Building material is any material, used for construction purposes. Many occurring substances, such as clay, rocks and wood twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic; the manufacturing of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, insulation and roofing work. They provide the make-up of structures including homes. In history there are trends in building materials from being natural to becoming more man-made and composite; these trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological and social costs of building materials. Initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price; this is what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials and see the value of paying a higher initial cost in return for a lower lifetime cost.
For example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, or if the material is not as durable as advertised; the cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime. It is said that,'if it must be done, it must be done well'. Pollution costs can be micro; the macro, environmental pollution of extraction industries building materials rely on such as mining and logging produce environmental damage at their source and in transportation of the raw materials, transportation of the products and installation. An example of the micro aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution.
Red List building materials are materials found to be harmful. The carbon footprint, the total set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste. Two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development; the Initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce and install the material. The long term energy cost is the economic and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use and eventual removal; the initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, deliver, the materials. The lifetime embodied energy continues to grow with the use and reuse/recycling/disposal of the building materials themselves and how the materials and design help minimize the life-time energy consumption of the structure. Social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Globalization has had significant impacts on people both in terms of jobs and self-sufficiency are lost when manufacturing facilities are closed and the cultural aspects of where new facilities are opened. Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of global building material manufacturing. Brush structures are built from plant parts and were used in primitive cultures such as Native Americans and pygmy peoples in Africa These are built with branches and leaves, bark, similar to a beaver's lodge; these were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, so forth. An extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure; this gives the structure more thermal strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques. Many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames. Snow and ice, were used by the Inuit peoples for igloos and snow is used to build a shelter called a quinzhee.
Ice has been used for ice hotels as a tourist attraction in northern climates. Clay based buildings come in two distinct types. One being when the walls are made directly with the mud mixture, the other being walls built by stacking air-dried building blocks called mud bricks. Other uses of clay in building is combined with straws to create light clay and daub, mud plaster. Wet-laid, or damp, walls are made by using the mud or clay mixture directly without forming blocks and drying them first; the amount of and type of each material in the mixture used leads to different styles of buildings. The deciding factor is connected with the quality of the soil being used. Larger amounts of clay are employed in building with cob, while low-clay soil is associated with sod house or sod roof construction; the other main ingredients straw/grasses. Rammed earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand. Soil, clay, provides good the
Lock (water navigation)
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways. The distinguishing feature of a lock is a fixed chamber. Locks are used to make a river more navigable, or to allow a canal to cross land, not level. Canals used more and larger locks to allow a more direct route to be taken. Since 2016, the largest lock worldwide is the Kieldrecht Lock in the Port of Belgium. A pound lock is a type of lock, used exclusively nowadays on canals and rivers. A pound lock has a chamber with gates at both ends. In contrast, an earlier design with a single gate was known as a flash lock. Pound locks were first used in medieval China during the Song Dynasty, having been pioneered by the Song politician and naval engineer Qiao Weiyue in 984, they replaced earlier double slipways that had caused trouble and are mentioned by the Chinese polymath Shen Kuo in his book Dream Pool Essays, described in the Chinese historical text Song Shi: The distance between the two locks was rather more than 50 paces, the whole space was covered with a great roof like a shed.
The gates were'hanging gates'. The water level could differ by 4 feet or 5 feet at each lock and in the Grand Canal the level was raised in this way by 138 feet. In medieval Europe a sort of pound lock was built in 1373 at Netherlands; this pound lock serviced many ships at once in a large basin. Yet the first true pound lock was built in 1396 at Damme near Belgium; the Italian Bertola da Novate constructed 18 pound locks on the Naviglio di Bereguardo between 1452 and 1458. When a stretch of river is made navigable, a lock is sometimes required to bypass an obstruction such as a rapid, dam, or mill weir – because of the change in river level across the obstacle. In large scale river navigation improvements and locks are used together. A weir will increase the depth of a shallow stretch, the required lock will either be built in a gap in the weir, or at the downstream end of an artificial cut which bypasses the weir and a shallow stretch of river below it. A river improved by these means is called a Waterway or River Navigation.
