Reeve, a famous Alaskan bush pilot, who replied by cable to Washburn, "Anywhere you'll ride, I'll fly"; the ski-equipped Fairchild F-51 made several trips to the landing site on the glacier without event in May, but on landing with Washburn and Bates in June, the plane sank into unseasonal slush. Washburn and Reeve pressed hard for five days to get the airplane out and Reeve was able to get the airplane airborne with all excess weight removed and with the assistance of a smooth icefall with a steep drop.
Washburn and Bates continued on foot to make the first ascent of Lucania, in an epic descent and journey to civilization, they hiked over 150 miles through the wilderness to safety in the small town of Burwash Landing in the Yukon. The second ascent of Lucania was made in 1967 by Jerry Halpern, Mike Humphreys, Gary Lukis, Gerry Roach. List of mountain peaks of Canada David Roberts, Escape from Lucania: An Epic Story of Survival, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-2432-9
Mount Saint Elias
Mount Saint Elias designated Boundary Peak 186, is the second highest mountain in both Canada and the United States, being situated on the Yukon and Alaska border. It lies about 42 kilometres southwest of the highest mountain in Canada; the Canadian side is part of Kluane National Park and Reserve, while the U. S. side of the mountain is located within Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, its name in Tlingit is Yasʼéitʼaa Shaa, meaning "mountain behind Icy Bay", is called Shaa Tlein "Big Mountain" by the Yakutat Tlingit. It is one of the most important crests of the Kwaashkʼiḵwáan clan since they used it as a guide during their journey down the Copper River. Mount Fairweather at the apex of the British Columbia and Alaska borders at the head of the Alaska Panhandle is known as Tsalx̱aan, it is said this mountain and Yasʼéitʼaa Shaa were next to each other but had an argument and separated, their children, the mountains in between the two peaks, are called Tsalx̱aan Yátxʼi. The mountain was first sighted by European explorers on July 1741 by Vitus Bering of Russia.
While some historians contend that the mountain was named by Bering, others believe that eighteenth century mapmakers named it after Cape Saint Elias, when it was left unnamed by Bering. Mount Saint Elias is notable for its immense vertical relief, its summit rises 18,008 feet vertically in just 10 miles horizontal distance from the head of Taan Fjord, off of Icy Bay. In 2007, an Austrian documentary, Mount. St. Elias, was made about a team of skier/mountaineers determined to make "the planet's longest skiing descent" – ascending the mountain and skiing nearly all 18,000 feet down to the Gulf of Alaska; the climbers ended up summiting on the second attempt and skiing down to 13,000 ft. Mt. St. Elias was first climbed on July 31, 1897 by an Italian expedition led by famed explorer Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, included noted mountain photographer Vittorio Sella; the second ascent was not until 1946, when a group from the Harvard Mountaineering Club including noted mountain historian Dee Molenaar climbed the Southwest Ridge route.
The summit party comprised Molenaar, his brother Cornelius and Betty Kauffman, Maynard Miller, William Latady, Benjamin Ferris. William Putnam did not make the summit, they used eleven camps, eight of which were on the approach from Icy Bay, three of which were on the mountain. They were supported by multiple air drops of food; the first winter ascent was made on February 13, 1996 by David Briggs, Gardner Heaton and Joe Reichert. After being flown by pilots Steve Ranney and Gary Graham, in to 2,300 feet on the Tyndal Glacier, they climbed the southwest ridge and followed the "Milk Bowl" variation in order to avoid 2,000 feet of loose rock on the normal route; the team had planned to begin their ascent from the ocean and cross the Tyndal Glacier but the terrain was in poor condition. Mount Saint Elias is infrequently climbed today, despite its height, because it has no easy route to the summit and because of its prolonged periods of bad weather. Abruzzi Ridge Livermore Ridge List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada List of mountain peaks of the United States List of Boundary Peaks of the Alaska-British Columbia/Yukon border Wood, Michael.
Alaska: a climbing guide. The Mountaineers. Media related to Mount Saint Elias at Wikimedia Commons Mt. St. Elias on Peakware