Sometimes a river is made non-tidal by constructing a sea lock directly into the estuary. In more advanced river navigations, more locks are required. Where a longer cut bypasses a circuitous stretch of river, the upstream end of the cut will be protected by a flood lock; the longer the cut, the greater the difference in river level between start and end of the cut, so that a long cut will need additional locks along its length. At this point, the cut is, in effect, a canal. Early artificial canals, across flat countryside, would get round a small hill or depression by detouring around it; as engineers became more ambitious in the types of country they felt they could overcome, locks became essential to effect the necessary changes in water level without detours that would be uneconomic both in building costs and journey time. Still, as construction techniques improved, engineers became more willing to cut directly through and across obstacles by constructing long tunnels, aqueducts or embankments, or to construct more technical devices such as inclined planes or boat lifts.
However, locks continued to be built to supplement these solutions, are an essential part of the most modern navigable waterways. All pound locks have three elements: A watertight chamber connecting the upper and lower canals, large enough to enclose one or more boats; the position of the chamber is fixed. A gate at each end of the chamber. A gate is opened to allow a boat to leave the chamber. A set of lock gear to fill the chamber as required; this is a simple valve which allows water to drain into or out of the chamber. The principle of operating a lock is simple. For instance, if a boat travelling downstream finds the lock full of water: The entrance gates are opened and the boat moves in; the entrance gates are closed. A valve is opened, this lowers the boat by draining water from the chamber; the exit gates are opened and the boat moves out. If the lock were empty, the boat would have had to wait 5 to 10 minutes. For a boat travelling upstream, the process is reversed; the whole operation will take between 10 and 20 minutes, depending on the size of the lock and whether the water in the lock was set at the boat's level.
Boaters approaching a lock are pleased to meet another boat coming towards them, because this boat will have just exited the lock on their level and therefore set the lock in their favour – saving about 5 to 10 minutes. However, this is not true for staircase locks, where it is quicker for boats to go through
Tula Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically in the European Russia region of the country and is part of the Central Federal District, covering an area of 25,700 square kilometers and a population of 1,553,925. Tula is the capital of Tula Oblast. Tula Oblast borders Moscow Oblast in the north, Ryazan Oblast in the east, Lipetsk Oblast in the southeast, Oryol Oblast in the southwest, Kaluga Oblast in the west. Tula Oblast is one of the most developed and urbanized territories in Russia, the majority of the territory forms the Tula-Novomoskovsk Agglomeration, an urban area with a population of over 1 million; the Tula Oblast area has been inhabited since the Stone Age, as shown by discoveries of burial mounds and old settlements. By the Eighth Century, these lands were occupied by the Vyatichi, an East Slavic tribe who cultivated the land and worked at crafts, confirmed by records in property registers which mention an "ancient settlement" located at the confluence of the Upa River and Tulitsa River.
The first mention of the city of Tula in 1146 is found in the Nikon Chronicle, in reference to the campaign of Prince Svyatoslav Olgovich of Chernigov. At the time the lands belonged to the Ryazan Principality, Prince Sviatoslav passed through a number of settlements, including Tula, while heading for Ryazan. Tula Oblast is located in Russia's Central Federal District and borders Moscow, Lipetsk and Kaluga Oblasts. Tula Oblast streams. Major rivers include: Don River Oka River Upa River The oblast is rich in iron ore, clay and deposits of lignite; the lignite deposit is part of the Moscow coal basin. Tula Oblast has a moderate continental climate, with cold winters. Average January temperature is − 9 °C in south. Average July temperature is about +19 °C to +20 °C. Annual precipitation is 470 millimetres in 575 millimetres in northwest. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tula CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee.
Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Tula Oblast is the fundamental law of the region; the Tula Oblast Duma is the province's standing legislative body. The Oblast Duma exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it; the highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Population: 1,553,925 . Ethnic composition: Russians - 95.3% Ukrainians - 1% Armenians - 0.6% Tatars - 0.5% Azeris - 0.4% Romani people - 0.3% Belarusians - 0.2% Germans - 0.2% Others - 1.5% 19,778 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity.
It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. 2002 Census population: Urban: 1,366,818 Rural: 308,940 Males: 755,057 Females: 920,701 Females per 1000 Males: 1219 Average age: 41.7 years Urban: 41.5 years Rural: 42.8 years Male: 37.8 years Female: 44.9 years2012Births: 15 499 Deaths: 27 197 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.31 | 2010 - 1.31 | 2011 - 1.32 | 2012 - 1.43 | 2013 - 1.42 | 2014 - 1.47 | 2015 - 1.57 | 2016 - 1.56 According to a 2012 survey 62% of the population of Tula Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Muslims. In addition, 19% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, 3% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Tula Oblast is part of the Central economic region, it is a prominent industrial center with metalworking, engineering and chemical industries. Major industrial cities include Aleksin. Historical industries, such as firearm and accordion manufacturing, still play an important role in the region.
The oblast has a developed agricultural sector, which ranks 33rd in Russia in agricultural production. The sector includes farming grain, sugar beets, vegetable growing, livestock raising, dairying. Tula Oblast has as many as 32 museums. Several are located in the administrative center of the oblast, the city of Tula, notably the Tula State Arms Museum, the Tula Kremlin, the Tula Samovar Museum. Another important cultural tourist attractions is the home and country estate of Leo Tolstoy, Yasnaya Polyana, located 12 km outside of the city of Tula; the oblast has four professional theaters, a philharmonic orchestra, a circus. List of Chairmen of the Tula Oblast Duma 2005 Moscow power blackouts Tula Arms Plant Official website of the Museum-Estate of Leo Tolstoy "Yasnaya Polyana"
Azov known as Azoff, is a town in Rostov Oblast, situated on the Don River just 16 kilometers from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. Population: 82,937 ; the mouth of the Don River has always been an important commercial center. At the start of the 3rd century BCE, the Greeks from the Bosporan Kingdom founded a colony here, which they called Tanais. Several centuries in the last third of 1st century BCE, the settlement was burned down by king Polemon I of Pontus; the introduction of Greek colonists restored its prosperity, but the Goths annihilated it in the 3rd century. The site of ancient Tanais, now occupied by the khutor of Nedvigovka, has been excavated since the mid-19th century. In the 5th century, the area was populated by Karadach's Akatziroi who came under the rule of Dengizich the Hun before Byzantium gave the land to the Hunugurs in the 460s to become known as Patria Onoguria under his brother Ernakh the Hun; the Kutrigur Hun inhabitants of Patria Onoguria became known as the Utigur Bulgars when it became part of the Western Turkic Kaghanate under Sandilch.
In the 7th century Khan Kubrat ruler of the Unogundurs established Old Great Bolgary there before his heir Batbayan surrendered it to the Khazars. In the 10th century, as the Khazar state disintegrated, the area passed under control of the Slavic princedom of Tmutarakan; the Kipchaks, seizing the area in 1067, renamed it Azaq, from which appellation the modern name is derived. The Golden Horde claimed most of the coast in the 13th and 14th centuries, but the Venetian and Genoese merchants were granted permission to settle on the site of modern-day Azov and founded there a colony which they called Tana. In autumn 2000, Thor Heyerdahl wanted to further investigate his idea that Scandinavians may have migrated from the south via waterways, he was on the trail of Odin, the Germanic and Nordic god of the mythologies of the early Norse Eddas and Sagas. According to Snorri Sturluson, the Icelandic author of an Edda and as least one Saga. who wrote in the 13th century, Odin was supposed to have migrated from the region of the Caucasus or the area just east of the Black Sea near the turn of the 1st century CE.
Heyerdahl was interested in Snorri's reference to the land of origin of the Æsir people. Heyerdahl wanted to test the veracity of Snorri's claims and as a result organized the Joint Archaeological Excavation in Azov in 2001, he had wanted to undertake a second excavation the following year, but it never happened due to his death in April 2002. In 1471, the Ottoman Empire built the strong fortress of Azak; the fort blocked the Don Cossacks from trading into the Black Sea. The Cossacks had attacked Azov in 1574, 1593, 1620, 1626. In April 1637, three thousand Don Cossacks and four thousand Zaporozhian Cossacks besieged Azov; the fort fell on June 21 and the Cossacks sent a request to the Tsar for re-enforcements and support. A commission recommended against this because of the danger of war with Turkey and poor state of the fortifications. In June 1641, Hussein Deli, Pasha of Silistria invested the fort with 70,000–80,000 men. In September, they had to withdraw because of provisioning shortfalls. A second Russian commission reported that the siege had left little of the walls.
In March 1642, Sultan Ibrahim issued Tsar Mikhail ordered the Cossacks to evacuate. The Turks reoccupied Azov in September 1642. In 1693, the garrison of the fortress was 3,656 of; the fortress, had yet to pass through many vicissitudes. During the Azov campaigns of 1696, Peter the Great, who desired naval access to the Black Sea, managed to recover the fortress. Azov was granted town status in 1708, but the disastrous Pruth River Campaign constrained him to hand it back to the Turks in 1711. A humorous description of the events is featured in Voltaire's Candide. During the Great Russo-Turkish War, it was taken by the army under Count Rumyantsev and ceded to Russia under the terms of Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji. For seven years Azov was a seat of its own governorate, but with the growth of neighboring Rostov-on-the-Don it declined in importance, it was occupied by the Germans between July 1942 and February 1943 during World War II. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Azov serves as the administrative center of Azovsky District though it is not a part of it.
As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Azov Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status. Sergey Bezdolny of the United Russia party was elected Mayor of Azov on April 3, 2005 and re-elected on October 11, 2009 by 72.9% of the voters. The current head of administration Vladimir Rashchupkin holds office from December 2015. Azov's climate is humid continental, featuring hot summers, cold winters, low precipitation. There are many monuments and museums In Azov. Powder cellar in the town of Azov was built in 1799, is the only example of the construction of the fortress of Catherine's time for all of southern Russia, so it is deserved is considered an architectural monument of military engineering art of the 18th century. Wooden cellar served a quarter century, in 1797 he was a dilapidated state was dismantled, in
Great Northern War
The Great Northern War was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. Frederick IV and Augustus II were defeated by Sweden, under Charles XII, forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 but rejoined it in 1709 after the defeat of Charles XII at the Battle of Poltava. George I of Great Britain and of Brunswick-Lüneburg joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia joined it in 1715. Charles XII led the Swedish army. Swedish allies included Holstein-Gottorp, several Polish magnates under Stanisław I Leszczyński and Cossacks under the Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa; the Ottoman Empire temporarily hosted Charles XII of Sweden and intervened against Peter I. The war began when an alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony and Russia, sensing an opportunity as Sweden was ruled by the young Charles XII, declared war on the Swedish Empire and launched a threefold attack on Swedish Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish Livonia, Swedish Ingria.
Sweden parried the Danish and Russian attacks at Travendal and Narva and in a counter-offensive pushed Augustus II's forces through the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to Saxony, dethroning Augustus on the way and forcing him to acknowledge defeat in the Treaty of Altranstädt. The treaty secured the extradition and execution of Johann Reinhold Patkul, architect of the alliance seven years earlier. Meanwhile, the forces of Peter I had recovered from defeat at Narva and gained ground in Sweden's Baltic provinces, where they cemented Russian access to the Baltic Sea by founding Saint Petersburg in 1703. Charles XII moved from Saxony into Russia to confront Peter, but the campaign ended in 1709 with the destruction of the main Swedish army at the decisive Battle of Poltava and Charles' exile in the Ottoman town of Bender; the Ottoman Empire defeated the Russian-Moldavian army in the Pruth River Campaign, but that peace treaty was in the end without great consequence to Russia's position. After Poltava, the anti-Swedish coalition revived and subsequently Hanover and Prussia joined it.
The remaining Swedish forces in plague-stricken areas south and east of the Baltic Sea were evicted, with the last city, falling in 1710. The coalition members partitioned most of the Swedish dominions among themselves, destroying the Swedish dominium maris baltici. Sweden proper was invaded from the west by Denmark–Norway and from the east by Russia, which had occupied Finland by 1714. Sweden defeated the Danish invaders at the Battle of Helsingborg. Charles XII opened up a Norwegian front but was killed in Fredriksten in 1718; the war ended with the defeat of Sweden, leaving Russia as the new dominant power in the Baltic region and as a new major force in European politics. The Western powers, Great Britain and France, became caught up in the separate War of the Spanish Succession, which broke out over the Bourbon Philip of Anjou's succession to the Spanish throne and a possible joining of France and Spain; the formal conclusion of the Great Northern War came with the Swedish-Hanoverian and Swedish-Prussian Treaties of Stockholm, the Dano-Swedish Treaty of Frederiksborg, the Russo-Swedish Treaty of Nystad.
By these treaties Sweden ceded her exemption from the Sound Dues and lost the Baltic provinces and the southern part of Swedish Pomerania. The peace treaties ended her alliance with Holstein-Gottorp. Hanover gained Bremen-Verden, Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated the Oder estuary, Russia secured the Baltic Provinces, Denmark strengthened her position in Schleswig-Holstein. In Sweden, the absolute monarchy had come to an end with the death of Charles XII, Sweden's Age of Liberty began. Between the years of 1560 and 1658, Sweden created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Finland and comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria and Livonia. During the Thirty Years' War Sweden gained tracts in Germany as well, including Western Pomerania, the Duchy of Bremen, Verden. During the same period Sweden conquered Norwegian provinces north of the Sound; these victories may be ascribed to a well-trained army, which despite its comparatively small size, was far more professional than most continental armies, to a modernization of administration in the course of the 17th century, which enabled the monarchy to harness the resources of the country and its empire in an effective way.
Fighting in the field, the Swedish army was able, in particular, to make quick, sustained marches across large tracts of land and to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill. However, the Swedish state proved unable to support and maintain its army in a prolonged war. Campaigns on the continent had been proposed on the basis that the army would be financially self-supporting through plunder and taxation of newly gained land, a concept shared by most major powers of the period; the cost of the warfare proved to be much higher than the occupied countries could fund, Sweden's coffers, resources in manpower, were drained in the course of long conflicts. The foreign interventions in Russia during the Time of Troubles resulted in Swedish gains in the Treaty of
Eastern Front (World War II)
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe, Southeast Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties; the battles on the Eastern Front of the Second World War constituted the largest military confrontation in history. They were characterized by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, immense loss of life due to combat, exposure and massacres; the Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches and the majority of pogroms, was central to the Holocaust. Of the estimated 70-85 million deaths attributed to World War II, over 30 million, the majority of them civilian, occurred on the Eastern Front.
The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome in the European theatre of operations in World War II serving as the main reason for the defeat of Nazi Germany and the Axis nations. The two principal belligerent powers were Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in military action in the Eastern Front, the United States and the United Kingdom both provided substantial material aid in the form of the Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union; the joint German–Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish–Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front. In addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front. Germany and the Soviet Union remained unsatisfied with the outcome of World War I. Soviet Russia had lost substantial territory in Eastern Europe as a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, where the Bolsheviks in Petrograd conceded to German demands and ceded control of Poland, Estonia, Latvia and other areas, to the Central Powers.
Subsequently, when Germany in its turn surrendered to the Allies and these territories were liberated under the terms of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 at Versailles, Soviet Russia was in the midst of a civil war and the Allies did not recognize the Bolshevik government, so no Soviet Russian representation attended. Adolf Hitler had declared his intention to invade the Soviet Union on 11 August 1939 to Carl Jacob Burckhardt, League of Nations Commissioner, by saying: Everything I undertake is directed against the Russians. If the West is too stupid and blind to grasp this I shall be compelled to come to an agreement with the Russians, beat the West and after their defeat turn against the Soviet Union with all my forces. I need the Ukraine as happened in the last war; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in August 1939 was a non-aggression agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union. It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre–World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union.
Finland, Estonia and Lithuania would return to the Soviet control, while Poland and Romania would be divided. The Eastern Front was made possible by the German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement in which the Soviet Union gave Germany the resources necessary to launch military operations in Eastern Europe. On 1 September 1939 Germany invaded Poland, starting World War II. On 17 September, the Soviet Union invaded Eastern Poland, and, as a result, Poland was partitioned among Germany, the Soviet Union and Lithuania. Soon after that, the Soviet Union demanded significant territorial concessions from Finland, after Finland rejected Soviet demands, the Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939 in what became known as the Winter War – a bitter conflict that resulted in a peace treaty on 13 March 1940, with Finland maintaining its independence but losing its eastern parts in Karelia. In June 1940 the Soviet Union illegally annexed the three Baltic states; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact ostensibly provided security to the Soviets in the occupation both of the Baltics and of the north and northeastern regions of Romania, although Hitler, in announcing the invasion of the Soviet Union, cited the Soviet annexations of Baltic and Romanian territory as having violated Germany's understanding of the Pact.
Moscow partitioned the annexed Romanian territory between the Ukrainian and Moldavian Soviet republics. Adolf Hitler had argued in his autobiography Mein Kampf for the necessity of Lebensraum: acquiring new territory for Germans in Eastern Europe, in particular in Russia, he envisaged settling Germans there, as according to Nazi ideology the Germanic people constituted the "master race", while exterminating or deporting most of the existing inhabitants to Siberia and using the remainder as slave labour. Hitler as early as 1917 had referred to the Russians as inferior, believing that the Bolshevik Revolution had put the Jews in power over the mass of Slavs, who were, in Hitler's opinion, incapable of ruling themselves but instead being ruled by Jewish masters; the Nazi leadership, saw the war against the Soviet Union as a struggle between the ideologies of Nazism and Jewish Bolshevism, ensuring territorial expansion for the Germanic Übermensch, who according to Nazi ideology were the Aryan Herrenvolk, at the expense of
Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil as it is processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals, which are a collection of well-defined pure chemical compounds, petroleum products are complex mixtures; the majority of petroleum is converted to petroleum products, which includes several classes of fuels. According to the composition of the crude oil and depending on the demands of the market, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products; the largest share of oil products is used as "energy carriers", i.e. various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. These fuels include or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, heavier fuel oils. Heavier fractions can be used to produce asphalt, paraffin wax and other heavy oils. Refineries produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Since petroleum contains a few percent sulfur-containing molecules, elemental sulfur is often produced as a petroleum product.
Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, hydrogen may be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes such as hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization. Oil refineries will blend various feedstocks, mix appropriate additives, provide short term storage, prepare for bulk loading to trucks, product ships, railcars. Gaseous fuels such as propane and shipped in liquid form under pressure in specialized railcars to distributors. Liquid fuels blending. Shipped by barge and tanker ship. May be shipped regionally in dedicated pipelines to point consumers aviation jet fuel to major airports, or piped to distributors in multi-product pipelines using product separators called pipeline inspection gauges. Lubricants shipped in bulk to an offsite packaging plant. Paraffin wax, used in the packaging of frozen foods, among others. May be shipped in bulk to a site to prepare as packaged blocks. Slack wax, a raw refinery output comprising a mixture of oil and wax used as a precursor for scale wax and paraffin wax and as-is in non-food products such as wax emulsions, construction board, candles, rust protection, vapor barriers.
Sulfur, byproduct of sulfur removal from petroleum, which contain percent of organosulfur compounds. Bulk tar shipping for offsite unit packaging for use in tar-and-gravel roofing or similar uses. Asphalt - used as a binder for gravel to form asphalt concrete, used for paving roads, etc. An asphalt unit prepares bulk asphalt for shipment. Petroleum coke, used in specialty carbon products such as certain types of electrodes, or as solid fuel. Petrochemicals or petrochemical feedstocks. Petrochemical are organic compounds that are the ingredients for the chemical industry, ranging from polymers and pharmaceuticals. Representative petrochemicals are ethylene and benzene-toluene-xylenes. Over 6,000 items are made from petroleum waste by-products, including: fertilizer, perfume, petroleum jelly, soap and some essential amino acids. Out of all petroleum waste by-products, some are hazardous to health like toluene, it is a clear, colorless liquid with a distinctive smell. A serious health concern is. Nervous system effects unconsciousness.
However, effects such as incoordination, cognitive impairment, vision and hearing loss may become permanent with repeated exposure at high levels associated with intentional solvent abuse. High levels of toluene exposure during pregnancy, such as those associated with solvent abuse, may lead to developmental effects, such as retardation of mental abilities and growth in children. Other health effects of potential concern may include immune, kidney and reproductive effects. Media related to Petroleum by-products at Wikimedia Commons